The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021.
There are concerns the COVID-19 pandemic has increased children's risk of abuse - the government restrictions have increased families' stresses while also limiting interactions with professionals who could detect and report abuse. This report presents preliminary child protection data from March to September 2020, covering the first wave of COVID-19 restrictions in Australia and part of the second wave of restrictions in Victoria. It compares the data to that of 2019, and also looks at risk factors such as parents and children seeking support, unemployment and reliance on income support, financial and housing stress, working and schooling from home, family law parenting disputes, parental mental health and substance use, and domestic violence. The data shows that though risk factors for child abuse and neglect increased during COVID-19 - in particular financial hardship, housing stress and poor mental health - notifications to child protection services fell during the first wave, though they increased once restrictions eased. Public tip-offs about online child sexual exploitation material more than doubled during this period also.
Melbourne : VicHealth, 2020.
Earlier in the year, VicHealth ran a survey to look at the impact of the coronavirus restrictions of March-May 2020 on people's health and wellbeing. However, Victoria has since experienced a second round of further restrictions. This new survey looks at how people are faring in September, with comparisons to findings from the first survey. Just over one thousand adults took part in the this second survey, answering questions about general wellbeing, social connection, physical activity, healthy eating, alcohol consumption and smoking, working, and parenting responsibilities, as well as parents' reports of children's physical activity and healthy eating. The survey found some positive results, with reduced alcohol use, reliance on low-cost unhealthy food, and financial hardship since the first lockdown. However, there was a decline in life satisfaction and wellbeing, and people struggled to both connect socially and keep physically active. Some people were particularly at risk, including people on low incomes, Indigenous people, people in the inner city, and people in communities affected by the Summer Bushfires.
Melbourne : VicHealth, 2020.
This report looks at the impact of the coronavirus restrictions of March-May 2020 on people's health and wellbeing in Victoria. It analyses findings from a survey of 2,000 adults, regarding their health, lifestyle, general wellbeing, social connection, healthy eating, physical activity, financial hardship, smoking, alcohol consumption, working, home life, and parenting responsibilities. Findings are broken down by age, gender, employment, income, location, and community - as well as experience of the Summer Bushfire disaster - and compared to earlier surveys from 2015 and 2017. The findings highlight both negative and positive impacts from the pandemic. However, many people experienced mental wellbeing issues, lower levels of life satisfaction, a rise in food insecurity as well as consumption of sugary and alcoholic drinks, and a large number of people experienced financial hardship.
West Leederville, WA : WACOSS, 2020.
This annual series models the cost of living for vulnerable households in Western Australia, drawing on data from the Financial Counselling Network. It examines the adequacy of income to meet costs, regional variations, and changes over the last 2 years, and focuses on key household types: a single parent family, a working family, an unemployed single person, a retired couple renting a house, and a retired couple who own their own house. This report presents data for 2019/20, which has been rendered more complex by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant changes to income support payments. For the first time, the modelling show the income of an unemployed single person household exceeding their basic living costs: the extra financial support provided under the COVID-19 interventions has had a significant positive impact and has enabled single people to cover the cost of living essentials and manage the ongoing increases in food and rent.
Chicago, Il. : Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2020.
This report looks at the impact of extending foster care supports past the age of 18. Recognizing that this age was too young for most youth to be without support, California introduced new law in 2010 giving eligible youth the option to remain in foster care and receive services and supports until age 20. The California Youth Transitions to Adulthood Study (CalYOUTH) has been following the progress of a sample of young people in care in 2012, aged 16/17. It investigates: whether extending foster care past age 18 influence youths' outcomes during the transition to adulthood; the factors that influence the types of support youth receive; and how living arrangements and other services that result from extending foster care influence the relationship between extending care and youth outcomes. This report checks in with them again at the age of 23, now that they have been out of the care system for 2 years. The study finds that on average these young people are still faring poorly compared to their age peers across many measures of well-being, including their educational attainment, employment, economic self-sufficiency, physical and mental health, and involvement with the criminal justice system. However, the findings suggest that gender, race, and ethnicity condition these youths' experiences, as they do for all young people in America. Most of the young adults looked back favorably on their experience of care, and were generally satisfied with the life skills training and services they received.
London : Early Intervention Foundation, 2020.
This conceptual framework highlights the risk factors can influence interparental conflict and the pathways through which it affects children's outcomes. The risk factors fall into three categories - relating to individual parents, the parental relationship, and the family or economic circumstances - which in turn are associated with four categories of child outcomes - social & emotional, physical, cognitive, and behavioural. As well as the framework diagram itself, the document includes a summary of the evidence underpinning the framework, a review of the symptoms, and links to measurement tools which can be used for assessment. This is a revised version of the first outcomes framework which was published in March 2019.
The Conversation 10 Dec 2020
This article highlights how families have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions, and how they have adjusted. It outlines findings from the first wave of the Families in Australia Survey, which ran from May 1 to June 9 2020, when most Australians were forced to spend more time with some family members, while being separated from others. The article provides an overview of findings relating to staying in contact, feeling connected, sources of support, parents spending more time with their children, juggling work and child care, the impact on finances and financial concerns, and cutting back on essentials. The next wave of the survey has now commenced, and will look at how families are negotiating 'COVID normal'.
Melbourne : Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2020.
COVID-19 has affected existing inequalities in housing and exacerbated vulnerabilities. This report investigates the complex interrelated impacts that COVID-19 is having on households with a range of vulnerabilities. The study took advantage of existing research work, by conducting follow-up interviews with participants from two earlier projects in Victoria. The study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on employment and income loss, housing finances and coping strategies, working or learning from home, changes in eating patterns or grocery shopping, managing energy bills and comfort, family and social relationships, maintaining privacy and achieving intimacy, digital spaces and interactions, healthcare and exercise, social support, and emotional wellbeing and coping with emotional stressors. The findings highlight how COVID-19 has exacerbated vulnerabilities such as poor housing quality and location, housing affordability, energy poverty, and a range of social, mental and physical health conditions. Social isolation was exacerbated in particular, especially for people with weak pre-existing ties and limited digital capability. Digital literacy, inclusion and confidence - together with concerns about online security - reveal uneven capabilities and access to support to achieve social connectedness online.
The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey : selected findings from Waves 1 to 18 : the 15th Annual Statistical Report of the HILDA Survey. Melbourne, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2020: 87-93
This chapter provides insights into the intergenerational transmission of income poverty in Australia, using data from the first 18 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, from 2001 and 2018. It examines the extent to which children growing up in income-poor households remain income poor as young adults, and how childhood poverty is associated with broader socio-economic outcomes later in life, including young adults' educational attainment, health and labour market outcomes.
Parkville Vic. : Melbourne Institute, 2020.
This report adds to what is known about the intergenerational transmission of economic disadvantage and entrenched poverty. It looks at whether living in an income-poor household as a child determines a person's outcomes later in young adulthood. Data is taken from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, for social mobility as individuals age along the key dimensions of income, occupation, education and health. The findings confirm that childhood poverty begets adulthood poverty: children from poor households are 3.3 times more likely to suffer adult poverty than those who grew up in households that were never poor. Experiencing just a single year of poverty is associated with poorer socio-economic outcomes in terms of educational attainment, labour market performance and overall life satisfaction. Moreover, it is not only the experience of poverty that determines social mobility: the longer the period of time someone are in poverty as a child, the worse the outcomes in adulthood.
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute, 2020.
This report looks into the mental health of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. In particular, it focuses on two key stressors for parents in this time: financial stress - including unemployment of secondary earners in the family and job security stress and - and stress caused by work-family-conflict, including the impact of working from home and school closure on existing work-family-conflict. The report analyses findings from the weekly Taking the Pulse of the Nation Survey, for 3,409 adults aged 25 to 64, using surveys undertaken between 8 June and 3 July 2020. The findings show that parents' mental distress has soared during the COVID-19 crisis, in particular for unemployed fathers, who reported significantly higher distress than unemployed childless men or unemployed mothers. Employed parents of school-aged children also had high levels of distress, even more than unemployed parents.
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2020.
This paper looks at how the COVID-19 restrictions have affected people's finances, as well as the measures they have taken in response and their concerns for their future financial wellbeing. It presents findings from the 'Life during COVID-19' survey, conducted in May-June 2020 with 7,306 adults. Nearly a third of respondents reported a reduction in their personal income and one in four said their partner's income had been reduced. Households with dependent children were particularly affected, with 30% of these families reporting a substantial reduction in income. In response, many respondents were reducing their spending on essential and non-essential expenses rather than increasing debt - even if their income hadn't changed. Other people also reported asking for a pause on their rent or mortgage payments, asking for financial help from friends or family, or contacting a welfare or community organisation.
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
This webpage looks at how Australians responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020. It presents findings from a survey of around 1,500 adults, conducted between 11-21 September, regarding changes in the frequency of activities, health precautions taken due to COVID-19, working from home, sources of health information and advice on COVID-19, household finances and actions taken to relieve financial stress, expected changes in spending patterns, receipt and use of JobKeeper and Coronavirus Supplement stimulus payments, school and child care arrangements, and job status. Note, during this period, most states and territories reported no or few new cases of COVID-19 and saw a lessening on restrictions: however, Victoria was still in the midst of a second wave and heavy restrictions. Comparisons are included with prior to March 2020 and between Victoria, New South Wales and the rest of Australia.
Canberra, ACT : ANU Centre for Social Research & Methods, 2020.
"Australia has been hit economically, as well as in health terms by the spread of COVID-19. There have been large declines in employment and hours worked, and dramatic restrictions on domestic and international trade. One of the main policy responses has been to increase payments to individuals and households. The major components of this are the temporary COVID Supplementary payment, which substantially increases working age income support payments of many of those who are not working, and the JobKeeper payment, which is a wage subsidy paid to eligible employers of eligible employees. The JobKeeper payment is designed to maintain the link employees have with their employer and to provide income support. In this paper, we estimate a range of measures of poverty and housing stress under different simulated scenarios related to the level of JobSeeker/JobKeeper payments and Australia's economic circumstances. We find that in aggregate terms these changes have reduced measures of poverty and housing stress, with both now below what they were prior to COVID-19. We find that the protective impact has been reduced somewhat by the July policy announcement to make these supplementary payments less generous and also that with the same level of expenditure a greater reduction in poverty and housing stress could have been achieved by a different payment allocation, and in particular by a slightly lower JobKeeper payment and higher other payments."--Author abstract.
Fitzroy, Vic. : Research & Policy Centre, Brotherhood of St. Laurence, 2020.
This paper investigates what reforms are needed to address the high rates of poverty among one parent families and proposes a framework to guide policy and program efforts. The paper draws on 27 single mothers from Victoria, examining how the government-administered payments of Child Care Subsidy, income support and Child Support helped or hindered their financial wellbeing and the intersections between work, care and social security. The mothers' highlighted issues of the struggle to make ends meet, the clash working more hours and losing income support and concessions, and the stress of a conditional and confusing social security system. Reform is required in multiple interrelated domains: not only in family-friendly, inclusive employment and flexible, affordable quality child care, but also in taxation, social security and child support policy.
Perth, WA : 100 Families WA, 2020.
This report looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting low-income families with entrenched disadvantage in Western Australia. It presents findings from the 100 Families project, for 158 family members who completed a supplementary survey between May and July 2020, following the introduction of economic and social restrictions across the state. The families were asked about health and health service quality, education, labour market outcomes, financial stress and income support, service access and service quality, and the overall impacts of COVID-19. The findings highlight the diverse and immediate impacts of the restrictions on this group. A significant number of families reported struggling with access to medical and community services and levels of stress and anxiety higher than that of the general community. However, the new JobSeeker supplement raised many incomes above the poverty line for the first time, and more than half of the families said the supplement improved their quality of life, reduced stress, and helped to clear their bills.
Canberra, A.C.T. : The Australia Institute, 2020.
As part of the Federal Government's response to the coronavirus pandemic, unemployment payments were temporarily increased with the introduction of the 'coronavirus supplement', which almost doubled the base rate of JobSeeker payments. This single change lifted 425,000 Australians out of poverty. However, the supplement is due to end on the 24th of September, returning those welfare recipients into poverty. The Australia Institute commissioned this report to look at the impact that the coronavirus supplement has had on the number of people in poverty, the impacts of poverty by age and housing tenure, and the number of people that would be living below the poverty line if the supplement is removed in September. It also looked at the impact on poverty if the supplement of $275 per week is replaced by an increase in the base rate of just $75 per week, as suggested by some groups. The modelling finds that the removal of the supplement will push 650,000 Australians back into poverty including 120,000 vulnerable children, with likely flow on effects for landlords and bank mortgage holders. Though an increase of $75 a week will ameliorate the impacts some what, it would only have a limited effect.
Cold Spring Harbor, NY : medRxiv, 2020
This paper looks at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and well-being of Australians, including their primary concerns, current levels of negative emotions, and risk factors for negative emotions. It presents findings from a survey of 5,158 adults, conducted on 1-4 April 2020 as the first wave of the 'COvid-19 and you: mentaL heaLth in AusTralia now survEy' (COLLATE) project. The survey found that levels of negative emotion were exceptionally high, in particular for younger respondents, female respondents, single people, and those with a mental illness. Financial stress, essential workers, and those who now had more free time also reported higher levels of negative emotions. The top three concerns of respondents were all related to the health and well-being of family and loved ones. Note, this paper has not yet been reviewed and is intended for submission to a journal.
Geelong, Vic. : Sexual Assault & Family Violence Centre, 2020.
This sheet presents insights into the impact of COVID-19 on the clients of family violence services in Victoria. It highlights findings from a recent survey of 39 practitioners from the Barwon and Wimmera regions on how clients are experiencing COVID-19, including the form and severity of violence, coping strategies, and associated factors such as unemployment or financial stress. 62% of the practitioners said that clients experienced an escalation in the severity or types of violence, and 72% said clients reported situations of violence that relate specifically to COVID-19.
Australian Journal of Social Issues 1 Jun 2020: Advance online publication
This article explores the economic impacts of separation over time. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Separated Families, it looks at poverty rates over four years, transitions into and out of poverty, the factors affecting these pathways, and differences for men and women.
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be undertaking a series of surveys into the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic on households. This webpage presents the findings of the fourth survey, which involved 1,002 adults from 12-15 May 2020. Participants were asked about their job situation, eligibility for the JobKeeper payment, whether they had accessed superannuation early, use of temporary payment relief, caring and assistance provided to people inside and outside the household, childcare and schooling arrangements, and temporary living arrangements. Three in four of the respondents with children reported keeping their child home from school or childcare due to COVID-19, while one in five changed their working hours to care for children kept at home - women were almost three times as likely as men to look after children full-time on their own. One in eight of the respondents provided unpaid care to a vulnerable person living outside their household because of COVID-19, such as by shopping or providing of meals.
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be undertaking a series of surveys into the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic on households. This webpage presents the findings of the second survey, which involved 1,028 adults from 14-17 April 2020. Participants were asked about financial stress; stimulus payments received and how used; changes to job situation; feelings of emotional and mental wellbeing; and contact with family and friends. Nearly a third of the respondents reported that their household finances had worsened due to COVID-19. Just under half said they had in-person contact with family or friends outside of their household during the previous fortnight, with one third decreasing the frequency of in-person contact due to COVID-19. However, 98% reported contact through other means, such as phone or messaging.
Canberra, ACT : Commonwealth of Australia, 2020.
This report presenting the findings and recommendations of an inquiry into the adequacy of unemployment benefits for jobseekers in Australia. Concerns have been raised for over a decade about the adequacy of Newstart and related payments, with many working-age jobseekers living in poverty. The Inquiry investigated: what constitutes an acceptable standard of living; the labour market, unemployment and under-employment; the structural causes of long term unemployment and long term reliance on Newstart; the changing nature of work and insecure work and the appropriateness of current arrangements for supporting those experiencing insecure, inconsistent and precarious employment; current approach to setting income support payments in Australia; impacts on older unemployed workers, families, single parents, people with disability, jobseekers, students, First Nations peoples, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and people living in regional and remote areas; the impact of geography, age and other characteristics on the number of people receiving payments, long term unemployment and poverty; the adequacy of income support payments to allow people to maintain an acceptable standard of living in line with community expectations and obtain employment or training; the economic cost of long-term unemployment, underemployment, poverty inequality and inadequate income support payments; the economic benefits of increasing and improving income support payments and supports; the interactions with other payments and services, including the loss of any increased payments through higher rents and costs; the cost and fiscal sustainability of any changes; the relative merits of alternative investments in health, education, housing and other programs to improve outcomes; and approaches in other countries. The committee recommends the Australian Government immediately undertake a review of the income support system and the Commonwealth Rent Assistance program and work with state and territory governments to ensure immediate increases in funding for emergency relief housing and social housing.
Canberra, A.C.T. : Carers Australia, 2019.
Providing care to a family member can take a toll on young people's lives, including on their ability to attend, belong and achieve well at school. To assist carers aged 12-25 years to continue or return to study, the Australian Government established a national Young Carers Bursary Program to help with financial support. The program is administered by Carers Australia and has supported over 1,600 young carers since 2015. This study was commissioned to learn more about the characteristics and lived experiences of young people applying for the scheme, including the barriers that restricted their attendance, achievement and participation, and differences between young people with lower and higher levels of school engagement. The findings highlight how caring responsibilities can affect young people's ability to attend, concentrate and socialise at school, and that these young people have few supports at home or at school and can face additional hardships such as financial stress and social isolation.
Journal of Consumer Policy v. 42 o. 2 2019: 189-221
This article explores people's experiences of financial hardship. It presents findings from a survey of 1,101 adults on the causes of their hardship, the impact on their lives, the coping strategies they employed to get by financially, and use of services. It also considers differences among those who were single or in relationships, those with mental health issues, and by sources of income. The findings highlight how financial hardship can happen to almost anyone, and how it can impact negatively upon a wide range of aspects including health, relationships, and social inclusion, as well as the ability to afford necessities. The findings are discussed with reference to the broader international literature on financial hardship.
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Commissioner for Children and Young People, 2019.
This report aims provides insight into how children and young people in South Australia understand poverty and makes recommendations to help address its ill effects. It discusses findings from several engagement projects with children and young people undertaken over the last 2 years, regarding the causes, impacts and responses to poverty, the impact of poverty on children and young people and what can be done to eradicate poverty, as well as focus groups with young people with personal experiences of poverty.
Canberra ACT : Centre for Gambling Research, Australian National University, 2019.
This report investigates how people who have a partner or close family member with a gambling disorder experience gambling-related harm, and how they can be supported and engaged by gambling help services. It draws on interviews with 15 representatives from gambling support service providers and 30 individuals affected by the gambling of others. The findings highlight the common way in which harm is experienced by gamblers' friends and family members, and the predominance of three main harms: interpersonal, emotional/psychological and financial. At the conclusion of the study, a digital resource was developed, which will be evaluated in a later report. However, initial feedback by study participants is included here in an appendix.
Sydney NSW : ANROWS, 2017.
A research study has been conducted into the impact of domestic and family violence on parenting capacity and parent-child relationships in Australia. This paper highlights findings from the study on the prevalence of inter-parental conflict and family violence before and after separation and its impact on children, parent-child relationships, parenting capacity, and finances. Data is taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, the Longitudinal Study of Separated Families, and the Survey of Recently Separated Parents. The findings highlight how family violence may be ongoing even after separation, with implications for how support is provided.
Luxembourg : LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, 2019.
"In many developed countries, lone parent families face high rates of child poverty. Among those lone parents who do get child maintenance there is a hidden problem. States may retain all, or a proportion, of the maintenance that is paid in order to offset other fiscal costs. Thus, the potential of child maintenance to alleviate poverty among lone parent families may not be fully realized, especially if the families are also in receipt of social assistance benefits. This paper provides an original comparative analysis exploring the effectiveness of child maintenance to reduce child poverty among lone parent families in receipt of social assistance. It addresses the question of whether effectiveness is compromised once interaction effects (such as the operation of a child maintenance disregard) are taken into account in four countries - Australia, Finland, Germany and the UK - using the LIS dataset (2013). It raises important policy considerations and provides evidence to show that if policy makers are serious about reducing child poverty, they must understand how hidden mechanisms within interactions between child maintenance and social security systems can work as effective cost recovery tools for the state, but have no poverty reduction impact."--Author abstract.
Charlottesville, VA : Institute for Family Studies, 2019.
The World Family Map report series aims to broaden our understanding about how family characteristics affect children and youth around the world. It will map trends in family structure, family socioeconomics, family processes, and family culture. Information is presented on: living arrangements, marriage and cohabitation, childbearing and fertility, non-marital childbearing, poverty and child poverty, undernourishment, parental education and employment, public spending on family benefits, family life satisfaction, communication and family meals, public attitudes and traditional family values. This 2019 edition provides data from 49 countries from both developed and developing regions, including Australia as available. It also features a special essay, 'The ties that bind: is faith a global force for good or ill in the family?', which addresses that question by considering the relationship between religion and four key family outcomes: relationship quality, fertility, domestic violence and infidelity. The essay uses data from the World Values Survey and the Global Family and Gender Survey, for Argentina, Australia, Chile, Canada, Colombia, France, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, the United Kingdom, and the United States.