Financial stress and families

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Financial stress and families in the AIFS library catalogue

Does poverty in childhood beget poverty in adulthood in Australia?

Vera-Toscano E and Wilkins R
Parkville Vic. : Melbourne Institute, 2020.
This report adds to what is known about the intergenerational transmission of economic disadvantage and entrenched poverty. It looks at whether living in an income-poor household as a child determines a person's outcomes later in young adulthood. Data is taken from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, for social mobility as individuals age along the key dimensions of income, occupation, education and health. The findings confirm that childhood poverty begets adulthood poverty: children from poor households are 3.3 times more likely to suffer adult poverty than those who grew up in households that were never poor. Experiencing just a single year of poverty is associated with poorer socio-economic outcomes in terms of educational attainment, labour market performance and overall life satisfaction. Moreover, it is not only the experience of poverty that determines social mobility: the longer the period of time someone are in poverty as a child, the worse the outcomes in adulthood.

Behind closed doors: the surge in mental distress of parents

Broadway B, Mendez S and Moschion J
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute, 2020.
This report looks into the mental health of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. In particular, it focuses on two key stressors for parents in this time: financial stress - including unemployment of secondary earners in the family and job security stress and - and stress caused by work-family-conflict, including the impact of working from home and school closure on existing work-family-conflict. The report analyses findings from the weekly Taking the Pulse of the Nation Survey, for 3,409 adults aged 25 to 64, using surveys undertaken between 8 June and 3 July 2020. The findings show that parents' mental distress has soared during the COVID-19 crisis, in particular for unemployed fathers, who reported significantly higher distress than unemployed childless men or unemployed mothers. Employed parents of school-aged children also had high levels of distress, even more than unemployed parents.

Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey: insights into the prevalence and nature of impacts from COVID-19 on households in Australia, September 2020

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
This webpage looks at how Australians were responding to the COVID-19 pandemic during September 2020. It presents findings from a survey of around 1,500 adults, conducted between 11-21 September, regarding changes in the frequency of activities, health precautions taken due to COVID-19, working from home, sources of health information and advice on COVID-19, household finances and actions taken to relieve financial stress, expected changes in spending patterns, receipt and use of JobKeeper and Coronavirus Supplement stimulus payments, school and child care arrangements, and job status. Note, during this period, most states and territories reported no or few new cases of COVID-19 and saw a lessening on restrictions: however, Victoria was still in the midst of a second wave and heavy restrictions. Comparisons are included with prior to March 2020 and between Victoria, New South Wales and the rest of Australia.

COVID-19 JobKeeper and JobSeeker impacts on poverty and housing stress under current and alternative economic and policy scenarios

Phillips B, Gray M and Biddle N
Canberra, ACT : ANU Centre for Social Research & Methods, 2020.
"Australia has been hit economically, as well as in health terms by the spread of COVID-19. There have been large declines in employment and hours worked, and dramatic restrictions on domestic and international trade. One of the main policy responses has been to increase payments to individuals and households. The major components of this are the temporary COVID Supplementary payment, which substantially increases working age income support payments of many of those who are not working, and the JobKeeper payment, which is a wage subsidy paid to eligible employers of eligible employees. The JobKeeper payment is designed to maintain the link employees have with their employer and to provide income support. In this paper, we estimate a range of measures of poverty and housing stress under different simulated scenarios related to the level of JobSeeker/JobKeeper payments and Australia's economic circumstances. We find that in aggregate terms these changes have reduced measures of poverty and housing stress, with both now below what they were prior to COVID-19. We find that the protective impact has been reduced somewhat by the July policy announcement to make these supplementary payments less generous and also that with the same level of expenditure a greater reduction in poverty and housing stress could have been achieved by a different payment allocation, and in particular by a slightly lower JobKeeper payment and higher other payments."--Author abstract.

Trampolines not traps: enabling economic security for single mothers and their children

Bowman D and Wickramasinghe S
Fitzroy, Vic. : Research & Policy Centre, Brotherhood of St. Laurence, 2020.
This paper investigates what reforms are needed to address the high rates of poverty among one parent families and proposes a framework to guide policy and program efforts. The paper draws on 27 single mothers from Victoria, examining how the government-administered payments of Child Care Subsidy, income support and Child Support helped or hindered their financial wellbeing and the intersections between work, care and social security. The mothers' highlighted issues of the struggle to make ends meet, the clash working more hours and losing income support and concessions, and the stress of a conditional and confusing social security system. Reform is required in multiple interrelated domains: not only in family-friendly, inclusive employment and flexible, affordable quality child care, but also in taxation, social security and child support policy.

The impact of COVID-19 on families in hardship in Western Australia: the 100 Families WA project

Callis Z, Seivwright A, Orr C and Flatau P
Perth, WA : 100 Families WA, 2020.
This report looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting low-income families with entrenched disadvantage in Western Australia. It presents findings from the 100 Families project, for 158 family members who completed a supplementary survey between May and July 2020, following the introduction of economic and social restrictions across the state. The families were asked about health and health service quality, education, labour market outcomes, financial stress and income support, service access and service quality, and the overall impacts of COVID-19. The findings highlight the diverse and immediate impacts of the restrictions on this group. A significant number of families reported struggling with access to medical and community services and levels of stress and anxiety higher than that of the general community. However, the new JobSeeker supplement raised many incomes above the poverty line for the first time, and more than half of the families said the supplement improved their quality of life, reduced stress, and helped to clear their bills.

Poverty in the age of coronavirus: the impact of the JobSeeker coronavirus supplement on poverty : discussion paper

Grudnoff M
Canberra, A.C.T. : The Australia Institute, 2020.
As part of the Federal Government's response to the coronavirus pandemic, unemployment payments were temporarily increased with the introduction of the 'coronavirus supplement', which almost doubled the base rate of JobSeeker payments. This single change lifted 425,000 Australians out of poverty. However, the supplement is due to end on the 24th of September, returning those welfare recipients into poverty. The Australia Institute commissioned this report to look at the impact that the coronavirus supplement has had on the number of people in poverty, the impacts of poverty by age and housing tenure, and the number of people that would be living below the poverty line if the supplement is removed in September. It also looked at the impact on poverty if the supplement of $275 per week is replaced by an increase in the base rate of just $75 per week, as suggested by some groups. The modelling finds that the removal of the supplement will push 650,000 Australians back into poverty including 120,000 vulnerable children, with likely flow on effects for landlords and bank mortgage holders. Though an increase of $75 a week will ameliorate the impacts some what, it would only have a limited effect.

An overview of current mental health in the general population of Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic: results from the COLLATE project

Rossell S, Neill E, Phillipou A, Tan E, Toh W, Van Rheenen T and Meyer D
Cold Spring Harbor, NY : medRxiv, 2020
This paper looks at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and well-being of Australians, including their primary concerns, current levels of negative emotions, and risk factors for negative emotions. It presents findings from a survey of 5,158 adults, conducted on 1-4 April 2020 as the first wave of the 'COvid-19 and you: mentaL heaLth in AusTralia now survEy' (COLLATE) project. The survey found that levels of negative emotion were exceptionally high, in particular for younger respondents, female respondents, single people, and those with a mental illness. Financial stress, essential workers, and those who now had more free time also reported higher levels of negative emotions. The top three concerns of respondents were all related to the health and well-being of family and loved ones. Note, this paper has not yet been reviewed and is intended for submission to a journal.

Practitioners' report on client experiences during COVID-19

Sexual Assault and Family Violence Centre Inc.
Geelong, Vic. : Sexual Assault & Family Violence Centre, 2020.
This sheet presents insights into the impact of COVID-19 on the clients of family violence services in Victoria. It highlights findings from a recent survey of 39 practitioners from the Barwon and Wimmera regions on how clients are experiencing COVID-19, including the form and severity of violence, coping strategies, and associated factors such as unemployment or financial stress. 62% of the practitioners said that clients experienced an escalation in the severity or types of violence, and 72% said clients reported situations of violence that relate specifically to COVID-19.

Financial journeys of Australian parents after separation - transitions into and out of poverty.

Qu L and Weston R
Australian Journal of Social Issues 1 Jun 2020: Advance online publication
This article explores the economic impacts of separation over time. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Separated Families, it looks at poverty rates over four years, transitions into and out of poverty, the factors affecting these pathways, and differences for men and women.

Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey, 12-15 May 2020

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be undertaking a series of surveys into the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic on households. This webpage presents the findings of the fourth survey, which involved 1,002 adults from 12-15 May 2020. Participants were asked about their job situation, eligibility for the JobKeeper payment, whether they had accessed superannuation early, use of temporary payment relief, caring and assistance provided to people inside and outside the household, childcare and schooling arrangements, and temporary living arrangements. Three in four of the respondents with children reported keeping their child home from school or childcare due to COVID-19, while one in five changed their working hours to care for children kept at home - women were almost three times as likely as men to look after children full-time on their own. One in eight of the respondents provided unpaid care to a vulnerable person living outside their household because of COVID-19, such as by shopping or providing of meals.

Household Impacts of COVID-19 Survey, 14-17 Apr 2020

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be undertaking a series of surveys into the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic on households. This webpage presents the findings of the second survey, which involved 1,028 adults from 14-17 April 2020. Participants were asked about financial stress; stimulus payments received and how used; changes to job situation; feelings of emotional and mental wellbeing; and contact with family and friends. Nearly a third of the respondents reported that their household finances had worsened due to COVID-19. Just under half said they had in-person contact with family or friends outside of their household during the previous fortnight, with one third decreasing the frequency of in-person contact due to COVID-19. However, 98% reported contact through other means, such as phone or messaging.

Adequacy of Newstart and related payments and alternative mechanisms to determine the level of income support payments in Australia

Siewert R
Canberra, ACT : Commonwealth of Australia, 2020.
This report presenting the findings and recommendations of an inquiry into the adequacy of unemployment benefits for jobseekers in Australia. Concerns have been raised for over a decade about the adequacy of Newstart and related payments, with many working-age jobseekers living in poverty. The Inquiry investigated: what constitutes an acceptable standard of living; the labour market, unemployment and under-employment; the structural causes of long term unemployment and long term reliance on Newstart; the changing nature of work and insecure work and the appropriateness of current arrangements for supporting those experiencing insecure, inconsistent and precarious employment; current approach to setting income support payments in Australia; impacts on older unemployed workers, families, single parents, people with disability, jobseekers, students, First Nations peoples, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and people living in regional and remote areas; the impact of geography, age and other characteristics on the number of people receiving payments, long term unemployment and poverty; the adequacy of income support payments to allow people to maintain an acceptable standard of living in line with community expectations and obtain employment or training; the economic cost of long-term unemployment, underemployment, poverty inequality and inadequate income support payments; the economic benefits of increasing and improving income support payments and supports; the interactions with other payments and services, including the loss of any increased payments through higher rents and costs; the cost and fiscal sustainability of any changes; the relative merits of alternative investments in health, education, housing and other programs to improve outcomes; and approaches in other countries. The committee recommends the Australian Government immediately undertake a review of the income support system and the Commonwealth Rent Assistance program and work with state and territory governments to ensure immediate increases in funding for emergency relief housing and social housing.

No space in my brain to learn: young carers and their engagement with education : an analysis of applications to the Carers Australia Bursary Program 2017-2018

Moore T, Bourke-Taylor H, Greenland N, McDougall S, Bromfield L, Robinson L and Brown T
Canberra, A.C.T. : Carers Australia, 2019.
Providing care to a family member can take a toll on young people's lives, including on their ability to attend, belong and achieve well at school. To assist carers aged 12-25 years to continue or return to study, the Australian Government established a national Young Carers Bursary Program to help with financial support. The program is administered by Carers Australia and has supported over 1,600 young carers since 2015. This study was commissioned to learn more about the characteristics and lived experiences of young people applying for the scheme, including the barriers that restricted their attendance, achievement and participation, and differences between young people with lower and higher levels of school engagement. The findings highlight how caring responsibilities can affect young people's ability to attend, concentrate and socialise at school, and that these young people have few supports at home or at school and can face additional hardships such as financial stress and social isolation.

The experience of financial hardship in Australia : causes, impacts and coping strategies.

Bourova E, Ramsay I and Ali P
Journal of Consumer Policy v. 42 o. 2 2019: 189-221
This article explores people's experiences of financial hardship. It presents findings from a survey of 1,101 adults on the causes of their hardship, the impact on their lives, the coping strategies they employed to get by financially, and use of services. It also considers differences among those who were single or in relationships, those with mental health issues, and by sources of income. The findings highlight how financial hardship can happen to almost anyone, and how it can impact negatively upon a wide range of aspects including health, relationships, and social inclusion, as well as the ability to afford necessities. The findings are discussed with reference to the broader international literature on financial hardship.

Leave no one behind: what children and young people have said about living in poverty

South Australia. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Commissioner for Children and Young People, 2019.
This report aims provides insight into how children and young people in South Australia understand poverty and makes recommendations to help address its ill effects. It discusses findings from several engagement projects with children and young people undertaken over the last 2 years, regarding the causes, impacts and responses to poverty, the impact of poverty on children and young people and what can be done to eradicate poverty, as well as focus groups with young people with personal experiences of poverty.

Gambling Support Study: understanding gambling harm experienced by female affected others

Whitty M and Paterson M
Canberra ACT : Centre for Gambling Research, Australian National University, 2019.
This report investigates how people who have a partner or close family member with a gambling disorder experience gambling-related harm, and how they can be supported and engaged by gambling help services. It draws on interviews with 15 representatives from gambling support service providers and 30 individuals affected by the gambling of others. The findings highlight the common way in which harm is experienced by gamblers' friends and family members, and the predominance of three main harms: interpersonal, emotional/psychological and financial. At the conclusion of the study, a digital resource was developed, which will be evaluated in a later report. However, initial feedback by study participants is included here in an appendix.

Separation, inter-parental conflict, and family and domestic violence: impact and support needs

Australia's National Research Organisation for Women's Safety Limited, Australian Institute of Family Studies
Sydney NSW : ANROWS, 2017.
A research study has been conducted into the impact of domestic and family violence on parenting capacity and parent-child relationships in Australia. This paper highlights findings from the study on the prevalence of inter-parental conflict and family violence before and after separation and its impact on children, parent-child relationships, parenting capacity, and finances. Data is taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, the Longitudinal Study of Separated Families, and the Survey of Recently Separated Parents. The findings highlight how family violence may be ongoing even after separation, with implications for how support is provided.

Child poverty, child maintenance and interactions with social assistance benefits among lone parent families: a comparative analysis

Hakovirta M
Luxembourg : LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, 2019.
"In many developed countries, lone parent families face high rates of child poverty. Among those lone parents who do get child maintenance there is a hidden problem. States may retain all, or a proportion, of the maintenance that is paid in order to offset other fiscal costs. Thus, the potential of child maintenance to alleviate poverty among lone parent families may not be fully realized, especially if the families are also in receipt of social assistance benefits. This paper provides an original comparative analysis exploring the effectiveness of child maintenance to reduce child poverty among lone parent families in receipt of social assistance. It addresses the question of whether effectiveness is compromised once interaction effects (such as the operation of a child maintenance disregard) are taken into account in four countries - Australia, Finland, Germany and the UK - using the LIS dataset (2013). It raises important policy considerations and provides evidence to show that if policy makers are serious about reducing child poverty, they must understand how hidden mechanisms within interactions between child maintenance and social security systems can work as effective cost recovery tools for the state, but have no poverty reduction impact."--Author abstract.

World family map 2019: mapping family change and child well-being outcomes

Institute for Family Studies (Charlottesville, VA), Wheatley Institution, Social Trends Institute
Charlottesville, VA : Institute for Family Studies, 2019.
The World Family Map report series aims to broaden our understanding about how family characteristics affect children and youth around the world. It will map trends in family structure, family socioeconomics, family processes, and family culture. Information is presented on: living arrangements, marriage and cohabitation, childbearing and fertility, non-marital childbearing, poverty and child poverty, undernourishment, parental education and employment, public spending on family benefits, family life satisfaction, communication and family meals, public attitudes and traditional family values. This 2019 edition provides data from 49 countries from both developed and developing regions, including Australia as available. It also features a special essay, 'The ties that bind: is faith a global force for good or ill in the family?', which addresses that question by considering the relationship between religion and four key family outcomes: relationship quality, fertility, domestic violence and infidelity. The essay uses data from the World Values Survey and the Global Family and Gender Survey, for Argentina, Australia, Chile, Canada, Colombia, France, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The influences of social connectedness on behaviour in young children: a longitudinal investigation using GUiNZ data

Jose P, Stuart J, Pryor J and Ja N
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2019.
This report investigates the relationship between family/whanau vulnerability and preschool children's behavioural and developmental outcomes, and whether social connectedness might act as a protective factor for vulnerable children. Data is taken from the Growing up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) longitudinal study. It found that higher levels of vulnerability in the antenatal period - including maternal education, maternal depression, household overcrowding, household income, household deprivation, and financial stress - were found to predict higher levels of externalising and internalising behaviour, higher levels of illness and developmental problems, and lower levels of prosocial behaviour in children at 4 and half years of age. Children raised in families that had experienced relationship transitions also reported higher externalising and internalising behaviour, and lower prosocial behaviour. Although neither family connectedness nor community connectedness appeared to reduce the impact of risk factors on externalising or internalising behaviour, family connectedness did enhance prosocial behaviour under conditions of low vulnerability. The report also investigated temporal pathways, comparing vulnerability in pregnancy, 9 months, 2 years, and 4.5 years of age. Over time, family connectedness was shown to predict reduced family stress and increased perceived support, both of which, in turn, predicted better behavioural outcomes. Overall, the findings indicate that social connectedness could be a useful protective factor.

Relative income poverty rates and poverty alleviation via tax/benefit systems in 49 LIS countries, 1967-2016

Caminada K, Wang J, Goudswaard K and Wang C
Luxembourg : LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, 2019.
Most welfare states design their tax/benefit system to combat income poverty, but some countries are more effective than others. This paper investigates country variations in the effectiveness of social transfers and income taxes in alleviating poverty, and also whether the redistributive power of different social programs have changed over time. Data is taken from the Luxembourg Income Study for 49 countries, with a detailed analysis for 2013 and a trend analysis for the period 1967-2016. It examines household market income poverty and disposable income poverty, the antipoverty effect of social transfers and income taxes, and the underlying social programs that drive the changes. The analysis finds considerable differences in the poverty reducing effect of social transfers and income taxes across countries. In general, as far as specific social programs are concerned, only three programs account for the bulk of total poverty reduction: old-age/disability/survivor scheme (81%), social programs for family and children (14%), and the unemployment scheme (9%).

Gender equality and poverty are intrinsically linked: a contribution to the continued monitoring of selected Sustainable Development Goals

Nieuwenhuis R, Munzi T, Neugschwender J, Omar H and Palmisano F
Luxembourg : LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, 2019.
"This discussion paper provides an updated analysis of gendered economic inequality in high- and middle-income countries ... Specifically, the paper addresses two sets of questions: First, how do intrafamily resource allocation and distribution patterns both reflect and shape gender inequalities in power and well-being, and what factors - including policy related ones - can mitigate these inequalities? Second, how do families as gendered institutions contribute to broader socio-economic inequalities, and what can be done to reduce/reverse these inequalities? Using data from the [Luxembourg Income Study], this paper shows considerable differences among 42 countries with respect to how likely women were to have their own income. A key finding is that in countries where many women have an income of their own, relative poverty rates are lower. The comparative analyses, combined with a review of the literature, suggest that welfare state arrangements that support working women not only improve the overall employment rates of women but also help to prevent particularly women in low-income households from living in dependence and instead to have an income of their own - thus reinforcing the potential for poverty reduction. Moreover, institutional contexts that are generally conducive to women's employment tend to be effective across family forms."--Summary.

Characteristics and outcomes of childhood abuse.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Personal safety survey, Australia, 2016. Canberra, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019: Spreadsheets
These spreadsheets provide new data from the 2016 Personal Safety Survey, looking into the prevalence of childhood abuse, the characteristics of adults who experienced childhood abuse, and its association with victimisation in later life. Around 21,250 adults from across Australia took part in this survey. Data is provided on different types of abuse, and their association with various later circumstances in adulthood, including relationship history and marital status, education, employment and income, financial stress, socioeconomic status, health, disability, life satisfaction, social support network, and experience of abuse, assault, and intimate partner violence after the age of 15. Multiple incidences of abuse, characteristics of the first incident of abuse, and gender differences are also considered. A key findings is that people who experienced abuse in childhood are at increased risk of experiencing violence as an adult: 71% of people who reported experiencing childhood abuse also experienced violence as an adult, compared with 33% of those who did not experience childhood abuse. This is the first time the Survey has been used to investigate childhood abuse.

Money matters - but so do people : children's views and experiences of living in a 'disadvantaged' community.

Bessell S
Children and Youth Services Review v. 97 Feb 2019: 59-66
This article explores children's views on what makes a strong and supportive community. Surveys were held with 108 children aged 8-12 years old. The findings highlight that though family poverty and inadequate public infrastructure can have a negative impact on children, strong and supportive relationships also play a significant positive role. The findings have implications for community development initiatives.

Life on Newstart Allowance : a new reality for low-income single mothers.

McKenzie H, McHugh C and McKay F
Journal of Family Studies v. 25 no. 1 2019: 18-33
In 2013, welfare support policies for single parents changed in Australia, with many low income mothers moving from a parenting payment to the Newstart Allowance - a payment for jobseekers with stricter conditions and less money. This article explores the financial impact of this policy change, drawing on interviews with 23 women who had been moved to the Newstart scheme.

Material deprivation and capability deprivation in the midst of affluence : the case of young people in Australia.

Redmond G and Skattebol J
Children and Youth Services Review v. 97 Feb 2019: 36-48
This article explores young people's views of material deprivation, focusing on their experience of a lack of adequate food and clothing. It draws on interviews with 193 young people as well as findings from a survey of 5,440 children and young people aged 9-14 years old. The findings highlight how this material deprivation is most apparent among marginalised young people, such as young people with disability, young carers, and Indigenous young people. The findings also highlight Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to deprivation, where the lack of adequate food and clothing denies young people the capability to avoid shame and engage in social participation and education.

The influence of child care on the behavior problems of children of teenage mothers.

Edwards B and Yu M
Children and Youth Services Review v. 94 Nov 2018: 96-104
This article looks at behaviour problems in the young children of adolescent mothers, the role of family stressors, and whether attending centre-based childcare can help. A sample of 317 children aged 1-3 years of age were studied, all born to teenage mothers receiving income support. The article examines prevalence of externalising and internalising behaviour problems and the family stress factors of economic strain, maternal mental health, and harsh parenting. The study found that attending centre-based childcare was associated with a reduction in internalising problems, though not externalising problems.

Gender equality and poverty are intrinsically linked: a contribution to the continued monitoring of selected Sustainable Development Goals

Nieuwenhuis R, Munzi T, Neugschwender J, Omar H and Palmisano F
New York : UN Women, 2018.
"This discussion paper provides an updated analysis of gendered economic inequality in high- and middle-income countries ... Specifically, the paper addresses two sets of questions: First, how do intrafamily resource allocation and distribution patterns both reflect and shape gender inequalities in power and well-being, and what factors - including policy related ones - can mitigate these inequalities? Second, how do families as gendered institutions contribute to broader socio-economic inequalities, and what can be done to reduce/reverse these inequalities? Using data from the [Luxembourg Income Study], this paper shows considerable differences among 42 countries with respect to how likely women were to have their own income. A key finding is that in countries where many women have an income of their own, relative poverty rates are lower. The comparative analyses, combined with a review of the literature, suggest that welfare state arrangements that support working women not only improve the overall employment rates of women but also help to prevent particularly women in low-income households from living in dependence and instead to have an income of their own - thus reinforcing the potential for poverty reduction. Moreover, institutional contexts that are generally conducive to women's employment tend to be effective across family forms."--Summary.

Welfare-to-work interventions and their effects on the mental and physical health of lone parents and their children (Review)

Gibson M, Thomson H, Banas K, Lutje V, McKee M, Martin S, Fenton C, Bambra C and Bond L
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews no. 2 2018: Article no. CD009820
This systematic review assesses the evidence on the impact of 'Welfare-to-work' interventions on the health of lone parents and their children. Lone parents in wealthy countries experience high levels of poverty and ill health, and opinion is divided on whether welfare to work initiatives would alleviate or exacerbate this situation. The article looks into what is known about the impact of such programs on parent or child physical or mental health, as well as economic outcomes such as employment, income, and welfare receipt. The review identified 12 random controlled trials from overseas. Overall, the review concludes that such interventions are unlikely to improve the health of lone parents and their children, and have only small impacts on economic outcomes.
Subscribe to