Adolescent survivors of child abuse and neglect

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Adolescent survivors of child abuse and neglect in the AIFS library catalogue

Health determinants of adolescent criminalisation.

Hughes N, Ungar M, Fagan A, Murray J, Atilola O, Nichols K, Garcia J and Kinner S
Lancet Child & Adolescent Health v. 4 no. 2 Feb 2020: 151-162
This article investigates whether health and developmental problems in childhood and adolescence are associated with involvement in the criminal justice system before 18 years of age. It reviews the international literature on the health determinants of adolescent criminalisation, what health and developmental difficulties serve as determinants of early criminal justice involvement, and how social disadvantage can combine with these health and developmental difficulties to exacerbate this risk. The review finds that health and developmental difficulties in childhood and adolescence - including neurodevelopmental disabilities, traumatic brain injury, mental health difficulties, and trauma and adversity - increase the risk of early criminalisation, and that this risk is amplified by societal marginalisation, structural disadvantage, and inequality. The article concludes with the implications for early intervention and criminal justice system reform.

Framework to reduce criminalisation of young people in residential care

Victoria. Dept. of Health and Human Services
Melbourne : Victorian Government, 2020.
This framework establishes a commitment by government departments, police and residential care service providers in Victoria to reduce the unnecessary and inappropriate contact of young people in residential care with the criminal justice system. It sets out guiding principles to reduce criminalisation of young people in residential care, presents a decision-making guide for when to call police in residential care, and discusses roles and responsibilities and how the framework will be implemented. This framework is endorsed by the Department of Health and Human Services, the Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare, the Department of Justice and Community Safety, the Victorian Aboriginal Child Care Agency, and Victoria Police. Many young people in residential care have experienced extensive abuse and neglect, and now exhibit behaviour problems and risk taking and are at greater risk of contact with the police and youth justice system. This framework is part of a proactive policy approach to disrupt this trajectory.

Maltreatment and delinquency : examining the contexts of offending amongst child protection-involved children.

Baidawi S and Sheehan R
British Journal of Social Work 14 Oct 2019: Advance online publication
This article presents findings from a recent study into the overlap of children and young people with child protection backgrounds in the youth justice system. The article focuses on the contexts in which these children offend and the factors associated with prosecution. The study involved a two-year case file audit of 300 children and young people appearing before the Victorian Children's Court who also had a history of child protection involvement. Three key contexts for offending were identified: adolescent family violence, residential care-based offending, and group-based offending. The study also found that children's combined neurodevelopment, mental health and substance abuse issues were also associated with offending in each of these contexts. The findings highlight the issue of addressing behavioural challenges in care without involving the court system.

Cross-over kids: effective responses to children and young people in the youth justice and statutory child protection systems

Baidawi S and Sheehan R
Canberra, A.C.T. : Criminology Research Grants Program, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2019.
This report investigates the overlap of children and young people with child protection backgrounds in the youth justice system, and the factors which contribute to justice system entry and entrenchment. It presents the findings from a two-year case file audit of 300 children and young people appearing before the Victorian Children's Court, combined with consultations with 82 key stakeholders. The audit examined children's exposure to maltreatment and other family adversity - including parental divorce, drug use, mental illness, and death - as well as types of abuse experienced, child protection and out of home care involvement, co-occurring challenges such as learning and behaviour problems, mental health or drug use issues, age at first contact with the justice system, type and severity of offending, recidivism, sentencing outcomes, and regional differences between the courts. The stakeholder were consulted about the characteristics of cross-over children and families, the context and nature of offending among cross-over children, Indigenous children, averting the pathway to the justice system, and responding to offending behaviour. Both data sources emphasised children's dual nature as both victims and offenders, and the systems limitations in acknowledging and responding to children's victimisation. The findings also suggest a need for earlier and more intensive support, as well as the need for a range of strategies for preventing, diverting and responding to these children's criminal justice system involvement.

'Crossover kids': offending by child protection-involved youth

Baidawi S and Sheehan R
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2019.
"The over-representation of children from child protection backgrounds in the youth justice system is a significant and longstanding concern. While the association between child maltreatment and youth offending is established, the pathway of child protection-involved youth to criminal justice outcomes has received little attention. This paper presents selected findings of a detailed case file audit of 300 crossover children appearing before the Victorian Children's Court in 2016-17. Findings explore children's exposure to maltreatment and other adversity, as well as their child protection involvement, co-occurring challenges, offending and sentencing outcomes. The risk factors for earlier and more serious offending are also examined. Results indicate that crossover children present with more serious offending profiles than other court-involved children. The findings emphasise the need to prevent, divert and respond to crossover children's criminal justice contact."--Publisher abstract.

From child protection to youth justice : legal responses to the plight of 'crossover kids'.

Walsh T
University of Western Australia Law Review v. 46 no. 1 Sep 2019: 90-110
Though majority of young people involved with the child protection system do not commit criminal offences, a disproportionate number of young people who do offend have a child protection history. This article reports on a study in Queensland into the association between child protection and youth justice involvement from a legal perspective. Focus groups were held with lawyers, youth workers, and counsellors, regarding the range of offences are children in the child protection system were charged with, which children were most at risk of criminalisation, contributing factors, the consequences of criminalisation, what child protection system reforms are needed, and how children's contact with the criminal justice system could be reduced. The participants agreed that children placed in residential care were most at risk of becoming involved in the youth justice system, when compared with children in other types of placements, and that restorative and de-escalation techniques were needed rather than police and formal justice processes where possible. The need for stable caring relationships was also raised. The article concludes by considering in more detail the recommendations raised for system reform, child protection law, criminal law, youth justice, and social security.

Child maltreatment and attentional problems : a longitudinal birth cohort study.

Boyd M, Kisely S, Najman J and Mills R
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 98 Dec 2019: 104170
This article investigates whether child maltreatment is associated with attentional problems in adolescence or young adulthood. Using data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), for young people at 14 and 21 years of age, it compares test results for attention problems with notifications for sexual and non-sexual forms of maltreatment. It finds that young people who experienced non-sexual forms of child abuse and neglect were more likely to have attentional problems.

'Every client has a trauma history': teaching respectful relationships to marginalised youth - an evaluation of NAPCAN's Respectful Relationships Program Northern Territory 2017-2018

Dobia B
Penrith, NSW : Western Sydney University, 2019.
NAPCAN has developed a trauma-informed respectful relationships education program in the Northern Territory for young people experiencing complex challenges. The program aimed to address a gap in the field of prevention education: young people with complex challenges are at high risk of abuse and yet have least access to educational experiences that can teach them to navigate relationships more effectively. The program provides training and resources to practitioners in the youth services sector and is adapted from its Love Bites school-based program to provide a more flexible-approach in informal settings. This report describes the development of the program and the evaluation findings. Drawing on consultations with practitioners from a variety of services, the development project investigated the specific needs of the youth sector, evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the program, assessed the program against current research literature, and reviewed the extent to which the program met the social and cultural needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community organisations. The report concludes with recommendations for further development.

Lost, not forgotten: inquiry into children who died by suicide and were known to Child Protection

Victoria. Commission for Children and Young People
Melbourne, Vic. : Commission for Children and Young People, 2019.
Though suicide is the leading cause of death for young people in Victoria, the Commission for Children and Young People's child death inquiry noticed a pattern of child protection involvement among many of these children. This inquiry investigates this matter further, with a review of the services received by 35 adolescents who died by suicide and who had been in contact with child protection in the 12 months preceding death. It examines the quality and effectiveness of child protection, child and family, and mental health services delivered - or omitted to be delivered - and the systemic issues raised. The findings indicate that these 35 young people presented with multiple risk indicators that brought them into recurring contact with different service systems - many from an early age. However, most received only ineffective early intervention and a largely static response from child protection services. This report presents the findings of the inquiry and the recommendations for the Victorian Government and the Department of Health and Human Services.

Young people in child protection and under youth justice supervision: 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2018

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
Research shows that children and young people who have been abused or neglected are at greater risk of engaging in criminal activity and entering the youth justice system. This report investigates the overlap between children and young people in both the child protection and youth justice systems in Australia, drawing on linked data from 6 jurisdictions over the four year period 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2018. It provides information on involvement in either or both systems, care and protection orders, out of home care, age at first justice supervision, gender and Indigenous status, and types of supervision imposed. The findings show that though the majority of children who are abused or neglected do not go on to offend, a large proportion of children who offend do have a history of child protection involvement. Young people who had been under youth justice supervision were 9 times as likely as the general population to have received child protection services, and that Indigenous Australians were 17 times as likely as their non-Indigenous counterparts to have received both child protection services and youth justice supervision.

Exploring outcomes for young people who have experienced out-of-home care

Lima F, Maclean M and O'Donnell M
Perth : Telethon Kids Institute, 2019.
Young people leaving the care system are at high risk of disadvantage, due to the significant and complex issues they have faced in childhood and the lack of supports available as they transition to independent adult life. This report was commissioned to learn more about the outcomes of young people leaving care in Western Australia. It compares the physical and mental health, school achievement, justice involvement, and child protection involvement of children who had been in care, children with at least one substantiated maltreatment allegation but no time in care, and children with no child protection contact. It draws on linked population data for children born between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 1995 in Western Australia, regarding hospital admissions, mental health diagnoses and service use, secondary education completion, further education, juvenile justice sentences, adult justice sentences, early pregnancy, and multiple adverse outcomes. The findings are consistent with those of studies from other jurisdictions, with young people who had been in care were more likely to have adverse outcomes than the other children. Young people who were Aboriginal, female, born in a more disadvantaged area, or first entered care after the age of 10 were particularly at risk. Note, these children had wide-ranging periods in care, from two days up to 18 years, so further analysis is needed into differences by time spent in care, age on entering and leaving care, and placement type.

Improving educational connection for young people in custody: final report

White J, Te Riele K, Corcoran T, Baker A, Moylan P and Abdul Manan R
Melbourne, Vic. : Victoria University, 2019.
This report explores how education operates inside youth custodial setting in Victoria and how it could be improved. Based on a case study of Parkville College, it investigates the factors that enable and constrain participation in education in custody, how educational connections could be strengthened for the longer-term, and how education works as a protective factor for young people in the youth justice system. It discusses the context of youth justice in Victoria, the characteristics of the young people and their high rates of adversity, remand and custodial sentences, the values and culture of Parkville College, relationships between the College and the Department of Justice and Community Safety, the framework of space and time, and transitions out of custody. It concludes with key issues for attention.

Young people under youth justice supervision with varying child protection histories : an analysis of group differences.

Malvaso C, Delfabbro P, Day A and Nobes G
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology v. 63 no. 2 2019: 159-178
This article adds to what is known about the characteristics and needs of young people involved in both the child protection and youth justice systems. It reviews the cases of 2,045 young people who had been under youth justice supervision in South Australia between 1995 and 2012, comparing in particular different types or levels of child protection involvement. These include: no involvement, notification only, substantiated notification, notification or substantiation followed by placement in out-of-home care, and placement in out of home care without any notification or substantiation. The findings support the evidence that young people with a history of child protection involvement have significantly greater and more complex needs than those who have no child protection history.

'Crossover kids' - vulnerable children in the youth justice system. Report 1, Children who are known to child protection among sentenced and diverted children in the Victorian Children's Court

Stewart F
Melbourne, Vic. : Sentencing Advisory Council, 2019.
This is the first of two reports on the link between child protection and youth justice involvement in Victoria. It examines the the child protection backgrounds of children who received a sentence or diversion in the Victorian Children's Court in 2016 or 2017. It looks at the proportion of children known to child protection, levels of involvement and placement in care, specific sentence types, and age differences. The findings highlight the over-representation in the juvenile justice system of children from the child protection system, particularly those placed in residential care and Indigenous children. The study finds that, of children sentenced or diverted in the court, 38% were the subject of at least one child protection report, 25% were the subject of at least one substantiated report, and 15% experienced out-of-home care. Children with a child protection background were also more likely to appear before the courts at a younger age. The findings aim to inform sentencing practice and policy and identify earlier opportunities for intervention for these at risk children.

Children in need of help and protection: CIN review - final data and analysis

Great Britain. Dept. for Education
London : Dept. for Education, 2019.
Under the Children in Need Review, the British Government investigated how to ensure that children who have faced adversity or trauma or are disabled have the opportunity to achieve high educational standards. This report is one of three providing statistics and analysis to support the review. The March 2018 report looked at a range of educational and employment outcomes for children in the social care system. The December 2018 report presented preliminary findings from a new longitudinal dataset linking children's social care records between 2014-15 and 2016-17 to their education records. This new June 2019 report presents analysis on an expanded longitudinal dataset, which links social care records between 2012-13 and 2017-18. It analyses the characteristics and interactions of children receiving social care services over this period and their educational outcomes from early years through to higher education. After controlling for other factors, the study found that children who were in need of social care services were 50% less likely to achieve a strong pass in English and maths GCSEs, with the likelihood for those on a child in need plan or a child protection plan almost as low as looked after children. These students were around 3 times less likely to go on to study A levels at age 16, and almost 5 times less likely to enter higher education at age 18.

Good practice in supporting young people leaving care

Cameron N, McPherson L, Gatwiri K and Parmenter N
Sydney, N.S.W. : Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care, 2019.
This research briefing provides an overview of what young people leaving residential care need and how those working in residential care can best help young people prepare for independence. Drawing on the Australian and international literature, it outlines the challenges facing young people leaving care, current entitlements in Australia, and the factors known to be crucial to positive transitions. This paper was produced by the Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care, a partnership between the Australian Childhood Foundation and Southern Cross University established to support the rollout of the new Intensive Therapeutic Care system across New South Wales.

The evidence base for therapeutic group care: a systematic scoping review

McPherson L, Gatwiri K, Cameron N and Parmenter N
Sydney, NSW : Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care, 2019.
This report presents a review of the literature about therapeutic care for children and young people in small congregate care environments. 'Therapeutic care' as a form of out-of-home care is a relatively new development in Australia but various models have been evolving overseas for at least fifty years. This review investigates what is known about: the backgrounds of children and young people in group care and the implications for their care needs; the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people; the needs of children of diverse backgrounds; and effective therapeutic models of residential or group care and their common elements. This report was produced by the Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care, a partnership between the Australian Childhood Foundation and Southern Cross University established to support the rollout of the new Intensive Therapeutic Care system across New South Wales.

The 10 essential elements of Intensive Therapeutic Care in NSW

Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care
Sydney, NSW : Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care, 2019.
Intensive Therapeutic Care (ITC) is a specialised form of out of home care for young people who are recovering from the most severe forms of trauma, neglect, abuse or adversity, and who have complex and high needs and are require specialised and intensive supports to maintain stability in their care arrangements or are unable to be supported in foster care. The ITC service system is replacing residential care in New South Wales. This guide provides an overview of the ten key elements that form the basis for Intensive ITC service provision in the state. ITC service providers are expected to monitor and report on their performance against these elements. This guide was prepared by the Centre for Excellence in Therapeutic Care, a partnership between the Australian Childhood Foundation and Southern Cross University established to support the rollout of the new Intensive Therapeutic Care system across the state.

Passports out of poverty : raising access to higher education for care leavers in Australia.

McNamara P, Harvey A and Andrewartha L
Children and Youth Services Review v. 97 Feb 2019: 85-93
This article explores higher education among care leavers in Australia, including pathways, access, and achievement. It draws on surveys and interviews with senior personnel from the higher education and community service sectors, and is part of a broader study that will also involve a review of the literature and data sets. The findings from this qualitative part of the study highlight the impact of childhood poverty, trauma and disadvantage on educational participation and outcomes.

Children in need of help and protection: data and analysis

Great Britain. Dept. for Education
London : Dept. for Education, 2018.
Under the Children in Need Review, the British Government investigated how to ensure that children who have faced adversity or trauma or are disabled have the opportunity to achieve high educational standards. This is the first of several reports providing statistics and analysis to support the review. It brings together a range of data sources to look at the educational outcomes for children in the social care system in 2015-16. Information is provided on demographic information, variation between local authorities, why children are assessed as in need by social workers, experiences and outcomes in social care including re-referrals, eligibility for free school meals, prevalence and type of special educational needs, educational outcomes from the early years to post-16 outcomes, and school experiences including rates of absence and exclusion and school moves. As at 31 March 2016, an estimated 3% of all children were in need of help and protection, with domestic violence and mental health the main concerns. Children in need have poor outcomes at every stage of education: the evidence suggests that they start behind other children in the early years and the gap widens throughout school.

Children in need of help and protection: preliminary longitudinal analysis

Great Britain. Dept. for Education
London : Dept. for Education, 2018.
Under the Children in Need Review, the British Government investigated how to ensure that children who have faced adversity or trauma or are disabled have the opportunity to achieve high educational standards. This is the second of several reports providing statistics and analysis to support the review. An earlier report looked at a range of educational outcomes for children in the social care system in 2015-16. This new report expands on that study by creating a dataset which links pupils who have been in need at any point between 2011-12 and 2016-17 to their 2016-17 education records. It finds that at least 1 in 10 pupils in state schools in 2016-17 had been in need at some point since 2011-12, and over a third of children who were in need in 2014-15 were in need in 2016-17. Pupils who were in need at any point between 2011-12 and 2016-17 had worse educational outcomes than pupils who were not, indicating lasting negative impact beyond the point of being in need.

The maltreatment-violence link : exploring the role of maltreatment experiences and other individual and social risk factors among young people who offend.

Malvaso C, Delfabbro P, Day A and Nobes G
Journal of Criminal Justice v. 55 Mar/Apr 2018: 35-45
This article investigates whether child abuse is associated with later violent offending in young adulthood. A study was conducted with 1,819 young people detained for violent offences, drawing on a survey and child protection and youth justice records. Characteristics of any maltreatment, out of home care, and individual and family factors were reviewed. It found that persistent maltreatment was strongly associated with violent offending, with anger, aggression, gender and cultural background playing a moderating role.

Child sexual abuse in custodial institutions: a rapid evidence assessment

Sayer E
London : Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2018.
To assist their work in the United Kingdom, the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse has commissioned this rapid evidence assessment into child sexual abuse in custodial institutions. It reviews literature on the prevalence of child sexual abuse in custodial institutions, the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and perpetrators, the factors associated with custodial institutions's failure to protect or act to protect children in their care, and the nature of the safeguarding systems in place, how they have changed over the years, and how they may be improved. It focuses on research from England and Wales, with reference to overseas studies where necessary. The review finds that though there is a lack of research on child sexual abuse in custody in England and Wales, the available information indicates that child sexual abuse does occur within this setting and that it does so within its broader context of victimisation and violence. Several personal, cultural, and environmental factors are identified as contributing to keeping children safe or, conversely, exposing them to higher levels of risk. Welsh and summary versions of this report are also available.

'I'm not getting out of bed!' The criminalisation of young people in residential care.

Gerard A, McGrath A, Colvin E and McFarlane K
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 4 Jun 2018: Advance online publication
This explores professionals' views on why children in residential care are over-represented in the criminal justice system in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 46 professionals including police officers, service providers, lawyers, and juvenile justice workers, highlighting the impact of factors such as the care environment itself, staff training, and funding.

Adverse childhood experiences in a South Australian sample of young people in detention.

Malvaso C, Delfabbro P and Day A
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 22 Nov 2018: Advance online publication
This article investigates the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in young people involved in the youth justice system in South Australia. It reviews the cases of 2,045 young people who spent time in detention between 1995 and 2012 to examine prevalence, multiple rates, the interrelation of adverse childhood experiences, violent offences, and differences by gender, cultural background, and Indigenous status. The findings show that adverse childhood experiences were common among these young people, particularly for young people with convictions for violent offences. Particular adverse childhood experiences include physical and sexual abuse, household conflict, family criminality, and substance use problems.

Care-criminalisation : the involvement of children in out-of-home care in the New South Wales criminal justice system.

McFarlane K
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology v. 51 no. 3 Sep 2018: 412-433
This article explores at the association between the out of home care and justice systems. It reviews the case files of 160 children appearing before the New South Wales Children's Court, finding that though all the children shared many of the risk factors, children who had been in out of home care appeared before the court at disproportionately higher rates and at significantly younger ages. The article also discusses the concept of 'care-criminalisation', where the living arrangements designed to protect these young people from harm instead create an environment for offending.

How school, family, and community protective factors can help youth who have experienced maltreatment

Wilkinson A and Lantos H
Bethesda, MD : Child Trends, 2018.
Children who experience abuse and neglect face a higher risk of engaging delinquency later in adolescence and criminal behaviour in young adulthood. This report explores this association further, investigating the role of individual characteristics and protective factors and trajectories in delinquent or criminal behaviour over time. It draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, from the United States, to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and delinquent or criminal behaviour, the protective factors that can decrease the risk, and variations by gender, race, and sexual orientation, from age 18-32. The findings show that people who experience maltreatment as children are more likely to engage in delinquent or criminal behaviour, for males in particular. Most delinquent or criminal behaviours take place in adolescence and drop significantly by adulthood, regardless of maltreatment status, and having a connection to school, a parental figure, or their neighbourhood has a protective effect, also regardless of maltreatment status, but in particular for preventing nonviolent delinquency among youth who experienced maltreatment. The findings have implications for designing interventions.

Evidence brief: complex needs

Chen E and Hanks M
Wellington N.Z. : Oranga Tamariki Ministry for Children, 2018.
This paper provides a high-level overview on the nature and service responses regarding complex needs among children and young people involved in the care and youth justice systems. It summarises the latest international literature on the definition and frameworks of complex needs in care populations, the characteristics of those with complex needs in the care and youth justice populations, risk and protective factors, and service and therapeutic responses. Children in the care and youth justice populations experience multiple issues - from behaviour problems to drug abuse - that are interrelated and serious, but the evidence base for what works in addressing such complex needs in care is relatively limited. Males, and those identifying as indigenous, are over-represented in the care and justice systems of many jurisdictions, and deprivation, poverty, and a history of trauma are particular risk factors.

Youth justice report: consultation with young people in out-of-home care about their experiences with police, courts and detention

CREATE Foundation
Spring Hill, Qld : CREATE Foundation, 2018.
This report provides insights into the over-representation of young people from out of home care in the youth justice system. It presents findings from interviews with 148 young people who had been in care, regarding how they became involved with the justice system, their treatment by justice system personnel, the support they received at that time, the outcome of their involvement in the justice system, and their recommendations for improving the justice system. Participants were aged 18-25 years old and were recruited from across Australia. The study identifies three distinct groups: offenders, young people who had contact as they had been reported missing, and victims of crime. The report concludes with recommendations for adopting a trauma-informed approach in the justice system, as well as improving case management and supports. The literature on abuse, out-of-home care, and youth justice involvement is also briefly reviewed.

Young people in child protection and under youth justice supervision: 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2017

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018.
Research shows that children and young people who have been abused or neglected are at greater risk of engaging in criminal activity and entering the youth justice system. This report investigates the overlap between children and young people in both the child protection and youth justice systems in Australia, drawing on linked data from 6 jurisdictions. The cohort is children aged 10-14 on 1 July 2013 who were subject to a youth justice supervision order at any time between 1 July 2013 and 30 June 2017 in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory. Information is provided involvement in either or both systems, care and protection orders, out of home care, age at first justice supervision, gender and Indigenous status, and types of supervision imposed. The findings reveal that young people who had been under youth justice supervision were 9 times as likely as the general population to have received child protection services, and that Indigenous Australians were 17 times as likely as their non-Indigenous counterparts to have received both child protection services and youth justice supervision.
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