Intermarriage

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Loving diversity : living in intercultural couple relationships.

Hiew D, Halford W and Liu S
Abela, Angela, ed. Walker, Janet, ed. Contemporary issues in family studies : global perspectives on partnerships, parenting and support in a changing world. Chichester, West Sussex : Wiley Blackwell, 2014. 9781119971030: 87-99
In this text book of contemporary issues in family studies, this chapter examines the complexities faced by couples from distinctly different cultures.

Japanese women marriage migrants today: negotiating gender, identity and community in search of a new lifestyle in western Sydney

Hamano T
2011.
"This thesis explores the rise and transformation of Japanese migration to Australia since the 1980s. This thesis particularly investigates the experience of Japanese women marriage migrants: women who have immigrated to Australia through marriage to a local partner. Based on participant observation with a Japanese ethnic association in Sydney's west between 2007 and 2009, and on in-depth interviews with the association's members, this thesis examines the ways in which the women re-mould themselves in Australia by constructing gendered selves which reflect their unique migratory circumstances through cross-national marriage ... This thesis examines the stories of Japanese women marriage migrants after their migration to Australia, discovering that the women tend to take recourse to expressions of Japanese femininity that they once viewed negatively, and that this is tied to their lack of social skills and access to the cultural capital of mainstream society. Re-moulding the self through conventional Japanese notions of gender ironically provided them with a convincing identity, that of a minority migrant woman."--Author abstract, P. vi.

Japanese women, marriage migration and cultural identity : thinking through globalisation, diaspora and transnationalism.

Takeda A and Matthews J
Lockie, Stewart, ed. The future of sociology : 2009 TASA Conference : the annual conference of The Australian Sociological Association. Canberra : TASA, 2009. 9780646525013: 11p
Marriage migration is a growing field of study which focuses predominately on women in general and third world women in particular. Most studies of marriage migration and international marriage offer detailed accounts of international mobility and call on theories of globalisation, diaspora and/or transnationalism to explain the phenomenon. This paper takes the historical and contemporary case of Japanese women marriage migrants to Australia to examine insights offered by these three approaches. In particular the paper shows how notions of diaspora and transnationalism offer useful ways to conceptualise the identity and mobility of past and contemporary marriage migrants whose physical, virtual and emotional connectivity zigzags back and forth from homeland to new home. The implications of this uneven situation for cultural and national identity is that at different points in time identities lapse and are renewed and revived in relation to different historical, economic and social conditions.

Parenting 'mixed' children: negotiating difference and belonging in mixed race, ethnicity and faith families

Caballero C, Edwards R and Puthussery S
York, England : Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2008.
"Couples from different racial, ethnic and faith backgrounds and their 'mixed' children are increasingly visible in the public eye. But, while more and more is known about those who themselves form the 'mixed' population of Britain, knowledge about their parents is less prevalent. Who are they and what are their experiences of bringing up their children? This report discusses the findings from a research study that looked at the increasing practice of parenting mixed children in the British context. It aims to provide insights into how parents from different backgrounds negotiate bringing up their children."

Pre-marriage preparation for interfaith couples.

Schutz D
Threshold no. 89 Apr 2007 26-28
Special considerations exist for the marriage celebrant in a marriage between partners from different religions. Pre marriage preparation presents an important opportunity for the celebrant to facilitate agreement on questions such as: whether one partner should convert to the religion of the other; to what extent the partners understand the religion of the other; whether the decision to continue in their faith will be respected by the other partner; how the children will be brought up; acceptance by the family and community of the other; the ceremony; forming a spiritual unity despite the differences.

Observing different faiths, learning about ourselves: practice with inter-married Muslims and Christians.

Furlong M and Ata A
Australian Social Work v. 59 no. 3 Sep 2006 250-264
The present article offers practitioners initial ideas for work with clients in mixed-faith relationships. Based on local, empirical research that investigated Muslim-Christian marriages, six patterns of adaptation to a mixed-faith marriage are outlined. In addition, from a practice-oriented review of the data, four questions are identified that can be used by practitioners to clarify their thinking and practice focus. Increasingly technical, these reference questions are: (i) how is the public-private divide being understood and managed; (ii) how is identity and selfhood being practiced; (iii) how may practitioners position themselves with respect to asymmetries related to gender; and (iv) should religious differences be reframed? Rather than practitioners seeking to be experts on the other, the belief animating the current contribution is that work with diverse clients offers workers a mirror upon which practitioners can better observe their own outlines. In contrast with the pursuit of imperial generalisations, the authors of the present study commend the benefits of reflectively denaturalising practitioners' own positions.

Mixed marriages: Catholic/non-Catholic marriages in Australia.

Ata A
Ringwood, Vic : David Lovell Publishing, 2005
Challenges in marriages between Catholics and Christians of another denomination are explored in this book. It presents results from interviews with 100 Victorians in Catholic and other Christian marriages. The book discusses the dynamics of inter faith marriages, demographic characteristics, forces behind Catholic and other Christian marriages, adjustment to and complications of inter faith marriages, attitudes to discrimination and related variables, and attitudes to children relating to identity and sharing responsibility.

Supporting interchurch marriages.

Andrews K
Threshold no. 84 Jul 2005 30-31
Research has indicated that religious commitment is one factor in determining marital stability. In the light of an increasing incidence of interfaith marriages, this article discusses the importance of supporting spouses in such marriages. It suggests that churches should adopt and promote a common policy to encourage couples to participate in marriage preparation.

Do couples who pray together stay together?

Walters K
Threshold no. 84 Jul 2005 25-27
What role does religion play in family stability? This article examines questions relating to the effect of religion on family life, discussing: healthy couples; religious home life; marital well being; divorce and separation; interfaith marriages; consequences for marriage educators.

Questions you should consider before intermarrying.

Joanides C
Threshold no. 84 Jul 2005 21-23
Drawing on the results from an interfaith research study survey carried out in the United States, this article discusses issues associated with marriage between people of different religions. It raises questions for engaged couples to consider, such as whether they are both Christians, whether they have been honest with their fiance and themselves about what they can and cannot tolerate, how they will practise their religions once they are married, financial commitments to their churches, how the religious traditions and religious identities of their children will be established.

There are no rules.

Robinson B
Threshold no. 84 Jul 2005 14-15
Seven techniques for resolving religious differences in a marriage are proposed in this article. They are: withdrawal, where both spouses withdraw from organised religious activity; conversion, where one spouse adopts the religion of the other; compromise, where both spouses convert to a third religion; multi faith, where both spouses participate in both religions; ecumenical, where the spouses merge their religious traditions; diversity, where spouses pursue their own religions; do nothing, where one or both spouses ignore irritants due to religious or cultural differences. The article then discusses specific issues that may arise in inter faith families with children.

The I do's and don'ts of intercultural marriage.

Kahlenberg R
Threshold no. 84 Jul 2005 11-13
Spouses in intercultural marriages can be faced with additional challenges in their relationship that derive from cultural differences. This article discusses some aspects of intercultural marriages, and offers suggestions for dealing with specific difficulties arising from differing cultural attitudes towards child rearing, in laws, religion, and other issues.

Mental health over the life course.

National Council on Family Relations.
Minneapolis, Minn. : National Council on Family Relations, 2004.

Christian-Muslim intermarriage in Australia : identity, social cohesion or cultural fragmentation.

Ata A
Ringwood, Vic. : David Lovell Publishing, 2003.
Intermarriage is the best indicator of whether a group is fully integrated into the mainstream community, the author argues. He discusses the dynamics of Christian Muslim inter faith marriages, cross religious misunderstandings, demographic characteristics, forces behind Christian Muslim marriages, adjustment and complications of inter faith marriages, attitudes to discrimination and attitudes to children, including questions of identity and sharing responsibilities.

Filipino women and their citizenship in Australia: in search of political space

Tibe-Bonifacio G
2003.
"This research examined the meaning and practise of Australian citizenship in the lives of migrant Filipino women in Australia. It utilized the life story approach and participant observation in Sydney and Wollongong. The narratives were analysed using a combination of feminist theoretical models of women's citizenship to underscore the different ways they construct a political space in negotiating their subject position as wives, mothers, paid workers, volunteers, electors, and members of community groups. Filipino women have a high valuation of Australian citizenship. Their motivations to become Australian citizens are not only based on the practical benefits derived from that status vis a vis retaining their Philippine citizenship but also the idea of belonging to the Australian community ... This research explored three spaces where Australian citizenship is practised - the home, the workplace, and the community ... Filipino women have dual identities- a Filipino identity and an Australian identity as citizens. These two identities coexist in their lives. A Filipino identity is directed towards a particular social unit, the family; while an Australian identity is directed towards an abstract state perceived to be multicultural."--Author abstract.

Mixed matches: interracial marriage in Australia.

Owen J
Sydney, NSW : University of New South Wales Press, 2002
While there is no lack of research undertaken on intermarriage between men and women of different ethnic origins in post war Australia, few publications have been able to provide what is provided in this publication - a deep understanding by the author of what can happen between individual persons, and in particular families, when interracial marriages occur. This book begins with a discussion of the history of interracial marriage from the days of early European settlement through to contemporary Australia. At its core are interviews with more than 100 mixed race couples from all over the country, and many of their adult or near adult children. The couples describe their experiences and emotions, and how they have adjusted or learned to accept the differences between them. Chapters include: interracial marriages from 1788 to 1900; interracial marriages from from 1901 to 1950; interracial marriages in the 1950s; interracial marriages in the 1960s; 1960s marriages with mixed-race children; interracial marriages in the 1970s; 1970s marriages with mixed-race children; 1970s - marriages and parental disapproval; Aboriginal interracial marriages in the 1970s; 1980s - marriages between Christians; interracial marriages in the 1980s; 1980s - mixed-race families in Darwin; interracial marriages in the 1980s and 1990s; and modern marriages of the 1990s.

Mixed marriages: interracial marriage in Australia.

Duncan Owen J
Sydney Papers v. 14 no. 3 Winter 2002 176-184
The author describes the process of writing her book, 'Mixed matches', which looks at how interracial marriages fit into society and history. She looks at the historical context of interracial marriages during European settlement of Australia and during the last two centuries. She discusses the many difficulties of being in an interracial marriage, including different educational and language backgrounds, different cultural behaviours and values, religion, and having children. She also considers hidden racism and the experiences of mixed race children.

Marriage education in the Greek community.

Fouras M
Threshold no. 65 Winter 2000 18
Marriage education for people from a Greek speaking background needs to be approached creatively and with cultural sensitivity, states the author. She identifies some of the issues that need to be considered, including those in mixed marriages, marriages between first generation migrants and second generation migrants, and the significance of parental interference, and offers ideas on how to make marriage education succeed within the Greek community.

Cross-cultural marriage education and counselling: exploring the challenges.

Petrovic A
Threshold no. 65 Winter 2000 16-17,27
Issues that are important in marriage education and counselling with different cultural groups are canvassed in this article. The author identifies some possible issues for migrants and refugees, stressing the need to remember that the theme of loss is invariably present. Discussion includes cultural bias, power imbalance between practitioner and client, cross cultural marriages, and power imbalance within a relationship.

Where do they belong? Experience of inclusion, exclusion and identity formation in Australians of mixed ethnic parentage.

Barnes D
In: 'Promoting Inclusion - Redressing Exclusion: the Social Work Challenge' conference proceedings, Joint Conference of the AASW, IFSW, APASWE and AASWWE, September 1999. Barton, ACT: Australian Association of Social Workers, 1999, v.1, p137-142
Arguing that the process of finding a comfortable personal identity remains challenging for most racially and culturally mixed children and adolescents, this paper addresses questions of whether their mixed parentage is an asset or a liability, whether they are included or excluded from ethnic communities and whether this impacts on their self image. The findings of a non random sample of young people from a wide array of ethnic mixes are discussed, with reference to Australia's policy of multiculturalism.

Interethnic families in Australia.

Carrington V
University of Queensland Family Centre Newsletter no. 2 Jun 1998 5
This article reports on a qualitative sociological research project on inter ethnic families. The project's focus has been on the ways in which cross racial and cross cultural families create family specific cultural practices and manage to develop functional families in the face of various experiences of discrimination and community alienation. To develop an insight into the ways in which these families successfully combine differing cultural practices, issues of child rearing, gender roles, experiences of racism, and a sense of identity are all discussed with participating families in semi structured interviews.

Growth and distribution of Indigenous people.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian social trends, 1998. Belconnen, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1998 ABS no. 4102.0 1321-1781: 15-17
This chapter presents statistics on the growth and distribution of Indigenous people, as well as discussing issues in demography. The 1996 Indigenous population count has increased by 55% since 1986, in part reflecting the greater willingness of people to report their Indigenous origin on the census form. Topics discussed include: size and distribution, population growth, components of growth, and the identification of children within mixed race families.

The hyphens: placing intercultural identity on the conceptual map.

Loza J
In: Alexander, M. et al, eds. Refashioning sociology: responses to a new world order: The Australian Sociological Association (TASA) conference proceedings. Brisbane, Qld: QUT, 1998, p459-464
Arising from the author's interviews with twenty daughters from intercultural unions aged 18 years and above and their mothers, this paper attempts to determine what spaces, terms and labels are available within current discourse for daughters from intercultural unions to situate and speak their identities. The author notes that there are no appropriate terms for children from intercultural unions in Australia to situate or speak their identities. Different approaches to theorising intercultural identity are examined and include privileging sameness, or dominant group identity; and privileging difference, or minority group identity. The author argues that the spaces between sameness-difference, Australian-ethnic: the hyphens, offer sites where children from intercultural unions can situate their identities. It is in the hyphens that children from intercultural unions are released from bounding traits ascribed to sameness or difference.

The interethnic family in 1990s Australia.

Carrington V
Family research - pathways to policy : fifth Australian Family Research Conference : Brisbane, November 1996. Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 1996: 17p
Issues of interethnicity in the Australian context have tended to be addressed in terms of quantifiable demographic trends and patterns. While these studies are undoubtedly valuable, their ability to chronicle the cultural changes which are accompanying this demographic transition is problematic. This paper draws upon the initial twelve months of a three year Australian Research Council study designed to examine the cultural dynamic within interethnic families. In particular, this study has focussed upon the ways in which these families negotiate cultural difference and issues of language retention, interact with the community, cope with racism and prejudice, and raise their children. Available demographic information indicates that the trend towards the formation of interethnic families is increasing significantly as Australia heads toward the turn of the century, and yet, there is little evidence of moves by educational or social service providers to formally address the special nature of these families. Within the presentation, the study is outlined to date, establishing its scope and objectives. A summary of interviews and demographic information is presented along with extracts from interview transcriptions. Based upon interview and demographic data, a number of thematic strands are identified and examined in closer detail to demonstrate the emergence of what is described as cultural 'bricolage' and associate patterns of mediation.

Filipino families in Australia.

Soriano G
Hartley, Robyn, ed. Families and cultural diversity in Australia. St Leonards, NSW : Allen and Unwin in assoc. with the Australian Institute of Family Studies, 1995. 1863738967: 96-120
This chapter provides a general picture of the Filipino family in Australia and its structure, relationships and values. The author begins by describing the recent waves of Filipino emigration to Australia. The needs and concerns of Filipino brides and Filipino families where both partners are Philippine-born or of Filipino origin are discussed in relation to: employment and education, Filipino values including fellowship, the importance of feelings, religion, courtship, marriage and separation, intercultural marriages, household responsibilities, family breakdown, children and child rearing, generational authority and respect, discipline, adolescence and young adulthood, and growing old. Other issues addressed include: overseas family responsibilities and obligations, social networks, and intercultural marriage pressures including domestic violence.

For wedded bliss: the satisfaction of migrant partners of Australian residents.

Brown P
BIPR Bulletin no. 11 Apr 1994 21-23
The movement of people internationally for the purpose of marriage is a relatively modern phenomenon. The psychological consequences for people whose marriage involves migrating to a different country can be significant. This article looks at the relationship between satisfaction with marriage and satisfaction with migration. The purpose of the research project which underpins this article was to explore the satisfaction of people who migrated because of their marriage to Australian partners. The study of international marriages is important as it is becoming a more common factor in international mobility. Insights into the dynamics of interpersonal adaptation in situations of cultural conflict are useful for the helping professions and developing appropriate settlement services.

Religious identification and marriage.

Gariano A
People and Place v. 2 no. 1 1994 41-47
Religious intermix, like ethnic intermix, is an indicator of the effects of multiculturalism. The question of marriage across religious boundaries has long been vexed in Australian society. This study uses unpublished 1991 census data to analyse the extent to which contemporary Australians are influenced by religion in their choice of partner. Data indicate that religious intermixing in Australia is only numerically significant amongst dominant religious groups. It is, however, particularly high for de facto relationships where it seems that religious adherence has little effect on choice of partner.

Intermarriages in international contexts: a study of Filipina women married to Australian, Japanese and Swiss men.

Cahill D
Quezon City, Philippines : Scalabrini Migration Center, 1990
This study examines the intermarriages between Filipinas and their male partners drawn from three different nations, namely, Australia, Japan and Switzerland. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the number of married Filipinas who have moved overseas, whether married to a Filipino or a non-Filipino; to survey the experiences of married Filipinas in their adjustment in the receiving country; to identify the critical factors for successful marital and family adjustment in the receiving country; and to describe the support systems that contribute towards the successful adjustment of the Filipina woman and her family. Methodology included a review of the academic literature, a gathering of data based on a structured questionnaire from support agencies, both government and non-government, and a survey of intermarried Filipina women and their marriage partner living in the three selected countries, together with a survey of Filipino couples living in Australia as a comparison group. Discussion on Filipina intermarriage includes the demographic and labour market perspective, the psychosocial perspective, press coverage and government response, and religious and social support perspectives.

The life style of Australian-Japanese families living in metropolitan Sydney in 1990 with attention to child rearing practices and the maintenance of Japanese culture and traditions

Selby N
Armidale, N.S.W. : Integrating Asian Study Program, University of New England, 1990.
This study comprised interviews with ten middle class Australian-Japanese families living in metropolitan Sydney in 1990. Five couples were Australian men married to Japanese women, and five Japanese men married to Australian women. The questionnaire covered topics such as, family reaction to marriage, family planning, birth, health, naming of children, child rearing and discipline, Japanese culture and traditions, language, role sharing, communication between couples, religion, and discrimination.

Aboriginal child care.

Watson L
In: ANZAAS. Congress (57th: 1987: James Cook University of North Queensland). Women in isolation: collected papers. Townsville, Qld: Department of Behavioural Sciences, James Cook University of North Queensland, 1989, p112-114
Aboriginal children do not just belong to their biological parents, they belong to their kinship group and their community. Colonisation has undermined this very positive aspect of Aboriginal society by taking the responsibility for child rearing away from Aborigines. The author insists that the care and control of Aboriginal children must remain within the Aboriginal and Islander communities. Discussed are the importance of Aboriginal controlled child care, the fostering of Aboriginal children by Aboriginal and Islander foster parents, the setting up of Aboriginal and Islander schools and problems associated with mixed marriages. A case in which a white father sought custody of his two black daughters from a mixed marriage and the grandmother contested the custody is described.
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