The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.
Corporal punishment of children
London : Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, 2020.
This annual series reviews the state of the legal prohibition of corporal punishment of children around the world. This report provides a review of progress made in 2019. It highlights recent reforms made and provides a map of where corporal punishment is fully or partially prohibited. In 2006, the United Nations recommended the universal prohibition of corporal punishment as a matter of urgency, but much work is still required: Australia is one of several nations in which corporal punishment is only prohibited in some settings, and there are still many nations where there are no prohibitions.
Dunedin N.Z. : New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service, University of Otago, 2019.
This annual report series measures how many children in New Zealand live with income poverty, material deprivation, severe poverty and persistent poverty. This seventh report presents the latest data on 3 new groups of indicators that will measure progress toward addressing child poverty and ensuring children have the resources to thrive, wellbeing and opportunity, and a healthy and safe environment. Individual indicators look into the adequate income, access to essentials for a decent living, financial assistance, good health, hospitalisations, early deaths, healthy food, effective discipline, child safety, care and protection, education access and attainment, and a place to call home, as well as the broader social contextual factors of economic growth and hourly earnings, work and labour force, and income inequality. In 2018, it was estimated that 23% of children lived in low income households, 13% lived in households that were unable to afford six or more essentials for a decent standard of living, and 6% lived in households experiencing severe material hardship.
Children Australia v. 44 no. 3 Sep 2019: 110-120
This article looks at what is known about corporal punishment in the home Australia and the state of the evidence base. It reviews the literature on prevalence, public attitudes towards smacking, prevention and attitude change, law, impacts, and family violence. The findings highlight the limited evidence available through online polls, academic research, government data, and grey literature, and the article concludes with recommendations for data collection and consistency. It is likely that key reasons for this lack of data include that corporal punishment is legal and widely socially accepted and that it has never been classed as a form of child maltreatment in Australia.
Leiden : Brill Nijhoff, 2019.
This book explores international progress towards eliminating the corporal punishment of children, drawing on a workshop of academics and activists held in Stockholm. Chapters focus on specific issues and countries, and include: from banning corporal punishment to the elimination of violence against children: a global perspective; problematising 'childism' and related language in the English-speaking world: the power of words to either thwart or progress the attainment of children's human rights to freedom from corporal punishment and other degrading treatment; comparative legal approaches to corporal punishment: regulating for behavioural change; towards universal prohibition of corporal punishment of children: religious progress, challenges and opportunities; the Swedish ban on corporal punishment of children in a multi-cultural context: conflicting logics in the social services; New Zealand's landmark law change to prohibit corporal punishment of children; the years after the ban: dealing with cases of corporal punishment by parents in the German criminal justice system; the ban on parental corporal punishment in Israel: what facilitated the change?; Southern African perspectives on banning corporal punishment: a comparison of Namibia, Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe; slow and not-so-steady: Canada's long journey toward protecting children from corporal punishment; history of and progress in the movement to end corporal punishment in the United States; and the development of social and legal aspects of corporal punishment: a Swedish paediatrician's commentary.
San Diego, USA : Academic Press, 2019.
This text book provides a multi-disciplinary overview of child abuse and neglect. Part one looks at types of child abuse, part two considers impacts and outcomes, and part three looks at responses. Chapters are written by Australian and international authors, and include: Child abuse: types and emergent issues; Intimate partner violence as a form of child abuse; Keeping our eye on sex, power, relationships and institutional contexts in preventing institutional child sexual abuse; Online child sexual abuse; Understanding violent extremism and child abuse: a psychological analysis; Child trafficking: characteristics, complexities and challenge; Gender comparisons of offenders: males and females who sexually offend against children; Forensic victimology assessments in child abuse and neglect cases; Cumulative harm: chronicity, re-victimisation and developmental victimology; The pathological consequences of exposure to domestic and family violence in childhood; Physical punishment and offending in two successive generations; Physical discipline, child abuse and children's rights; Understanding the nature and dimensions of child sexual abuse to inform its prevention; False reports in child abuse and neglect cases; Mandatory reporting: managing disclosure and information gathering; Virtue ethics and good professional judgment in statutory child protection; Decision making guidelines for the child protection intake phase; Eight core principles of neurobiologically-informed interventions for trauma form childhood maltreatment; Understanding childhood maltreatment and subsequent re-victimization: a Singapore perspective; Understanding child maltreatment across ethnic minority communities in Australia: physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic and family violence and child sexual abuse; Child abuse and neglect and the judicial system: the limits of legal enterprise; and Public (mis)perceptions of sexual abusers of children and their implications thereof.
Parkville, Vic. : Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, 2018.
This survey looked at how parents are managing their children's behaviour. A poll was conducted with 2,044 Australian parents, regarding the techniques they use to manage their children's behaviour, their knowledge of discipline strategies, use of physical discipline, their knowledge of what constitutes normal child behaviour, and how well they are coping. The findings reveal that though the majority of parents use positive parenting strategies, a concerning number of them are also using physical punishment. A sizeable proportion of the parents report feeling stressed by their children's behaviour every day, or report losing their temper or becoming impatient too quickly.
Children Australia v. 43 no. 1 Mar 2018: 32-41
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been widely acknowledged as a prominent problem throughout Australia. A growing body of research has linked corporal punishment of children in the home with numerous adverse outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. Some of these adverse outcomes in childhood, such as aggression and antisocial behaviour, may be antecedents for involvement in violence as an adult. Adverse longitudinal outcomes of corporal punishment in childhood include involvement in intimate partner violence as an adult, both as victim and as perpetrator. Corporal punishment is a type of family violence that is legal in Australia, yet its role in the family violence scenario is not yet fully appreciated. This article presents extant scientific literature on the link between corporal punishment in childhood and involvement in intimate partner violence in adulthood, and argues for the employment of this knowledge in the implementation of policy making around corporal punishment of children.
New York : Unicef, 2018
The 'Progress for every child in the SDG era' report assesses the world's progress towards the many child-related indicators within the internationally agreed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It compares overall and regional data, and highlights the lack of data around the world for tracking progress. Country-specific profiles have also been prepared: this paper presents the data for Australia. It summarises whether the 5 broad values are met, on track, need acceleration, or have insufficient data, and presents data for each of the 44 child-related indicators, which cover issues relating to health, development, learning, abuse and protection, living conditions, and opportunity. As with many other countries, much of the needed data is missing.
International Journal of Children's Rights v. 25 no. 1 2017: 165-195
Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States lag behind the rest of the world by not prohibiting the corporal punishment of children. This article considers the situation in those 3 countries and the opportunities for change. It looks at the prevalence of child abuse, public attitudes to and justifications of corporal punishment, impact on children, the position statements of medical bodies, research on efficacy, and current legislation. It concludes that reducing the number of cases of child abuse must begin with a clear message that physical punishment of children is unacceptable.
New York : United Nation's Children's Fund, 2017.
The 'State of the world's children' series aims to present a detailed picture of children's wellbeing around the world. It features tables of comparative statistics on child and infant mortality, nutrition, birthweight, breastfeeding, under- and overweight, health and illness, drinking water and sanitation, immunisation, HIV/AIDS, education and school enrolment, literacy, women's health and status, maternity care, child labour, child marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting, violent discipline, attitudes to wife beating, adolescents, early child development, adult support for learning, life expectancy at birth, national demographic and economic indicators, and rate of progress in child welfare, for developing and industrialised countries, including Australia. National disparities by household wealth are also noted, where data is available. This 2017 edition also examines the ways in which digital technology has already changed children's lives and life chances - and explores what the future may hold. It discusses education and learning in a digital world, barriers to connectivity and gender gaps, online risks and harms, civic engagement online, and digital life and dependency.
New York : United Nation's Children's Fund, 2017.
Using the latest international data, this report documents four specific forms of violence in the lives of children and adolescents: violent discipline and exposure to domestic abuse during early childhood; violence at school; violent deaths among adolescents; and sexual violence in childhood and adolescence. The statistics reveal that children experience violence across all stages of childhood, in diverse settings, and often at the hands of the trusted individuals with whom they interact on a daily basis. Data is presented largely by region and for the most at-risk nations.
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2017.
Corporal punishment is a contentious and much debated issue within the community. Written for service providers and practitioners, this resource provides an overview of the research and legislation on the corporal punishment of children in Australia. Topics include: defining physical punishment in contrast to physical abuse; research on the use of corporal punishment and its impact on child outcomes; children's perceptions; which children more likely to experience corporal punishment; alternative discipline techniques; Australian legislation and the criminal defence of 'reasonable chastisement'; and corporal punishment in early education and child care settings and alternative residential care settings.
New York : United Nation's Children's Fund, 2016.
The 'State of the world's children' series aims to present a detailed picture of children's wellbeing around the world. It features tables of comparative statistics on child and infant mortality, nutrition, birthweight, breastfeeding, under- and overweight, health and illness, drinking water and sanitation, immunisation, HIV/AIDS, education and school enrolment, literacy, women's health and status, maternity care, child labour, child marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting, violent discipline, attitudes to wife beating, adolescents, early child development, adult support for learning, life expectancy at birth, national demographic and economic indicators, and rate of progress in child welfare, for developing and industrialized countries, including Australia. National disparities by household wealth are also noted, where data is available. This 2016 edition also highlights the issue of inequity, with millions of children's lives blighted for no other reason than the country, the community, the gender or the circumstances into which they are born. Though the world has made tremendous progress, there are constraints due to political commitment and collective will. The report describes the the terrible impact on children by 2030 if we don't act now.
Sweden : Save the Children Sweden, 2016.
Written for parents, this book presents an innovative and empowering approach to child discipline. 'Positive discipline' was developed for Save the Children Sweden in 2007, and is based on children's rights to healthy development, protection from violence, and participation in their learning. It provides a set of principles that can guide all of parent's interactions with their children - not just the challenging ones. Parents are shown how they can teach their children while respecting their human rights.
International Journal of Children's Rights v. 23 no. 3 2015: 661-666
This article provides a resource list of selected, seminal, and recent articles and books on the issue of the physical punishment of children, including works on its causes, impacts, and prevention.
14th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect : ACCAN 2015 : cultural responsiveness in a multi-agency world : 29 March - 1 April 2015, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. Canberra, A.C.T. : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2015: 23p
There is a growing body of research looking at the various factors that contribute to parents' selecting physical disclipline as an appropriate parenting response. This study adds to the literature by investigating these factors in people who are not yet parents. 129 university students were shown various child behaviour vignettes, to assess the factors behind any endorsement of physical discipline - in particular negative attributional style, anger-justifying attributions, unrealistic expectations, depression, frequency of childhood physical discipline, and severity of childhood physical discipline. This document contains the slides from the session, with selected text from a background literature review and descriptions of the study's methodology, results, and discussion.
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood v. 40 no. 2 online annex May 2015: 99-106
The aim of the research was two-fold: first, to investigate strategies used by Australian parents to encourage desirable child behaviours and to decrease undesirable behaviours; second, to determine the acceptability and perceived usefulness to parents of various strategies. The research encompassed two studies. In the first study, 152 parents of children aged under six years completed questionnaires to identify their disciplinary practices. In study two, 129 parents reported on the acceptability and perceived effectiveness of various parenting strategies (modelling, ignoring, rewarding and physical punishment) for influencing child behaviour. Most parents in study one reported using techniques consistent with positive parenting strategies. The use of physical punishment was also reported, but predominantly as a secondary method of discipline. In study two, the techniques of modelling and rewarding were found to be more acceptable to parents than were ignoring and smacking. The findings highlight the need to raise parental awareness and acceptance of a broader range of positive ways to manage child behaviour.
Personality and Individual Differences v. 87 Dec 2015: 121-129
Despite increasing evidence of its harms, corporal punishment is still a commonly used disciplinary strategy for children. This article investigates whether common beliefs or myths of its harmlessness might account for its continued use. A study was conducted with 366 young people, utilising the newly developed Corporal Punishment Myths Scale (CPMS).
Washington, D.C. : Promundo, Rutgers, Save the Children, Sonke Gender Justice, and the MenEngage Alliance, 2015.
Men's and boys' participation in the daily care of others has a lasting influence on the lives of children, women, and men, and an enduring impact on the world around them. This inaugural report collates the latest information on men's caregiving and fatherhood, identifies what further research is needed, and makes recommendations for full gender equality and maximum child well-being. Topics include participation in caregiving, sexual and reproductive health and rights, maternal and child health, violence and violence prevention, and child development. The research is supplemented with stories from men, women, and children about what fatherhood and caregiving really mean and promising fatherhood-involvement programs and policies from around the world. It concludes with tables comparing time use, paternity leave, contraception attitudes, violence during pregnancy, child abuse, and corporal punishment around the world. This report will complement the work of the 'State of the World's Mothers' and 'The State of the World's Children' series of reports.
Children Australia v. 40 no. 1 Mar 2015: 43-57
Although the physical punishment of children is overall an ineffective disciplining strategy, has adverse long-term psychological effects, and carries the risk of physical punishment escalating into child abuse, parental physical punishment is lawful in all Australian states and territories within the bounds of lawful correction or reasonable chastisement. What is considered to be reasonable is open to considerable interpretation, which further increases the risk of physical harm to children. Physical punishment of children also contravenes the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Australia has ratified. Although more effective disciplining strategies, such as cognitive-behavioural parenting strategies, are available and have been advocated by professional organisations, the vast majority of Australian parents condone parental physical punishment of children and are opposed to its prohibition. Predictors for this stance include perceived social norms, the belief that physically punishing children is an effective disciplining strategy and a parent's right, a perceived absence of alternative parenting strategies, and fear of prosecution if physical punishment were to be banned. Countries that have phased out the physical punishment of children have demonstrated that, to encourage a shift in parental attitudes and behaviours, public awareness about the detrimental effects of physical punishment and the effectiveness of alternative disciplining strategies needs to be raised. Additionally, parents require support through free and convenient access to evidence-based parenting programmes that promote alternative disciplining strategies; and the defence of lawful correction needs to be repealed, with the aim of setting a new standard, as well as education rather than prosecution.
International Journal of Children's Rights v. 22 no. 4 2014: 681-709
This article was first delivered as a keynote address at the 17th ISPCAN Congress held in Hong Kong in 2008. In Hong Kong, as in Australia, the 'reasonable chastisement' of children remains a common law defence when a parent assaults a child, and though most countries are signatures to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the majority have yet to ban physical punishment. This article argues that child abuse cannot be defeated without first addressing physical punishment. It provides a brief overview of what is known about prevalence, forms and nature, reasons why parents do it, impact on children, children's views, whether it constitutes child abuse, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UNICEF and Council of Europe reports, culture, and the importance of children's rights.
New York : United Nation's Children's Fund, 2014.
The 'State of the world's children' series aims to present a detailed picture of children's wellbeing around the world. It features tables of comparative statistics on child and infant mortality, nutrition, birthweight, breastfeeding, under- and overweight, health and illness, drinking water and sanitation, immunisation, HIV/AIDS, education and school enrolment, literacy, women's health and status, maternity care, child labour, child marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting, violent discipline, attitudes to wife beating, adolescents, early child development, adult support for learning, life expectancy at birth, national demographic and economic indicators, and rate of progress in child welfare, for developing and industrialized countries, including Australia. National disparities by household wealth are also noted, where data is available. This 2015 edition also marks the 25th anniversary of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, with case studies on the work of young innovators who are reimagining the future.
Sydney, NSW : Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 2014.
As part of the Royal Commission's investigation of how institutions respond to child sexual abuse abuse, it will conduct case studies of selected incidents to more fully understand the institutional and systemic factors involved. This report examines the experience of women who were sexually abused as children, between 1950-1974, while committed in the Parramatta Girls' Training School and the Hay Institution for Girls, both in New South Wales. It discusses the law governing out-of-home care during that period, the harsh disciplinary conditions of the institutes, allegations of physical and sexual abuse against staff, the impact on health and employment, and the issues of reporting and redress. Both institutions closed in 1974 after a public outcry about their conditions. The case study's website also includes transcripts, opening addresses, and witness lists from the related public hearings held in Sydney from 26 February to 3 March 2014.
New York : UNICEF, 2014.
This report reviews what is known about global patterns of violence against children, and compares rates of violence in countries around the world. It presents the latest statistics on physical violence, homicide, sexual violence, forced first sex, violent physical discipline, fighting and physical bullying among children, and partner violence. It also discusses social norms and community attitudes to violence against children.
New York : United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2014.
The 'State of the world's children' series aims to present a detailed picture of children's wellbeing around the world. It features tables of comparative statistics on child and infant mortality, nutrition, birthweight, breastfeeding, under- and overweight, health and illness, drinking water and sanitation, immunisation, HIV/AIDS, education and school enrolment, literacy, women's health and status, maternity care, child labour, child marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting, violent discipline, attitudes to wife beating, adolescents, early child development, adult support for learning, life expectancy at birth, national demographic and economic indicators, and rate of progress in child welfare, for developing and industrialized countries, including Australia. National disparities by household wealth are also noted, where data is available. This 2014 edition also takes a moment to highlight the role and power of data and statistical evidence in helping to identify the children at greatest risk and address disadvantage.
Geneva, Switzerland : Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2014.
All signatories to the Convention on the Rights of the Child are periodically reviewed for compliance. Following the second periodic review of the Holy See, the Holy See submitted written replies to the issues identified in the review. In these concluding observations, the Committee welcomes the positive response by the Holy See on many issues, and looks forward to the adoption of prompt and firm measures for the implementation of its commitments. However, the Committee also notes some areas of dispute and concern, and reminds the Holy See that by ratifying the Convention, it has committed itself to implementing the Convention not only on the territory of the Vatican City State but also as the supreme power of the Catholic Church. Areas discussed on this review include: the protection of children's rights, gender discrimination, discrimination against illegitimate children and children from same-sex parents, anonymous abandonment of babies, the right of children to know their parents - including the children of clergy, violence against children, cruel or degrading treatment, corporal punishment, and sexual abuse.
International Journal of Children's Rights v. 21 no. 2 2013: 278-304
To fully recognise children's human rights, then changes must be made to the language, traditions, and laws that promote and perpetuate physical punishment. This article considers the role of language, tradition, and law in enabling, normalising, and perpetuating physical punishment then briefly looks at the laws of three English-speaking countries that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child but that have not yet fully outlawed physical punishment: Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
Sydney, N.S.W. : Royal Australasian College of Physicians, 2013.
This document sets out the Royal Australasian College of Physicians' position on the physical punishment of children. The RACP believes that physical punishment is a harmful and outdated practice which fails to recognise the human rights of the child. It is hoped this document will promote positive non-violent discipline.
13th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect : protecting children - new solutions to old problems : 10-13 November 2013. Canberra, A.C.T. : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2013: 17p
Though physical punishment for the purpose of child discipline has been illegal in New Zealand since 2007, this country still has the fifth worse child abuse record in the OEDC. This presentation looked at new research on physical discipline with babies in the first year of life in New Zealand. Surveys were conducted with 802 parents on discipline practices used at 6 and 12 months of age and whether discipline practices from the parent's own childhood were avoided. This document contains the slides shown during the presentation, which feature summary text and charts.
13th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect : protecting children - new solutions to old problems : 10-13 November 2013. Canberra, A.C.T. : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2013: 28p
Save the Children International commissioned Dr Joan Durrant and her team at Manitoba University to develop an approach to parenting called Positive Discipline in Everyday Parenting, a relationship based approach to parenting that guides child behaviour while respecting their rights to healthy development and protection from violence. This presentation described the program and how it will be implemented in Australia and overseas. This document contains the slides shown during the presentation, which feature summary text and charts.