Gambling activity in Australia

Findings from wave 15 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey
Research Report – November 2017

4. Gambling problems and participation

Introduction

This chapter presents statistics on gambling participation and sociodemographic characteristics for regular gamblers whose gambling behaviour caused or put them at risk of problems in 2015, as assessed by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI; Ferris & Wynne, 2001). These people are referred to in this report as having experienced gambling-related problems.

Statistics include population-representative estimates of the proportion and number of Australians and regular gamblers who belonged to four PGSI risk groups: non-problem gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk gamblers, and problem gamblers. Non-problem gamblers did not engage in problematic gambling behaviour or experience adverse consequences in 2015. Low-risk and moderate-risk gamblers were those who reported low or moderate level problematic behaviour and/or consequences. They are considered as being at low to moderate risk of becoming problem gamblers. Problem gamblers were those who reported severe problematic behaviour and/or consequences.

Further included are activity participation rates for each risk group and a comparison of sociodemographic characteristics between non-problem gamblers and risk group members.

Key findings

Participation:

  • 7.9% or 1.39 million Australian adults were estimated to have experienced one or more gambling-related problems in 2015 (PGSI scores of 1+). This included 1.1% or 193,000 who could be classified as "problem gamblers" (PGSI scores of 8+) - those with the most severe problems and most at risk of further problems.
  • 80% of those who had experienced gambling-related problems in the past year had gambled in a typical month of 2015.
  • Adults in higher risk groups participated in a higher number of activities.
  • 32-46% of participants in each activity except lotteries and instant scratch tickets had experienced gambling-related problems.
  • Problem gamblers appeared to comprise particularly high proportions of private betting (12%), casino table game (15%), and poker (22%) participants.

Sociodemographic characteristics:

  • Across the various activities, gamblers who experienced problems were relatively similar to each other in terms of their characteristics. Those who did not experience problems, viewed by activity, had more distinct profiles.
  • Compared to non-problem gamblers, those who experienced problems were significantly over-represented among people who were male, aged 18-29, Indigenous, unemployed or not employed (excluding retirees and full-time students), single, renting, people who lived in a low socioeconomic area, had a low income, and drew their main source of income from welfare payments. They were under-represented among those who owned their own home, retirees, and university graduates.

Prevalence of gambling problems

Table 4.1 shows the number and prevalence of non-problem gamblers, low risk, moderate risk, and problem gamblers, (1) among the Australian adult population, and (2) among adults who gambled in a typical month of 2015 (i.e., regularly).

It is estimated that around 1.39 million (7.9%) Australian adults experienced one or more gambling-related problems in 2015 (PGSI scores of 1+). This included 193,000 (1.1%) who could be classified as problem gamblers (PGSI scores of 8+) - the most severe category.

These numbers include Australians who may not have actually gambled in 2015 but nevertheless experienced problems in 2015 due to their gambling behaviour in years prior. For example, problem gambling in 2013 may have caused financial problems that stretched into 2015.

Around 80% of those who reported problems in 2015 had gambled in a typical month of that year. Specifically, 1.13 million (17%) regular gamblers experienced problems including 139,000 (2.1%) problem gamblers.

Table 4.1: Prevalence of risk group members among Australian adults and regular gamblers
  Australian adult population a Regular gambler population
Activity Estimated number
'000
95% CI
'000
% 95% CI Estimated number
'000
95% CI
'000
% 95% CI
Non-gambler &/or
non-problem gambler
16,082 b 15,924-16,239 92.1 91.3-92.8 5,655 5,448-5,863 83.3 81.6-84.8
Low risk gambler 731 643-818 4.2 3.7-4.7 593 517-670 8.7 7.7-9.9
Moderate risk gambler 462 393-531 2.6 2.3-3.1 402 344-461 5.9 5.2-6.8
Problem gambler 193 150-237 1.1 0.88-1.4 139 102-176 2.1 1.6-2.7
Any risk 1,386 1,251-1,522 7.9 7.2-8.7 1,136 1,017-1,254 16.7 15.2-18.4
Moderate risk/
problem gambler
656 569-742 3.7 3.3-4.3 542 470-614 8.0 7.0-9.1

Notes: Values are based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding. a Includes those surveyed in HILDA who did not gamble in a typical month but nevertheless reported experiencing PGSI gambling problems in the past year. They may have been infrequent gamblers, or their problems may have been caused by gambling activity in previous years. b Includes both non-gamblers and infrequent gamblers who reported no problems.

Number of activities by risk group

Table 4.2 shows the proportion of gamblers in each risk group who participated in one or more of the 10 gambling activities during a typical month.

The majority of non-problem gamblers regularly participated in only one activity (68%) whereas the majority of those who experienced problems regularly participated in multiple activities. Those in higher risk groups were likely to have participated in a higher number of activities.

Table 4.2: Proportion of regular gamblers in each risk group that participated in one or more activities
Number of regular activities Regular gambling population Non-problem gamblers Low risk gamblers Moderate risk gamblers Problem gamblers
  % % % % %
1 61.6 67.5 38.1 25.1 26.0
2 24.2 22.9 35.3 27.1 22.9
3 9.8 7.3 17.1 26.2 29.8
4+ 4.4 2.3 9.5 21.6 21.3

Notes: Values based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding.

Number and proportion of activity participants by risk group

Table 4.3 shows the number of Australian adults who gambled on each activity in a typical month by risk group membership.

Note that because around two fifths (38%) of gamblers spent money on multiple activities in a typical month, they are represented within their risk group for each of the activities they participated in. It is therefore not possible on the basis of these figures alone to ascribe the problems reported by an individual to any one particular activity.

Table 4.3: Estimated number of regular activity participants belonging to each risk group
  Lottery Instant scratch tickets EGMs Race betting Sports betting Keno Casino table games Bingo Private betting Poker
  '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000 '000
Non-problem gambler 4,489 1,217 829 572 340 369 106 127 84 70
Low risk gambler 368 118 259 190 99 69 28 36 25# 9#
Moderate risk gambler 246 120 244 164 98 88 29 15# 22# 23
Problem gambler 69 33 85 50 36 21 28# 7# 18# 28#
Total 5,172 1,487 1,418 975 574 548 192 185 148 130
Any risk 683 271 589 403 234 178 86 58 64 60
Moderate risk / problem gambler 315 152 330 214 134 109 58 22 39 51

Notes: Values are based on weighted data. # RSE between 30% and 50%.

Lotteries had vastly larger numbers of non-problem gamblers (4.48 million) than any other activity. However, lotteries (683,000) along with EGMs (589,000) also had the greatest numbers of participants from all three risk groups, including the largest numbers of problem gamblers. A large number of regular race betting participants experienced problems as well (403,000).

Bingo, poker, casino table games, and private betting attracted the least numbers of regular gamblers with problems, with less than 100,000 participating in each.

Table 4.4 shows that the prevalence of past-year gambling problems was lowest among people who participated in lotteries (13%) and instant scratch tickets (18%). Rates were much higher across all other products, with problems experienced by 32% of bingo participants up to 46% of poker participants. Problem gamblers comprised particularly high proportions of private betting (12%), casino table game (15%), and poker (22%) participants.

Table 4.4: Proportion of activity participants belonging to each risk group
  Lottery Instant scratch tickets EGMs Race betting Sports betting Keno Casino table games Bingo Private betting Poker
  % % % % % % % % % %
Non-problem gambler 86.8 81.8 58.5 58.6 59.3 67.4 55.3 68.6 56.6 53.7
Low risk gambler 7.1 7.9 18.2 19.4 17.3 12.7 14.7 19.6 16.7# 6.9#
Moderate risk gambler 4.8 8.0 17.2 16.8 17.1 16.1 15.3 7.9# 14.5# 17.7
Problem gambler 1.3 2.2 6.0 5.1 6.3 3.8 14.7# 3.9# 12.1# 21.7#
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Any risk 13.2 18.2 41.5 41.4 40.7 32.6 44.7 31.5 43.4 46.3
Moderate risk / Problem gambler 6.1 10.3 23.3 21.9 23.4 19.9 30.0 11.9 26.7 39.4

Notes: Values are based on weighted data. Percentage may not add to 100% due to rounding. # RSE between 30% and 50%

Together, the data from Tables 4.3 and 4.4 provide unique and important perspectives on each activity. For instance, lotteries attracted the largest number of people with gambling-related problems, and yet, those with gambling-related problems constituted only a small proportion of those who participated in lotteries, due to its overwhelming popularity. Likewise, poker, casino table games, and private betting attracted a much lower number of people with problems compared to all other activities, and yet, those with gambling-related problems constituted a much higher proportion of all those who participated in these particular activities. In fact, poker attracted the least number of regular gamblers, but the highest proportion of those with problems.

Risk group activity participation rates

Table 4.5 shows the proportion of risk group members who participated in each activity in a typical month. This is a transposition of the results presented in Table 4.4 which showed the proportions of activity participants who belonged to each risk group.

The majority of gamblers within all risk groups regularly participated in lotteries. It was most popular among non-problem gamblers with 79% participating. Those without problems were fairly unlikely to participate in any other form of gambling other than scratch tickets (22%).

For every other activity, rates of participation were higher among gamblers who experienced problems. Participation rates were especially high for EGMs (44% of low risk gamblers up to 61% of moderate risk and problem gamblers) and race betting (32% of low risk gamblers, 41% of moderate risk and 36% of problem gamblers), attracting a third or more of all risk group members. Sports betting was relatively popular as well, attracting a quarter of all moderate risk (24%) and problem gamblers (26%).

Casino table games, poker and private betting attracted very low proportions of gamblers within all but the problem gambler group (i.e., 13% of problem gamblers participated in private betting, 20% in casino table games and poker).

Table 4.5: Proportion of risk group members who regularly participated in each activity
  Lottery Instant scratch tickets EGMs Race betting Sports betting Keno Casino table games Bingo Private betting Poker
  % % % % % % % % % %
Non-problem gambler 79.4 21.5 14.7 10.1 6.0 6.5 1.9 2.3 1.5 1.2
Low risk gambler 62.0 19.9 43.6 31.9 16.7 11.7 4.8 6.1 4.2 1.5
Moderate risk gambler 61.0 29.7 60.7 40.7 24.4 22.0 7.3 3.7 5.3 5.7
Problem gambler 49.5 23.7 61.4 35.9 25.9 14.9 20.2 5.3 12.9 20.2
All gamblers 76.5 22.2 21.1 14.5 8.6 8.3 2.9 2.8 2.3 2.0

Notes: Values based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding. Values may not add to totals due to missing PGSI values for some participants.

Sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups

Table 4.6 shows the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of each risk group, initially setting aside information about the types of gambling activities. Non-problem gamblers were compared to those with problems to identify characteristics that distinguished between them.

The overall pattern was one where a significantly higher proportion of those with gambling problems were male, aged 18-29, Indigenous, were unemployed or not employed (excluding retirees and fulltime students), single, lived in a house they rented, lived in a low socioeconomic area, had a low income, and drew their main source of income from a welfare payment, compared to those without problems.

A significantly lower proportion of gamblers with problems lived with children, or only their partner, owned their home with a mortgage, had a university degree, and were retired.

Table 4.6: Sociodemographic characteristics of regular gamblers belonging to each risk group
    Gambling risk group
  Australian Adults Non-problem Low risk Moderate risk Problem gamblers
Subpopulation categories % % % % %
Sex     
Male 49.0 51.5 62.9↑ 69.2↑ 64.9
Female 51.0 48.0 37.1↓ 30.8↓ 35.1
Age group     
18-29 22.5 10.9 16.4↑ 13.7 27.4↑
30-49 34.9 34.1 33.2 35.6 32.4
50-64 24.1 30.4 29.2 30.8 29.1
65+ 18.6 24.6 21.2 19.9 11.1#
Indigenous status     
Non-Indigenous 97.7 98.1 97.3 93.9↓ 89.0↓
Indigenous 2.3 1.9 2.7# 6.1↑ 11.0#
Region of birth a     
Australia 69.7 71.6 73.5 72.3 73.7
Europe 10.8 12.3 11.4 9.4 6.4#
Asia 10.7 7.2 8.7# 5.3 15.6#
First language spoken     
English 85.6 90.7 87.0 92.0 80.6
Other 14.4 9.3 13.0 8.0 19.4
Highest education Level     
Below year 10 8.1 8.8 9.1 11.6 8.7
Completed year 10 15.3 18.9 18.0 19.2 29.3
Completed year 12 15.8 12.7 15.4 13.2 14.1
Certificate or Diploma 33.1 37.6 39.6 44.3 29.9
Bachelors or higher 27.7 22.0 18.0 11.6↓ 18.0
Employment     
Employed full-time 43.6 47.6 45.3 53.3 37.2
Employed part-time 20.1 16.5 16.4 12.3 17.6#
Unemployed-looking for work 3.2 1.8 3.0 5.0# 11.5#
Retired 19.7 25.7 22.6 22.1 8.5#
Full-time student 3.4 0.9 3.4# np np
Other not employed-not looking for work 9.9 7.6 9.3 6.2 20.0↑
Relationship status     
Married/in a de facto relationship 54.6 62.1 48.4↓ 50.0↓ 30.1↓
Single 45.4 37.9 51.6↑ 50.0↑ 69.9↑
Household composition     
Single adult household 12.3 13.6 15.3 17.6 19.7#
Couple only household 24.4 29.2 27.0 26.7 18.5↓
Household with children 30.3 25.7 26.2 25.6 18.1↓
Multiple adult household 33.0 31.5 31.5 30.1 43.7
Housing tenure     
Own outright 17.3 19.0 16.2 14.7 11.8#
Own with mortgage 52.7 54.5 45.8↓ 51.5 39.1↓
Rent 27.7 24.3 34.8↑ 30.9 45.8#
Remoteness     
Major city 72.5 68.8 69.9 71.8 77.0
Inner regional 18.2 19.8 21.9 18.0 17.2
Outer regional/remote 9.3 11.4 8.2 10.2 5.8#
SEIFA quintile b     
Lowest 19.6 18.3 25.4↑ 28.7↑ 20.5
2 18.2 19.8 17.3 22.2 13.3↓
Middle 19.3 20.0 20.3 15.3 20.5
4 20.6 20.7 17 17.4 13.6
Highest 22.4 21.2 20.1 16.5 32.1
Equivalised disposable household income c   
<$29,500 19.8 18.2 25.0↑ 23.9↑ 20.2
$29,500-$41,499 20.4 19.0 23.0 18.2 23.6
$41,500-$53,999 19.4 20.4 18.1 21.5 19.4
$54,000-$73,499 20.2 21.2 16.1↓ 21.4 23.5
$73,500+ 20.2 21.2 17.8 15↓ 13.3
Main source of household income     
Wages/salary/business 73.5 70.8 66.4 71.6 67.8
Govt. pension/allowance/benefit 18.2 19.7 26.5↑ 23.6 21.2
Superannuation/annuity/investment 8.1 9.1 7.0 4.3↓ 11.0#

Notes: Percentages based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding or non-response.
a Only regions of birth representing >10% of the population are presented. b Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas 2011. c Household income after tax, weighted for size and composition of household. # RSE between 30% and 50%. np - data not presented due to insufficient responses or RSE >50%. ↑ and ↓ are used to indicate values significantly above or below non-problem gamblers at p<.05.

Sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups by activity

This subsection provides a brief sociodemographic comparison of non-problem gamblers and those with problems among those who participated in lotteries, instant scratch tickets, EGMs, race betting or sports betting. Detailed tables are presented for each of these activities. Cell sample sizes were not large enough to examine the remaining activities at this level of detail.

These tables are largely provided for reference, and so only limited analysis is presented below, highlighting some key observations:

Lotteries: Compared to non-problem lottery participants, a higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, had a certificate or diploma-level qualification, were not employed, single, lived in a home they rented, lived in a low socioeconomic area, and had a low income (Table 4.7).

Instant scratch tickets: A higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, aged 18-29, were employed full-time, and lived in a home they rented, compared to non-problem participants (Table 4.8).

Electronic gaming machines: A higher proportion of problem participants were male, aged 30-49, single, lived alone or in a family with children, lived in a home they rented, and drew their main source of income from a welfare payment, compared to non-problem participants (Table 4.9).

Race betting: A higher proportion of participants with problems were male, single, and lived in a home they rented, compared to non-problem participants (Table 4.10).

Sports betting: A higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, aged 18-29, single, and lived in a home they rented, compared to non-problem participants (Table 4.11).

Table 4.7: Lottery participants: sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups
    Gambling risk group
  Australian adults Non-problem Low risk Moderate risk Problem
Subpopulation categories % % % % %
Sex     
Male 49.0 51.5 57.0 69.1↑ 66.0
Female 51.0 48.5 43.0 30.9↓ 34.0
Age group     
18-29 22.5 6.0 7.6 4.8 17.3#
30-49 34.9 36.3 31.4 36.0 33.2
50-64 24.1 32.7 38.1 36.6 40.5
65+ 18.6 25.0 22.9 22.6 9.0#
Indigenous status     
Non-Indigenous 97.7 98.4 98.0 96.8 82.0
Indigenous 2.3 1.6 2.0# 3.2# 18.0#
Region of birth a     
Australia 69.7 69.6 69.9 67.6 74.9
Europe 10.8 13.3 13.9 13.1 12.9
Asia 10.7 8.1 9.7# 5.5# np
First language spoken     
English 85.6 89.6 85.0 89.7 85.8
Other 14.4 10.4 15.0 10.3 14.2
Highest education level     
Below year 10 8.1 9.2 9.7 11.2 9.4#
Completed year 10 15.3 18.8 20.3 18.4 30.9
Completed year 12 15.8 10.8 11.3 14.1 17.9#
Certificate or diploma 33.1 38.7 41.8 47.6↑ 29.5
Bachelors or higher 27.7 22.5 16.9 8.8↓ 12.3#
Employment     
Employed full-time 43.6 48.6 48.9 55.3 44.4
Employed part-time 20.1 16.2 15.6 11.4 7.5#
Unemployed-looking for work 3.2 1.7 2.5 np np
Retired 19.7 25.8 22.9 23.9 8.4↓
Full-time student 3.4 0.4# np np np
Other not employed-not looking for work 9.9 7.4 9.7 5.3# 21.9↑
Relationship status     
Married/in a de facto relationship 54.6 66.1 54.2↓ 57.0 35.9↓
Single 45.4 33.9 45.8↑ 43.0 64.1↑
Household composition     
Single adult household 12.3 13.0 13.7 17.0 22.6
Couple only household 24.4 30.0 30.3 29.8 21.7#
Household with children 30.3 26.7 23.9 22.7 17.3#
Multiple adult household 33.0 30.3 32.1 30.5 38.4
Housing tenure     
Own outright 17.3 19.7 16.3 14.4 np
Own with mortgage 52.7 55.7 49.4 56.5 34.9↓
Rent 27.7 22.4 31.2↑ 25.3 54.9↑
Remoteness     
Major city 72.5 69.8 69.7 71.5 72.0
Inner regional 18.2 19.0 21.4 17.0 21.1#
Outer regional/remote 9.3 11.2 8.9 11.5 np
SEIFA quintile b     
Lowest 19.6 17.4 26.4↑ 31.3↑ 29.1
2 18.2 19.9 17.8 24.0 14.2#
Middle 19.3 20.2 21.9 12.7↓ 17.0#
4 20.6 20.6 14.9↓ 14.5 15.4#
Highest 22.4 21.9 19.0 17.5 24.3
Equivalised disposable household income c   
<$29,500 19.8 17.3 24.5 24.4 31.1
$29,500-$41,499 20.4 19.5 19.9 18.7 15.7
$41,500-$53,999 19.4 20.2 22.2 20.1 15.0#
$54,000-$73,499 20.2 21.2 17.5 21.7 19.8#
$73,500+ 20.2 21.8 16.0↓ 15.1 18.4#
Main source of household income     
Wages/salary/business 73.5 71.9 66.2 71.7 63.2
Govt. pension/allowance/benefit 18.2 18.7 25.3 24.4 22.8
Superannuation/annuity/investment 8.1 9.1 8.2 3.9# 14.0#

Notes: Percentages based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding or non-response.
a Only regions of birth representing >10% of the population are presented. b Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas 2011. c Household income after tax, weighted for size and composition of household. # RSE between 30% and 50%. np - data not presented due to insufficient responses or RSE >50%. ↑ and ↓ are used to indicate values significantly above or below non-problem gamblers at p<.05.

Table 4.8: Instant scratch ticket participants: sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups
    Gambling risk group
  Australian adults Non-problem Low risk Moderate risk Problem
Subpopulation categories % % % % %
Sex     
Male 49.0 43.4 41.8 68.7↑ 55.6
Female 51.0 56.6 58.2 31.3↓ 44.4#
Age group     
18-29 22.5 11.1 15.9 16.0 42.2#
30-49 34.9 29.9 28.8 39.7 30.0#
50-64 24.1 32.9 36.5 30.3 27.8#
65+ 18.6 26.0 18.8 14.0# np
Indigenous status     
Non-Indigenous 97.7 97.2 98.0 96.2 80.6#
Indigenous 2.3 2.8 2.0 np np
Region of birth a     
Australia 69.7 72.7 69.5 75.3 74.1
Europe 10.8 10.4 10.5# 9.3# np
Asia 10.7 6.0 9.2# np np
First language spoken     
English 85.6 91.9 81.5 96.1 78.8
Other 14.4 8.1 18.5# 3.9 21.2
Highest education level     
Below year 10 8.1 9.3 7.4# 9.6# np
Completed year 10 15.3 19.3 26.0 19.8 39.9#
Completed year 12 15.8 11.3 18.3 16.4 np
Certificate or diploma 33.1 36.8 32.4 43.5 25.9#
Bachelors or higher 27.7 23.2 15.9 10.7# 29.0#
Employment     
Employed full-time 43.6 42.8 36.9 61.8↑ 33.1#
Employed part-time 20.1 18.4 18.5 10.2↓ np
Unemployed-looking for work 3.2 1.5 3.7# np np
Retired 19.7 27.3 21.6 16.6↓ np
Full-time student 3.4 1.0 np np np
Other not employed-not looking for work 9.9 9.0 16.9 4.3# 16.1#
Relationship status     
Married/in a de facto relationship 54.6 58.3 48.7 53.1 32.3#
Single 45.4 41.7 51.3 46.9 67.7
Household composition     
Single adult household 12.3 14.7 12.0 17.6 np
Couple only household 24.4 29.0 27.3 25.3 np
Household with children 30.3 21.6 26.8 22.2 23.7#
Multiple adult household 33.0 34.7 33.9 34.8 37.8#
Housing Tenure     
Own outright 17.3 19.0 23.0 15.1# np
Own with mortgage 52.7 51.5 36.9↓ 55.2 44.2
Rent 27.7 27.0 38.1 27.4 55.8↑
Remoteness     
Major city 72.5 64.9 65.7 67.5 69.6
Inner regional 18.2 21.8 24.0 15.5# np
Outer regional/remote 9.3 13.3 np 17.0# np
SEIFA quintile b     
Lowest 19.6 19.8 32.9 26.2 29.6#
2 18.2 18.4 18.1 21.1 np
Middle 19.3 19.4 16.1# 13.2# 17.8#
4 20.6 20.9 15.4 21.1 np
Highest 22.4 21.6 17.5 18.4 34.1#
Equivalised disposable household income c   
<$29,500 19.8 19.2 23.3 20.5 34.3#
$29,500-$41,499 20.4 19.3 20.0# 13.2 np
$41,500-$53,999 19.4 22.6 25.6 21.6# np
$54,000-$73,499 20.2 19.6 17.1# 24.6 24.9#
$73,500+ 20.2 19.2 14.0# 20.1# np
Main source of household income     
Wages/salary/business 73.5 70.0 68.0 80.0 72.0
Govt. pension/allowance/benefit 18.2 20.7 27.7 15.1 np
Superannuation/annuity/investment 8.1 9.0 4.3# 3.2# np

Notes: Percentages based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding or non-response.
a Only regions of birth representing >10% of the population are presented. b Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas 2011. c Household income after tax, weighted for size and composition of household. # RSE between 30% and 50%. np - data not presented due to insufficient responses or RSE >50%. ↑ and ↓ are used to indicate values significantly above or below non-problem gamblers at p<.05.

Table 4.9: Electronic gaming machine participants: sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups
    Gambling risk group
  Australian adults Non-problem Low risk Moderate risk Problem
Subpopulation categories % % % % %
Sex     
Male 49.0 50.8 57.0 61.5↑ 59.6
Female 51.0 49.2 43.0 38.5↓ 40.4
Age group     
18-29 22.5 15.8 15.2 15.4 22.6#
30-49 34.9 23.1 21.1 33.5↑ 36.2
50-64 24.1 30.0 30.2 27.6 30.4
65+ 18.6 31.1 33.5 23.5 10.8#
Indigenous status     
Non-Indigenous 97.7 96.6 96.5 91.4 87.4
Indigenous 2.3 3.4 3.5# 8.6# 12.6#
Region of birth a     
Australia 69.7 80.0 75.7 73.6 79.2
Europe 10.8 12.4 14.1 10.7 9.2
Asia 10.7 2.2# 6.2# 5.9# np
First language spoken     
English 85.6 96.3 89.3↓ 93.4 90.6
Other 14.4 3.7# 10.7↑ 6.6# 9.4#
Highest education level     
Below year 10 8.1 12.0 14.6 9.3 11.1#
Completed year 10 15.3 22.3 17.1 21.0 30.0
Completed year 12 15.8 16.9 17.7 14.0 17.1#
Certificate or diploma 33.1 37.6 40.3 44.6 31.5
Bachelors or higher 27.7 11.2 10.4 11.1 10.4#
Employment     
Employed full-time 43.6 38.4 32.6 49.9↑ 30.7
Employed part-time 20.1 17.1 19.4 12.6 23.5#
Unemployed-looking for work 3.2 2.7 3.8# 6.2# 13.6#
Retired 19.7 33.3 35.8 24.0↓ 13.9#
Full-time student 3.4 1.0# np np np
Other not employed-not looking for work 9.9 7.4 5.9 5.7# 18.4
Relationship status     
Married/in a de facto relationship 54.6 54.1 51.6 44.5 22.7↓
Single 45.4 45.9 48.4 55.5 77.3↑
Household composition     
Single adult household 12.3 12.0 15.8 20.1↑ 24.7↑
Couple only household 24.4 32.3 32.9 27.8 12.6↓
Household with children 30.3 12.9 19.7 23.1↑ 20.4
Multiple adult household 33.0 42.8 31.5↓ 29.0↓ 42.3
Housing tenure     
Own outright 17.3 20.0 21.4 16.4 17.4#
Own with mortgage 52.7 53.6 46.3 46.8 29.2↓
Rent 27.7 23.8 30.5 34.3↑ 50.3↑
Remoteness     
Major city 72.5 63.4 65.1 66.6 72.1
Inner regional 18.2 24.2 26.7 23.6 19.6
Outer regional/remote 9.3 12.3 8.1 9.8 np
SEIFA quintile b     
Lowest 19.6 27.1 29.0 30.0 22.3#
2 18.2 20.3 18.4 22.7 19.4
Middle 19.3 20.0 20.4 17.3 23.4
4 20.6 17.6 17.6 15.5 14.8#
Highest 22.4 15.1 14.5 14.6 20.1#
Equivalised disposable household income c    
<$29,500 19.8 23.2 29.0 27.7 26.3
$29,500-$41,499 20.4 18.3 23.5 19.1 21.1
$41,500-$53,999 19.4 22.9 20.5 20.3 18.9#
$54,000-$73,499 20.2 19.8 15.3 20.8 24.4
$73,500+ 20.2 15.8 11.7 12.1 9.4#
Main source of household income     
Wages/salary/business 73.5 63.2 52.1↓ 65.6 58.1
Govt. pension/allowance/benefit 18.2 26.5 38.7↑ 28.5 29.8
Superannuation/annuity/investment 8.1 10.2 9.2 5.1# np

Notes: Percentages based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding or non-response.
a Only regions of birth representing >10% of the population are presented. b Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas 2011. c Household income after tax, weighted for size and composition of household. # RSE between 30% and 50%. np - data not presented due to insufficient responses or RSE >50%. ↑ and ↓ are used to indicate values significantly above or below non-problem gamblers at p<.05.

Table 4.10: Race betting participants: sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups
    Gambling Risk Group
  Australian adults Non-problem Low risk Moderate risk Problem
Subpopulation categories % % % % %
Sex     
Male 49.0 74.0 90.0↑ 91.9↑ 89.4↑
Female 51.0 26.0 10.0↓ 8.1# np
Age group     
18-29 22.5 13.4 21.0 13.9 24.0#
30-49 34.9 32.4 33.9 44.9 33.7
50-64 24.1 33.4 28.0 26.0 39.6
65+ 18.6 20.8 17.1 15.1 np
Indigenous Status     
Non-Indigenous 97.7 97.8 97.2 93.3 87.5
Indigenous 2.3 2.2# 2.8# 6.7# 12.5#
Region of birth a     
Australia 69.7 82.3 77.4 77.9 84.7
Europe 10.8 7.8 10.7 9.6# np
Asia 10.7 np np np np
First language spoken     
English 85.6 96.8 89.4 95.6 93.2
Other 14.4 3.2# np 4.4# np
Highest education level     
Below year 10 8.1 4.7 8.9# 8.4# np
Completed year 10 15.3 23.4 13.9↓ 14.0↓ 26.8#
Completed year 12 15.8 14.8 19.3 16.9 np
Certificate or diploma 33.1 40.2 36.0 49.4 30.9
Bachelors or higher 27.7 16.9 22.0 11.4 24.7#
Employment     
Employed full-time 43.6 54.4 54.4 60.3 56.9
Employed part-time 20.1 15.6 18.6 12.8 8.8#
Unemployed-looking for work 3.2 2.3# np 6.2# np
Retired 19.7 22.0 18.3 18.2 np
Full-time student 3.4 np np np np
Other not employed-not looking for work 9.9 4.2 np np 18.4#
Relationship status     
Married/in a de facto relationship 54.6 59.5 45.3↓ 52.8 28.8#
Single 45.4 40.5 54.7↑ 47.2 71.2↑
Household composition     
Single adult household 12.3 14.4 15.6 15.3 19.5#
Couple only household 24.4 31.0 28.1 28.2 21.5#
Household with children 30.3 24.9 23.7 27.9 22.6
Multiple adult household 33.0 29.7 32.6 28.6 36.4
Housing tenure     
Own outright 17.3 22.9 14.5 12.4↓ np
Own with mortgage 52.7 52.8 54.9 58.6 37.6
Rent 27.7 23.3 25.8 28.1 43.0↑
Remoteness     
Major city 72.5 63.8 69.4 73.2 70.3
Inner regional 18.2 21.2 20.7 14.1 18.7#
Outer regional/remote 9.3 15.0 9.9 12.7 np
SEIFA quintile b     
Lowest 19.6 22.4 20.3 23.0 23.5#
2 18.2 18.4 23.1 20.7 15.4#
Middle 19.3 16.3 10.7 12.5 20.9#
4 20.6 26.9 16.2↓ 21.7# 12.5#
Highest 22.4 16.0 29.7↑ 22.1 27.7#
Equivalised disposable household income c    
<$29,500 19.8 15.0 22.0 20.3 20.3#
$29,500-$41,499 20.4 17.2 18.3 17.4 18.6#
$41,500-$53,999 19.4 23.6 15.1 19.9 np
$54,000-$73,499 20.2 19.2 16.6 18.2 32.1
$73,500+ 20.2 25.1 28.0 24.3 14.6#
Main source of household income     
Wages/salary/business 73.5 74.9 77.0 77.3 72.6
Govt. pension/allowance/benefit 18.2 16.9 15.5# 19.2 20.3#
Superannuation/annuity/investment 8.1 8.2 7.5# 3.5# np

Notes: Percentages based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding or non-response.
a Only regions of birth representing >10% of the population are presented. b Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas 2011. c Household income after tax, weighted for size and composition of household. # RSE between 30% and 50%. np - data not presented due to insufficient responses or RSE >50%. ↑ and ↓ are used to indicate values significantly above or below non-problem gamblers at p<.05.

Table 4.11: Sports betting participants: Sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups
    Gambling Risk Group
  Australian adults Non-problem Low risk Moderate risk Problem
Subpopulation categories % % % % %
Sex     
Male 49.0 84.1 92.6↑ 96.3↑ 89.7
Female 51.0 15.9 7.4# np np
Age group     
18-29 22.5 29.2 45.1↑ 32.1 34.3#
30-49 34.9 42.7 39.0 46.5 37.0#
50-64 24.1 20.2 12.1# 15.9# 28.7#
65+ 18.6 7.9 np 5.4# np
Indigenous status     
Non-Indigenous 97.7 97.2 94.6 94.3 82.7
Indigenous 2.3 2.8# 5.4# np np
Region of birth a     
Australia 69.7 82.4 85.5 75.9 85.5
Europe 10.8 6.8# np np np
Asia 10.7 np np np np
First language spoken     
English 85.6 97.5 95.7 97.3 87.6
Other 14.4 np np np np
Highest education level     
Below year 10 8.1 5.0# np np np
Completed year 10 15.3 15.4 10.6# 12.6# 24.5#
Completed year 12 15.8 20.4 35.8 18.8# np
Certificate or diploma 33.1 29.7 25.9 52.0↑ 36.4#
Bachelors or higher 27.7 29.5 26.8 15.8# 28.6#
Employment     
Employed full-time 43.6 73.0 63.0 75.4 51.6
Employed part-time 20.1 11.9 21.2 13.6# np
Unemployed-looking for work 3.2 np np np np
Retired 19.7 9.5 5.4# np np
Full-time student 3.4# np np np np
Other not employed-not looking for work 9.9 3.2 np np np
Relationship status     
Married/in a de facto relationship 54.6 50.7 28.8↓ 44.8 29.3
Single 45.4 49.3 71.2↑ 55.2 70.7
Household composition     
Single adult household 12.3 10.3 22.2 14.9 np
Couple only household 24.4 24.2 24.4 26.3 np
Household with children 30.3 25.1 18.9 30.0 16.7
Multiple adult household 33.0 40.4 34.5 28.8 54.4
Housing tenure     
Own outright 17.3 13.5 20.3 21.2 np
Own with mortgage 52.7 59.9 38.3↓ 58.1 44.8
Rent 27.7 26.1 39.0 20.7# 46.7↑
Remoteness     
Major city 72.5 75.6 79.3 81.2 74.4
Inner regional 18.2 18.1 15.5 13.1# 18.0#
Outer regional/remote 9.3 6.3 np 5.7# np
SEIFA quintile b     
Lowest 19.6 20.5 12.5# 22.0 23.8
2 18.2 16.2 15.1 9.6# np
Middle 19.3 14.5 19.2 12.6# np
4 20.6 24.2 25.3# 31.7# 10.3#
Highest 22.4 24.6 27.9 24.2# 41.7
Equivalised disposable household income c    
<$29,500 19.8 10.5 8.3# 8.0# np
$29,500-$41,499 20.4 13.3 33.1↑ 15.9# np
$41,500-$53,999 19.4 18.7 6.9# 23.6# np
$54,000-$73,499 20.2 23.9 21.4# 20.7 31.1
$73,500+ 20.2 33.6 30.3 31.9 np
Main source of household income     
Wages/salary/business 73.5 87.9 94.2 91.9 78.6
Govt. pension/allowance/benefit 18.2 8.3 np 6.1# np
Superannuation/annuity/investment 8.1 3.4 np np np

Notes: Percentages based on weighted data. Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding or non-response.
a Only regions of birth representing >10% of the population are presented. b Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas 2011. c Household income after tax, weighted for size and composition of household. # RSE between 30% and 50%. np - data not presented due to insufficient responses or RSE >50%. ↑ and ↓ are used to indicate values significantly above or below non-problem gamblers at p<.05