Gambling in Suburban Australia

Research Report – March 2019

Appendix B: Study materials

Interview guide

People who gamble

1. Could you tell me what your favourite leisure activities are? (probes: TV, cycling, reading, video games, cinema, etc.)

And has gambling affected the time you have for these?

Gambling activities

2. What are the main types of gambling you do? Do you do any online? (probes: pokies, sports betting, racing, etc.).

3. And what is it about gambling that you like? (probes: relaxation, fun, to get out of the house, to earn money to pay bills, etc. - benefits as well as harms)

Gambling in the local area

4. Is there anything about this local community area that you think influences or encourages your gambling (probes: lack of alternative recreational facilities, many venues, etc.)

5. Which venues in this area do you go to? Which one(s) most often? And why? What do you like about it? Ask if go to venues out of area? - What's good/different about them? (probes: opening hours, other patrons, friendly staff, good atmosphere, cheap meals, close to home, anonymity, etc.)

6. Anything you don't like about any of these gambling venues? (ask for each venue visited)

7. In your usual routine are there any places you go, trips you make, that are more likely to lead you to gamble? (probes: kill some time, pass venue when doing other things - paying rent, going to supermarket)

8. Are there other things you do to make you less likely to gamble? (probes: hide ATM card, transfer control of money to partner, avoid going out with friends/family at gambling venues, etc.)

What helps control spending?

9. Is there anything about the venues you go to that helps you to spend less money than you might otherwise? (probes: cash access, staff observations/interactions, can do other activities there, etc.)

10. Do you have any strategies, things that you do personally to keep a handle on the amount of money you spend when you are already in the venue/gambling?

11. What features of these venues do you think encourage you to spend more money? (probes: easy to gamble uninterrupted - e.g. coffee trolley, accessibility of cash - cash cheques on spot/EFTPOS), sensory cues (celebratory sounds, lights, etc.), in venue promotions (jackpots, cheap drinks and food), pleasant space to spend time, friendly staff patrons, organisation (e.g. club needs the money, etc.)

12. If you win do you usually continue gambling? Check what is the attitude towards the money that is won? (i.e. entitled to it, club's money anyway so can spend it, post-win justification to spend more, etc.)

13. What usually prompts you to leave a venue/end gambling session? Why do you decide you'll go?

At the venue - staff and amenity

14. Do staff regularly talk to you at venues? Do they know who you are? (probes: greet by name, chat to you?)

15. Do you think that staff at venue(s) notice how much you are gambling? What do they do?

16. Have venue staff ever approached you to discuss your gambling? Have you ever seen venue staff approach other people who gamble? (probes: e.g. suggest gambling less, talk about self-exclusion, referral to support services)

17. Have you ever talked to venue staff about your gambling? (probes: talked about gambling less, asked about assistance or support, etc.)

Impacts and harms

18. Do you/have you experience/d problems relating to your gambling? What sorts of problems?

19. Why do you think gambling became a problem for you?

20. What has been the impact of your gambling on you? Your relationship? Your immediate family? Relationship with extended family? Friends? (probes: social isolation, family conflict, violence [perpetrator or victim?], diversion of household money, e.g. food, housing, education, health)

21. What impact do you think your gambling problems will have on your future? And on the future of your family?

22. Who manages the money in your household? If partner knows about gambling problems, has this changed since they discovered you had a problem with gambling?

23. What is the most significant change that has happened to you since you have been gambling?

24. Why would you choose this as the most significant amongst all of these changes that you have already described?

Can you tell me some more about what gambling feels like for you

25. What does gambling give you in your day-to-day life that other activities do not?

26. What does gambling feel like? (probe: is it a rush, relaxing, does it help alleviate stress?)

Support services

27. Are you in contact with other services (e.g. Gambler's Help, financial counsellors) to help with your gambling problems? Have they been helpful or not?

28. If not, are there services that you would find particularly useful? What? Why/why not?

Interview guide

Significant others (partners, children, family members)

1. To start could you tell me a bit about local recreational activities you like to do in your spare time in this local area? (probe: parks, sporting, community events, cinema, restaurants, library, pubs, water, local show, shopping, time with friends and family, TV/movies at home, internet, games, hobbies, read, etc.)

Nature of gambling impacting on interviewee

2. Could you tell me a bit about their gambling?

3. When did you realise they were experiencing problems with their gambling?

4. Why do you think gambling became a problem for them? (probe: life factors, geography, etc.)

5. Do you know where he/she gambles/gambled? (probe: specific venues if they know)

6. Why do you think they gamble there? (probe: proximity to home, anonymity of staff, etc.)

Impacts

7. What has been the impact of this gambling on you? (probe: Your relationship? Your immediate family? Children? Relationship with extended family? Friends? Financial? Health? Distracted you from study/work?)

8. What impacts do you think this will have on your future and that of your family?

9. Do your friends and family know about these gambling problems? What has their reaction been? (probe: supportive or difficult to manage, stigma, isolation)?

10. Who in your wider family has been impacted by this, either directly or indirectly?

11. Could you tell me how satisfied with their life you think the gambler feels? Do they do a lot of activities? How connected are they to their family? (probe: resilience, social cohesion)

12. Any other aspects of your life that are/have been impacted by the gambler's gambling?

Person's gambling

13. I'm wondering, do you gamble at all? How often? How much? On what? Which venues?

14. Do you/did you ever gamble together?

15. Do you think you've ever had your own problems with gambling?

16. ASK if the person gambles: Do you have any strategies, things that you do personally to keep a handle on the amount of money you spend when you are already in the venue/gambling?

17. ASK if they are present when the gambler gambles: How do you feel seeing them gamble? (probe: excited, happy, bored, sad/depressed, frustrated, anxious, curious, proud, like it)

18. Have you ever been approached by staff about your gambling/seen others approached?

Venues

19. Is there anything in the local community area that influences or encourages gambling (probe: lack alternatives, many venues, etc.)

20. ASK if person goes to venues: What do you like/dislike about venues? (probe: opening hours, other patrons, friendly staff, good atmosphere, cheap meals, close to home, anonymity, etc.)

21. ASK if person goes to venues: Do you go to other venues out of the area? What's good about them/why do you go there? What's different to local venues?

22. Do you think EGM venues are good or bad in the community? And why?

23. Do you think that EGM venues are 'family friendly'? Why/Why not?

24. What would you think of EGM venues starting to provide say child care or aged care as part of their services? (probe: catering to the needs of families)

Support

25. What do you think would/did help your parent to overcome/stop problematic gambling? (probe: industry and accessibility factors as well as services). And, if they have had gambling problems themselves, what helped them?

26. Are you getting this support? What is lacking?

27. Do you try to support the gambler to reduce gambling? If so, how? If not, why not? (probe: limit access to cash, have discussions about it, etc.)

28. Who manages finances in your household? Has this changed (since you discovered <name> had a gambling problem)?

29. What would help your family to recover from this problem? (probe: better management of debt/bankruptcy, overcome stigma isolation)

Transition question

30. Have you seen a financial counsellor about financial problems that have resulted from gambling? Where response is 'no', do you think this may be useful? If not, why not?

31. Are you in contact with other services (e.g. Gambler's Help, other counsellors) to help with your gambling problems? Have they been helpful or not?

32. If not, are there services that you would find particularly useful? What? Why/why not?

Focus group guide

Local residents

1. What do you perceive to be the main forms of gambling in this area? What are the main venues/sites and which do you consider to be of significance?

2. What does gambling mean to this community? (probe: a positive or negative influence, a way to relax, spend time with family, etc.). Do you think about various forms of gambling differently? (e.g. EGM vs TAB?)

3. What characteristics of this neighbourhood do you think influence gambling behaviour? Give rise to gambling problems/harm? Protect from harm? (probe: cultural, political, social, economic, built environment aspects)

4. Do you think religion or culture plays a part in this community's attitudes towards gambling? If so, how?

5. What other gambling opportunities are available here? Do you consider these to be more or less problematic? Why/why not? (probe: about ideas, knowledge of online gambling, especially sports betting)

6. Do you think EGM venues are good or bad in the community? And why?

7. Are gambling products promoted to you? What do you think about these promotions? (probe: direct and indirect promotions: sports betting advertisements, meal and drink promotions, 'kids eat free', keno, courtesy bus, events linked to sporting activities, function rooms, etc., at venues, events such as morning melodies at venues)

8. Are there particular promotions or characteristics of gambling venues or products in this area that you find more or less attractive? Do you have any concerns about any of these? Do you find some promotions particularly appealing or valuable? (probe: meal promos, model waitresses)

9. Do you go to places that have poker machines but not use them? What do you do on these occasions? Do you find yourself contemplating using the machines? What stops you? Does not stop you?

10. Do you think that EGM venues are good spaces for families to spend time together? If yes/no why/not? (e.g. good for wellbeing and health)

11. What would you think of EGM venues playing a greater role in catering for the needs of families through the provision of aged and child care?

12. Is this area influenced by gambling opportunities/venues in nearby places? Affected by alternative activities in other places?

Facilitator to present community profile of gambling activity based on secondary analysis and observations (i.e. scale, diversity, statistics on community benefits of gambling providers, available opportunities in this neighbourhood).

13. Discuss reactions to this information.

14. What alternative leisure activities are available to local residents? (probe: cinema, sporting facilities, green spaces: river/lake, BBQ areas, cafes, libraries, bars, pubs, etc.)

  • Are they adequate? (If not what would you like to have here?)
  • Do you think they are accessible and affordable?
  • Are there reasons why you (or others) may not use some of these facilities?
  • Do you think the council has a role in providing activities encouraging different groups in the community to participate - families, singles, different age groups and different cultures?

Focus group guide

Vietnamese community members

1. What do people in this room/community think of when we say gambling? (probe: activities, money involved, etc., is this a positive or negative influence, a way to relax, spend time with family etc.? Do perceptions differ according to forms of gambling? EGM? TAB?

2. What traditions or cultural practices are associated with gambling for your community?

3. What do you perceive to be the main forms of gambling in this area (describe Site 1 as we have defined according to the six suburbs)? What are the main venues/sites/products and which do you consider to be of significance?

4. What other gambling opportunities are available here? Do you consider these to be more or less problematic? Why/ why not?

5. Do you think gambling has a special meaning in Vietnamese cultures? Do you think this differs much from other cultures in Australia?

6. What alternative leisure activities are available in this area? (e.g. cinema, sporting facilities, green spaces: river/lake, BBQ areas, cafes, libraries, bars, pubs, etc.) Are they adequate? Do you think they are accessible and affordable? Are there reasons why you or others you know may not use some of these facilities?

7. Are you aware of gambling products promoted to you? (probe: sports betting advertisements, meal and drink promotions, 'kids eat free', keno, courtesy bus, etc.). What do you think of these promotions?

8. Do you think that EGM venues are 'family friendly'? If yes/no why/why not?

9. What would you think of EGM venues playing a greater role in catering for the needs of families through the provision of aged and child care?

10. Are there particular activities or deals promoted to you, things about gambling venues in this area that you find more or less attractive? (appealing or put off by - e.g. social hub, place to catch up with mates. Are 'kids eat free' and other family friendly promotions a good or bad thing? What do people think of the model waitresses and other promotions?)

11. Is this area influenced by gambling opportunities/venues in nearby places? Are there places nearby that people travel to? Casino?

12. What about non-gambling amenities nearby (outside Site 1) that people travel/go to?

13. What things about this neighbourhood in particular do you think influence the level of gambling? Give rise to gambling problems/harm? (If not much response - present in context of info we have compiled about high levels of expenditure in this area and then ask again.)

Facilitator to present community profile of gambling activity based on secondary analysis and observations (i.e. scale, diversity, statistics on community benefits of gambling providers, available opportunities in this neighbourhood).

14. Discuss reactions to this information.

15. Are you supportive of the gambling opportunities in this area? Some forms/venues more than others? Why/why not?

Interview guide

Non-venue professionals (local government, Gambler's Help counsellors, financial counsellors, community service professionals, etc.)

Questions

1. To start could you tell me about your work and the issues your clients are dealing with? (probe: causes of clients' problems in the area)

2. In what ways do you engage with gambling/people who gamble as part of your job in this local area?

3. Does your organisation have a position on gambling? Does it support having more or less gambling opportunities available here? Under what circumstances (formally and informally). What does it do to reflect this position?

4. What are the main forms of gambling in this area?

5. What are the main sources of gambling problems in this community?

6. What are the range and primary problems that they report? What other problems do they encounter as a result of gambling? Anything else? (probe: multicultural groups, older people, other groups in the community)

7. Are you aware of any particular problems associated with EGM venues in this area? Which venues? (probe: gambling financial house/job/relationships/legal/mental health/physical)

8. Do you perceive EGM venues to be beneficial or detrimental to the local community? Why?

9. Are there valuable amenities or services that these venues provide to community members in your opinion? (probe: economic, social gathering, community support e.g. sports clubs, facilities - kids, cheap meals, convenience, fill gap)

10. What things about this area do you think encourage people to gamble or reduce the likelihood of gambling? (probe: e.g. availability of other activities, many opportunities to gamble, good promotions, are there strong attitudes in community about gambling. Positives and negatives in the local area)

11. Do you think there are any positive aspects of gambling for your clients? (probe: helps them to relax or diverts attention from stressful circumstances, etc.)

12. What do you think would reduce the level of gambling-related harm in this area? (probe: venue and local environmental factors - alternative activities, bet size, pre-commitment, venue size, venue promotions, better information about EGM design, etc.; extra supports clients need that are not currently available)

13. Do you enjoy your job? What aspects are positive? Negative?

14. Does your job make you feel like gambling (more/less)? Do you gamble? If yes, what on?

Interview guide

Professionals (venue staff and venue support workers)

1. What proportion of the customers in this venue/venues do you think are regular people who gamble? (Check how they define 'regular'.)

2. Do you think the gambling at this venue is mostly recreational or mostly problematic or somewhere in-between?

3. Do you think there are customers that visit this venue who may have a gambling problem? (probe: duration and frequency of gambling, repeated withdrawals of cash, other red flag behaviours)

4. Do many people attend this venue without gambling? Is this encouraged? Discouraged? If so, is this more likely at certain times of the day/days of the week?

5. Thinking about particular venues (or the one they work in), what do you think helps people who gamble to 'gamble safely'? (probe: code of conduct, training of staff, management practices, interventions by staff, access to cash, pre-commitment systems, etc., who they come with, setting own limits)

6. Do you believe that the code of conduct is useful in supporting safe levels of gambling? Do you refer to this very often, enforce this? If so, how? If not, why not?

7. Still thinking about this venue, what do you think may lead to harmful gambling? (Probe: jackpots, lights, sounds, set-up of venue, management practices, access to cash, lack of universal pre-commitment systems, etc., people they come with, coming alone)

8. What would you change about this venue environment (and/or any venue environment) if you wanted to decrease harmful gambling? (probe: products and other facilities - access to cash/EFTPOS, meals, play areas, pre-commitment technology, opening hours, management aspects)

9. Do you enjoy your job? If yes, what do you like about your position? What do you dislike? Would you like to stay in this role for the next year? Five years? Beyond?

10. What aspects are positive? Negative? (Probe: working in a social venue, witnessing behavioural issues)

11. Have there been any memorable incidents or events relating to gambling during your time working here? Can you describe these and what was significant for you about this incident?

12. Does the venue contribute to the community? In what ways?

13. Does your job make you feel like gambling (more/less)? Do you gamble? Do you feel like gambling when you work or when you finish work? If yes, what on?

14. Did you gamble before you worked in a role in the gambling sector?

Focus group guide

Professionals (therapeutic and financial counsellors, venue support workers, community service professionals)

1. To start could you tell me a bit about your work and the issues your clients are dealing with? (probe: causes of clients' problems in the area)

2. What are the main forms of gambling in the surrounding area?

3. What are the main sources of gambling problems in this community?

4. Are you aware of any particular problems associated with EGM venues in this area?

5. Do you perceive EGM venues to be beneficial or detrimental to the local community? Why?

6. Are there valuable amenities or services that these venues provide to community members/local residents in your opinion?

7. What things about this area do you think encourage people to gamble or reduce the likelihood of gambling? (probe: e.g. availability of other activities, many opportunities to gamble, good promotions, strong attitudes in community about gambling [positive or negative])

8. What are the range of problems that they report? What other problems do they encounter as a result of gambling? Anything else? Which are the most common problems? Less obvious problems that you are aware of?

9. Do you think there are any positive aspects of gambling for your clients? (probe: helps them to relax or diverts attention from stressful circumstances, etc.)

10. Thinking about the particular venue/[compare venues in our study area if they work across them], what do you think helps people who gamble to 'gamble safely'? (probe: code of conduct, training of staff, management practices, interventions by staff, access to cash, pre-commitment systems, etc., who they come with, setting own limits)

11. Does the group think the code of conduct is useful in supporting safe levels of gambling?

12. What would you change about this venue environment (and/or any venue environment) if you wanted to decrease harmful gambling? (probe: products and other facilities (access to cash/EFTPOS, meals, play areas, pre-commitment technology, opening hours, management aspects)

13. Would anyone be prepared to share a memorable (de-identified) incident or experience relating to gambling that has stuck out to you during your time working here? Can you describe these and what was significant for you about this event?

14. What do you think would reduce the level of gambling-related harm in this area? (probe: also around environmental factors - alternative activities, bet size, pre-commitment, venue size, venue promotions, better information about EGM design, etc.; extra supports clients need that are not currently available)

15. What do you like about your current job working with people who gamble? What do you dislike?

16. Does your organisation have a position on gambling? Does it support having more or less gambling opportunities available here? Under what circumstances (formally and informally). What does it do to reflect this position?

17. Do you gamble? If yes, what on? Does your job make you feel like gambling (more/less)?

For people who work in venues:

18. What proportion of the customers in these venue/venues do you think are regular people who gamble? (check how they define 'regular')

19. Do many people/what proportion attend venues and not gamble? Is this encouraged? Discouraged? If so, is this more likely at certain times of the day/days of the week?

20. Do you refer to this [the code of conduct] very often, enforce this? If so, how? If not, why not?

21. Still thinking about this venue/venues you work with, what do you think may lead to harmful gambling? (probe: jackpots, lights, sounds, set-up of venue, management practices, access to cash, lack of universal pre-commitment systems, etc., people they come with, coming alone)

Recruitment materials

Similar recruitment materials comprising posters and flyers of varying sizes were used in both locations with some samples included below.

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