Financial stress and families

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Clinical, financial and social impacts of COVID-19 and their associations with mental health for mothers and children experiencing adversity in Australia.

Bryson H, Mensah F, Price A, Gold L, Mudiyanselage S, Kenny B, Dakin P, Bruce T, Noble K, Kemp L and Goldfeld S
PLoS ONE v. 16 no. 9 2021: Article e0257357
The COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions are having a negative impact on families, but little is known about the impacts on families who were already experiencing adversity before the pandemic. This article presents findings from an existing study of mothers and children participating in the right@home trial for at risk families in Victoria and Tasmania, during the children's age 6 assessment. The mothers were asked about the impacts of COVID-19 and their own and their child's mental health, as well as experiences of quarantine, job or income loss, and family stress and resilience. 319 families took part. The findings highlight the critical importance of financial stability for families during crises. Financial impacts and high family stress were associated with poorer maternal and child mental health. Difficulty managing children's learning at home was a common issue. However, many families also reported resilience and finding ways of coping, and this was associated with better mental health.

Families in Australia Survey - Towards COVID Normal. Report no. 6, The COVID-19 early release of superannuation - through a family lens

Warren D
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2021.
To help households affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Australian Government allowed people to access their superannuation savings early. During the initiative, 3.5 million initial applications and 1.4 million repeat applications were approved, with an average value of $7,638 per application and a total value of $36.4 billion. This paper provides insights into the characteristics of households who applied, how the money was used, and the other actions they took to address their financial stress. Data is taken from the first and second Families in Australia Surveys, conducted in mid- and late-2020. The surveys found that most people who accessed superannuation used it to help their family with the immediate financial impacts of COVID-19, as the initiative intended, rather than as a precautionary measure or for discretionary spending.

The first year of Covid-19: initial outcomes of our collective care for low-income children in Aotearoa New Zealand

McAllister J
Auckland, New Zealand : Child Poverty Action Group, 2021.
This report looks into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on poor children in New Zealand. It draws on interviews with social service providers, reports and articles, and public data sets, regarding the period March 2020 to March 2021. Issues include families with disability, income poverty rates, number of families receiving benefits or hardship assistance, food insecurity, cost of living, homelessness and emergency housing, school participation, NCEA certificate achievement, digital access and exclusion, community and whanau responses, and health. The study found both positive and negative impacts, but overall the pandemic and its policy responses exacerbated existing hardship, especially for rates of homelessness and food insecurity. Current and possible government responses are also considered.

COVID-19 LGBTIQ+ family violence prevention project: prevention in the pandemic : final report

Drummond Street Services. Centre for Family Research and Evaluation, Gender and Disaster Pod (Program), Respect Victoria
Melbourne, Vic. : Respect Victoria, 2021.
This report was commissioned to learn more about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on LGBTIQ+ people, with a particular focus on family violence risk. Drawing on a rapid desktop review and consultations with LGBTIQ+ people and family violence professionals, it investigates how the pandemic has affected the drivers and risk factors of LGBTIQ+ family violence, as well as how government responses have affected LGBTIQ+ people and their personal relationships. The report looks at individual factors such as mental health, social isolation, economic impacts, and domestic, familial, intimate and caring relationships, and also organisational and community factors such as service access, telehealth, community surveillance, and lateral violence. The findings highlight the magnification of existing social inequalities and service system limitations. Social isolation and disconnection from community was a particular theme, as well as the vulnerability of financial stressed young people forced to return to unsupportive or abusive families. The report concludes with recommendations for service delivery and prevention.

Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey: insights into the prevalence and nature of impacts from COVID-19 on households in Australia, June 2021

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2021.
This is the final of a series of monthly surveys into how Australians responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. It presents findings from a survey of 3,414 adults, conducted from 11-20 June. This final survey looked at emotional and mental wellbeing, vaccination attitudes and experiences, symptom testing behaviours, health precautions, expectations for household finances, job status, training and development of skills, participation in social and public activities, and perceptions of the future after the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey found that a fifth of respondents continued to experience high or very high levels of psychological distress, and a quarter felt that it would take over a year for life to return to normal. However, a third wanted to continue working from home after the pandemic is over, and a third wanted to spend more time with family and friends.

Migrant and refugee women in the COVID-19 pandemic: impact, resilience and the way forward - national consultation report, February 2021

Harmony Alliance - Migrant and Refugee Women for Change
Kingston, A.C.T. : Harmony Alliance, 2021.
This paper highlights the key issues facing migrant and refugee women in the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. It presents findings from consultations held with members of Harmony Alliance at the end of 2020, regarding issues such as mental health, access to services, family violence, economic security, digital inclusion, racism, and the particular issues of younger people. Despite the focus on the negative impacts of the pandemic, the consultation also revealed many stories of resilience, innovation, and leadership by migrant and refugee women to help themselves and their communities in the face of adversity. However, the overarching finding is that the concerns faced by migrant and refugee women in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic are interconnected and mutually reinforcing, requiring holistic solutions.

Shocks and safety nets: financial wellbeing during the COVID-19 crisis

Porter E and Bowman D
Fitzroy, Vic. : Brotherhood of St. Laurence, 2021.
This paper looks at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on financial wellbeing in Australia, with a particular interest in vulnerable people like the unemployed, low income workers, single parents, older people, and disability pensioners. It analyses data from the Roy Morgan Single Source survey, from April 2018 to September 2020, with around 4,100 people surveyed each quarter. In this study, a person's financial wellbeing is composed of 3 measures: meeting commitments, feeling comfortable, and financial resilience. The study found that financial wellbeing declined for most during the height of the pandemic. However, it also turned the tables on who was likely to face challenges meeting everyday commitments, with JobSeeker and other payments helping many low income households during this time.

A fairer future for grandchildren: understanding the impact of the caring role on grandparents raising their grandchildren

Wanslea Family Services, Edith Cowan University, Curtin University of Technology, Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA
Warwick, W.A. : Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren WA, 2021.
This paper highlights findings from a two-part research study on the issues and needs of grandparent carers in Western Australia. The study sought to: better understand the impact of the caring role on the mental, physical, social and financial health of grandparent carers; identify the gaps and opportunities in the service and policy systems they navigate; and examine the shared and different experiences of formal and informal grandparent carers. Key themes identified include the exacerbation of poverty due to the impact on income and employment; complex and inequitable systems for informal carers, due to their lack of legal recognition; worse wellbeing and health than their peers; and both the trauma and joy of the new role. Aboriginal carers also experience specific challenges, but also enjoy higher levels of satisfaction and social support. The paper concludes with suggestions for government and service providers. The full findings have been published separately in reports by Edith Cowan University and Curtin University.

Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey: insights into the prevalence and nature of impacts from COVID-19 on households in Australia, May 2021

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2021.
This webpage looks at how Australians responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2021. It presents findings from a survey of 3,371 adults, conducted from 14-23 May, regarding: actions taken to manage physical and mental health, attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines, domestic and international travel intentions, unpaid work, household finances and stress and responses, absences from work, and job status. In May 2021, women were almost twice as likely as men to have spent 20 or more hours a week caring for children, a fifth of participants reported needing to take extra actions to support basic living expenses in the last month, and almost one fifth reported their mental health as worse or much worse than before COVID-19.

Serving with a purpose: domestic and family violence, CALD communities and COVID19 : preliminary report

Muslim Women Australia (Organization)
Lakemba, N.S.W. : Muslim Women Australia, 2021.
This report presents initial findings from a study into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CALD communities in New South Wales. The study was commissioned by Muslim Women Australia to help inform their family violence support efforts. Surveys were undertaken with clients and staff. Three key themes were identified in the data: mental health and wellbeing, economic impacts, and social impacts due to restrictions on gatherings. These issues can exacerbate the risk of family violence and compound the challenges for women seeking help. The report concludes with recommendations for government policy and funding.

Financial stress and social security settings in Australia

Phillips B and Narayanan V
Canberra, ACT : ANU Centre for Social Research & Methods, 2021.
This paper looks at the current state of financial stress and poverty in Australia. It examines emerging trends and trends over recent decades and through the COVID-19 period, as well as financial stress and poverty of people by different type of social security payment, family, housing tenure, and region. The study finds that though financial stress has declined over recent decades across the whole population, the situation has worsened over the last 30 years for people receiving working age social security payments such as the disability support pension, Carer Payment, Parenting Payment and JobSeeker. Child poverty rates have also increased - from 13.9% in 1993 to 17.5% in 2017. The paper also presents estimates on where additional funding for social security would best be spent and what impact such spending could have.

Intergenerational transmission of human capital across three generations using latent class associations within families

Adams E, Hancock K, Mitrou F, Christensen D, Taylor C and Zubrick S
Indooroopilly, Qld. : Life Course Centre, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, 2021.
This paper adds to what is known about the persistence of disadvantage over time and the impact of disadvantage over several generations. It examines the impact of parents' and grandparents' characteristics on children's educational outcomes, using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. It identifies five groups of grandparent characteristics and four classes of parent characteristics that are associated with worse educational outcomes in grade 3, including low grandparent education, parent financial hardship, and multiple parent risks. While most associations between grandparent and parent disadvantage and children's educational outcomes are more evident in the early years of school, some children continue to fall further behind and into Year 9.

A year in review - how we experienced 2020: some early findings from the Towards COVID Normal survey

Australian Institute of Family Studies
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2021
This infographic looks at how people viewed 2020 after months of COVID-19, and their expectations for the future. It presents some early findings from a survey conducted with 4,479 adults in late 2020, focusing on their overall view of the past year and how they are faring. Only a third of respondents described 2020 as a 'bad year', and nearly three quarters of respondents are optimistic for 2021. Those who described 2020 as a good year commonly mentioned positive events like new babies, new relationships or new homes, but many also reflected that while 2020 was a difficult year, they were grateful for what they had and knew others had fared much worse.

Child protection in the time of COVID-19

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021.
There are concerns the COVID-19 pandemic has increased children's risk of abuse - the government restrictions have increased families' stresses while also limiting interactions with professionals who could detect and report abuse. This report presents preliminary child protection data from March to September 2020, covering the first wave of COVID-19 restrictions in Australia and part of the second wave of restrictions in Victoria. It compares the data to that of 2019, and also looks at risk factors such as parents and children seeking support, unemployment and reliance on income support, financial and housing stress, working and schooling from home, family law parenting disputes, parental mental health and substance use, and domestic violence. The data shows that though risk factors for child abuse and neglect increased during COVID-19 - in particular financial hardship, housing stress and poor mental health - notifications to child protection services fell during the first wave, though they increased once restrictions eased. Public tip-offs about online child sexual exploitation material more than doubled during this period also.

Financial journeys of Australian parents after separation - transitions into and out of poverty.

Qu L and Weston R
Australian Journal of Social Issues v. 56 no. 1 Mar 2021: 54-77
This article explores the economic impacts of separation over time. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Separated Families, it looks at poverty rates over four years, transitions into and out of poverty, the factors affecting these pathways, and differences for men and women.

Continued impacts of COVID-19 on domestic and family violence

Foster H, Boyle C, Psomoulis H, Nguyen V, Sternberg R and Mann J
Haymarket, NSW : Women's Safety NSW, 2020.
During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, Women's Safety NSW published a series of reports on how the restrictions had increased and exacerbated domestic and family violence. It's now been two months since restrictions have eased in New South Wales - what is the situation now? This report presents the findings of survey conducted with frontline practitioners across the state in late August. 53 specialists from 34 services tok part, regarding the continuing impacts of COVID-19, the number and complexity of cases, the impact of economic conditions on both family violence risk and service delivery, and the particular issues for at risk groups, including Indigenous families and women on temporary visas. Many of the respondents report that client numbers continue to rise, along with the percentage of higher risk cases. Based on the findings, recommendations are presented for government action.

Migrant and refugee women in Australia: the security and safety study

Segrave M, Wickes R and Keel C
Clayton, Vic. : Monash University, 2020.
This report provides insights into the safety and security of migrant and refugee women in Australia. It presents findings from a survey of nearly 1,400 women regarding domestic and family violence, victimisation, help-seeking and trust in institutions, and employment, financial hardship and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, comparing their experiences in 2019 and by late 2020. The survey found that one third of respondents had experienced some form of family violence - controlling behaviours in particular - with many experiencing it for the first time during the pandemic or having it escalate in frequency or severity. Temporary visa holders were particularly at risk. Only 52% of the women disclosed the violence, with many considering it a family matter, and fearing to make the situation worse.

Setbacks at 30: Life Chances and COVID-19

Harrison U, Curry M and Bowman D
Fitzroy, Vic. : Brotherhood of St. Laurence, 2020.
This paper explores the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the financial and personal wellbeing of 30-year olds in Australia. It highlights findings from a survey of 77 people in the Life Chances longitudinal study, which commenced when the participants were young children living in Victoria. The survey asked about the impact of the pandemic on their health and wellbeing, employment and working hours, financial situation, living arrangements, relationships and parenthood, plans for the future, sources of support and how they had responded to the crisis. The survey found the economic downturn caused by the pandemic has created widespread insecurity, affecting their life plans and also their ability to plan at all. However, participants in permanent jobs with secure affordable housing and strong family relationship tended to cope better than those with insecure work and fewer resources.

VicHealth Coronavirus Victorian Wellbeing Impact Study - follow-up survey: report for survey no. 2 - how the second pandemic wave impacted the health and wellbeing of Victorians

Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Social Research Centre (North Melbourne, Vic.)
Melbourne : VicHealth, 2020.
Earlier in the year, VicHealth ran a survey to look at the impact of the coronavirus restrictions of March-May 2020 on people's health and wellbeing. However, Victoria has since experienced a second round of further restrictions. This new survey looks at how people are faring in September, with comparisons to findings from the first survey. Just over one thousand adults took part in the this second survey, answering questions about general wellbeing, social connection, physical activity, healthy eating, alcohol consumption and smoking, working, and parenting responsibilities, as well as parents' reports of children's physical activity and healthy eating. The survey found some positive results, with reduced alcohol use, reliance on low-cost unhealthy food, and financial hardship since the first lockdown. However, there was a decline in life satisfaction and wellbeing, and people struggled to both connect socially and keep physically active. Some people were particularly at risk, including people on low incomes, Indigenous people, people in the inner city, and people in communities affected by the Summer Bushfires.

VicHealth Coronavirus Victorian Wellbeing Impact Study: report for survey no. 1 - how the first coronavirus lockdown impacted the health and wellbeing of Victorians

Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Social Research Centre (North Melbourne, Vic.)
Melbourne : VicHealth, 2020.
This report looks at the impact of the coronavirus restrictions of March-May 2020 on people's health and wellbeing in Victoria. It analyses findings from a survey of 2,000 adults, regarding their health, lifestyle, general wellbeing, social connection, healthy eating, physical activity, financial hardship, smoking, alcohol consumption, working, home life, and parenting responsibilities. Findings are broken down by age, gender, employment, income, location, and community - as well as experience of the Summer Bushfire disaster - and compared to earlier surveys from 2015 and 2017. The findings highlight both negative and positive impacts from the pandemic. However, many people experienced mental wellbeing issues, lower levels of life satisfaction, a rise in food insecurity as well as consumption of sugary and alcoholic drinks, and a large number of people experienced financial hardship.

Cost of living 2020

Western Australian Council of Social Service
West Leederville, WA : WACOSS, 2020.
This annual series models the cost of living for vulnerable households in Western Australia, drawing on data from the Financial Counselling Network. It examines the adequacy of income to meet costs, regional variations, and changes over the last 2 years, and focuses on key household types: a single parent family, a working family, an unemployed single person, a retired couple renting a house, and a retired couple who own their own house. This report presents data for 2019/20, which has been rendered more complex by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant changes to income support payments. For the first time, the modelling show the income of an unemployed single person household exceeding their basic living costs: the extra financial support provided under the COVID-19 interventions has had a significant positive impact and has enabled single people to cover the cost of living essentials and manage the ongoing increases in food and rent.

Findings from the California Youth Transitions to Adulthood Study (CalYOUTH): conditions of youth at age 23

Courtney M
Chicago, Il. : Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2020.
This report looks at the impact of extending foster care supports past the age of 18. Recognizing that this age was too young for most youth to be without support, California introduced new law in 2010 giving eligible youth the option to remain in foster care and receive services and supports until age 20. The California Youth Transitions to Adulthood Study (CalYOUTH) has been following the progress of a sample of young people in care in 2012, aged 16/17. It investigates: whether extending foster care past age 18 influence youths' outcomes during the transition to adulthood; the factors that influence the types of support youth receive; and how living arrangements and other services that result from extending foster care influence the relationship between extending care and youth outcomes. This report checks in with them again at the age of 23, now that they have been out of the care system for 2 years. The study finds that on average these young people are still faring poorly compared to their age peers across many measures of well-being, including their educational attainment, employment, economic self-sufficiency, physical and mental health, and involvement with the criminal justice system. However, the findings suggest that gender, race, and ethnicity condition these youths' experiences, as they do for all young people in America. Most of the young adults looked back favorably on their experience of care, and were generally satisfied with the life skills training and services they received.

Reducing parental conflict: outcomes framework

Early Intervention Foundation
London : Early Intervention Foundation, 2020.
This conceptual framework highlights the risk factors can influence interparental conflict and the pathways through which it affects children's outcomes. The risk factors fall into three categories - relating to individual parents, the parental relationship, and the family or economic circumstances - which in turn are associated with four categories of child outcomes - social & emotional, physical, cognitive, and behavioural. As well as the framework diagram itself, the document includes a summary of the evidence underpinning the framework, a review of the symptoms, and links to measurement tools which can be used for assessment. This is a revised version of the first outcomes framework which was published in March 2019.

The good, the bad and the lonely : how coronavirus changed Australian family life.

Carroll M, Warren D, Baxter J and Hand K
The Conversation 10 Dec 2020
This article highlights how families have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions, and how they have adjusted. It outlines findings from the first wave of the Families in Australia Survey, which ran from May 1 to June 9 2020, when most Australians were forced to spend more time with some family members, while being separated from others. The article provides an overview of findings relating to staying in contact, feeling connected, sources of support, parents spending more time with their children, juggling work and child care, the impact on finances and financial concerns, and cutting back on essentials. The next wave of the survey has now commenced, and will look at how families are negotiating 'COVID normal'.

The lived experience of COVID-19: housing and household resilience

Horne R, Willand N, Dorignon L and Middha B
Melbourne : Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2020.
COVID-19 has affected existing inequalities in housing and exacerbated vulnerabilities. This report investigates the complex interrelated impacts that COVID-19 is having on households with a range of vulnerabilities. The study took advantage of existing research work, by conducting follow-up interviews with participants from two earlier projects in Victoria. The study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on employment and income loss, housing finances and coping strategies, working or learning from home, changes in eating patterns or grocery shopping, managing energy bills and comfort, family and social relationships, maintaining privacy and achieving intimacy, digital spaces and interactions, healthcare and exercise, social support, and emotional wellbeing and coping with emotional stressors. The findings highlight how COVID-19 has exacerbated vulnerabilities such as poor housing quality and location, housing affordability, energy poverty, and a range of social, mental and physical health conditions. Social isolation was exacerbated in particular, especially for people with weak pre-existing ties and limited digital capability. Digital literacy, inclusion and confidence - together with concerns about online security - reveal uneven capabilities and access to support to achieve social connectedness online.

The intergenerational 'transmission' of income poverty.

Vera-Toscano E
The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey : selected findings from Waves 1 to 18 : the 15th Annual Statistical Report of the HILDA Survey. Melbourne, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2020: 87-93
This chapter provides insights into the intergenerational transmission of income poverty in Australia, using data from the first 18 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, from 2001 and 2018. It examines the extent to which children growing up in income-poor households remain income poor as young adults, and how childhood poverty is associated with broader socio-economic outcomes later in life, including young adults' educational attainment, health and labour market outcomes.

Does poverty in childhood beget poverty in adulthood in Australia?

Vera-Toscano E and Wilkins R
Parkville Vic. : Melbourne Institute, 2020.
This report adds to what is known about the intergenerational transmission of economic disadvantage and entrenched poverty. It looks at whether living in an income-poor household as a child determines a person's outcomes later in young adulthood. Data is taken from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, for social mobility as individuals age along the key dimensions of income, occupation, education and health. The findings confirm that childhood poverty begets adulthood poverty: children from poor households are 3.3 times more likely to suffer adult poverty than those who grew up in households that were never poor. Experiencing just a single year of poverty is associated with poorer socio-economic outcomes in terms of educational attainment, labour market performance and overall life satisfaction. Moreover, it is not only the experience of poverty that determines social mobility: the longer the period of time someone are in poverty as a child, the worse the outcomes in adulthood.

Behind closed doors: the surge in mental distress of parents

Broadway B, Mendez S and Moschion J
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute, 2020.
This report looks into the mental health of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. In particular, it focuses on two key stressors for parents in this time: financial stress - including unemployment of secondary earners in the family and job security stress and - and stress caused by work-family-conflict, including the impact of working from home and school closure on existing work-family-conflict. The report analyses findings from the weekly Taking the Pulse of the Nation Survey, for 3,409 adults aged 25 to 64, using surveys undertaken between 8 June and 3 July 2020. The findings show that parents' mental distress has soared during the COVID-19 crisis, in particular for unemployed fathers, who reported significantly higher distress than unemployed childless men or unemployed mothers. Employed parents of school-aged children also had high levels of distress, even more than unemployed parents.

Families in Australia Survey - Life During COVID-19. Report no. 6, Financial wellbeing and COVID-19

Warren D, Baxter J and Hand K
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2020.
This paper looks at how the COVID-19 restrictions have affected people's finances, as well as the measures they have taken in response and their concerns for their future financial wellbeing. It presents findings from the 'Life during COVID-19' survey, conducted in May-June 2020 with 7,306 adults. Nearly a third of respondents reported a reduction in their personal income and one in four said their partner's income had been reduced. Households with dependent children were particularly affected, with 30% of these families reporting a substantial reduction in income. In response, many respondents were reducing their spending on essential and non-essential expenses rather than increasing debt - even if their income hadn't changed. Other people also reported asking for a pause on their rent or mortgage payments, asking for financial help from friends or family, or contacting a welfare or community organisation.

Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey: insights into the prevalence and nature of impacts from COVID-19 on households in Australia, September 2020

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
This webpage looks at how Australians responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020. It presents findings from a survey of around 1,500 adults, conducted between 11-21 September, regarding changes in the frequency of activities, health precautions taken due to COVID-19, working from home, sources of health information and advice on COVID-19, household finances and actions taken to relieve financial stress, expected changes in spending patterns, receipt and use of JobKeeper and Coronavirus Supplement stimulus payments, school and child care arrangements, and job status. Note, during this period, most states and territories reported no or few new cases of COVID-19 and saw a lessening on restrictions: however, Victoria was still in the midst of a second wave and heavy restrictions. Comparisons are included with prior to March 2020 and between Victoria, New South Wales and the rest of Australia.
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