Living arrangements

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Living arrangements in the AIFS library catalogue

As millennials near 40, they're approaching family life differently than previous generations: three-in-ten Millennials live with a spouse and child compared with 40% of Gen Xers at a comparable age

Barroso A, Parker K and Bennett J
Washington, D.C. : Pew Research Center, 2020.
This report compares trends in family formation across the generations in America, focusing particularly on when and if young adults in the 'Millennial' generation are meeting the same milestones. Data is taken from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the U.S. Census Bureau's monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) of approximately 60,000 households. In 2020, Millennials range in age from 24 to 39, a stage of life where marriage and parenthood have traditionally been common. This report looks at how Millennials are forming their own families - focusing on living arrangements, marriage rates and birth rates - and compares Millennials to previous generations at the same age: that is, Millennials in 2019, Gen Xers in 2003, Baby Boomers in 1987, and members of the Silent Generation in 1968. The analysis finds that Millennials are less likely to have achieved these milestones: they are less likely to have a family of their own than previous generations were at the same stage of life and are getting married and having children at an older age, if at all.

Treating all children equally?: why policies should adapt to evolving family living arrangements

Miho A and Thevenon O
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2020.
"Modern family life brings with it profound changes to children's family living arrangements. An increasing number of children live with unmarried parents whose informal cohabitation implies unequal rights in terms of access to welfare benefit and social protection programmes compared to those in married life. In addition, children experiencing family dissolution are increasingly likely to share their time between the two homes of the separated parents, and/or to live in a stepfamily. The family living arrangements that result from these trends are very diverse and generally not well identified by official statistics, as well as their consequences on families' living standards. This paper takes stock of the trends in children's family living arrangements based on available international statistics and calls for the development of data that more accurately and reliably reflect children's family situation and its economic consequences. It also discusses adaptations of social protection systems to ensure that all children receive support appropriate to their concrete family living arrangements, and to guarantee that children in a non-traditional family setting are treated on an equal footing vis-a-vis children with married parents. The paper particularly discusses issues raised by the fact that children whose parents live together informally do not always have the same legal and economic security as children of married couples. It also reviews challenges associated with the fact that parents are increasingly sharing custody of their children after separation."--Publisher abstract.

Coresidence among older adults and their adult children

Eickmeyer K and Brown S
Bowling Green, OH : National Center for Family & Marriage Research, Bowling Green State University, 2019.
This paper looks into the characteristics of households in the United States where parents live with adult children. It compares the coresidential status of parents aged 60 and older across three decades, and children aged over 40, using data from the 1988-2018 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. In 2018, nearly 8% of older adults lived with a midlife adult child, and may be a response to parents' health difficulties or financial insecurity.

Single, cohabiting, and married households: 1995, 2012, and 2019

Hemez P
Bowling Green, OH : National Center for Family & Marriage Research, Bowling Green State University, 2019.
This paper uses explores changes in the shares of single, cohabiting, and married-couple households in the United States between 1995 and 2019. It compares data from 1995, 2012 and 2019 from the Current Population Survey and also reports on differences by age, race-ethnicity, and educational attainment. In 1995, the majority of households (54%) were married-couple households, but this share has been in decline and is now at 47% in 2019. This change is most pronounced among those aged 15-24, where the proportion of married-couple households was halved between 1995 and 2019. Overall, the share of cohabiting-couple households more than doubled (141% increase) between 1995 and 2019.

Children's family structure, 2019

Payne K
Bowling Green, OH : National Center for Family & Marriage Research, Bowling Green State University, 2019.
This paper compares changes in children's living arrangements in the United States from 2013 to 2019. Data is taken from the 2019 March Current Population Survey for children under the age of 18. The majority of children were living with two biological parents (64%) in 2019, and, of those, the large majority were living with married parents rather than cohabiting parents (94% vs. 6%). The second most common family type was single parent families (22%), with the majority of these with a single mother (86%) rather than a single father (14%). Nearly one-in-ten children was living in a stepfamily (9%). There are only slight changes since 2013. Wide variations exist at the state level, for example, the share of children living with two married biological parents ranges from 42% in Mississippi to 81% in Utah.

Families and households in the UK, 2019

Great Britain. Office for National Statistics
Newport, Wales : Office for National Statistics, 2019.
This annual series provides information on trends in living arrangements in the United Kingdom, including families, couples, households, people living alone, young adults living with their parents, and people in shared accommodation. Estimates are based on social survey data from the latest Labour Force Survey household dataset. This edition presents the latest information for 2019, with some trends since 1999 and regional differences. In 2019, there were 19.2 million families, with two thirds being married or civil partner couples. The number of people living alone has increased by a fifth over the last 20 years, driven mainly by increases in men aged 45 to 64 years living alone. Though multi-family households are the smallest share of households, they are the fastest growing household type in the UK.

Living alone in Canada

Tang J, Galbraith N and Truong J
Ottawa, Ontario : Statistics Canada, 2019.
"This study uses the Census of Population and the 2017 General Social Survey on Family to examine the characteristics of the population living alone in Canada. The demographic, socioeconomic and housing characteristics of persons who live alone are examined, as well as their conjugal history, family relationships, and well-being indicators. The number of persons living alone in Canada has more than doubled over the last 35 years, from 1.7 million in 1981 to 4.0 million in 2016. Solo dwellers represented 14% of the population aged 15 and over living in private households in 2016, up from 9% in 1981. In recent decades, the number of persons living alone has grown fastest among adults aged 35 to 64. Reflecting this shift, persons living alone in 2016 were more likely to be male and separated or divorced than in the past ... Despite living alone in their usual place of residence, solo dwellers may nonetheless have close connections with loved ones: in 2017, the majority of these individuals had at least one child, and one-third of those aged 20 to 34 were in a Living Apart Together (LAT) relationship with a partner. Most young adults who lived alone in 2017 intended to either form a union or have a child in the future, suggesting that they consider this lifestyle to be a temporary arrangement."--Overview.

World family map 2019: mapping family change and child well-being outcomes

Institute for Family Studies (Charlottesville, VA), Wheatley Institution, Social Trends Institute
Charlottesville, VA : Institute for Family Studies, 2019.
The World Family Map report series aims to broaden our understanding about how family characteristics affect children and youth around the world. It will map trends in family structure, family socioeconomics, family processes, and family culture. Information is presented on: living arrangements, marriage and cohabitation, childbearing and fertility, non-marital childbearing, poverty and child poverty, undernourishment, parental education and employment, public spending on family benefits, family life satisfaction, communication and family meals, public attitudes and traditional family values. This 2019 edition provides data from 49 countries from both developed and developing regions, including Australia as available. It also features a special essay, 'The ties that bind: is faith a global force for good or ill in the family?', which addresses that question by considering the relationship between religion and four key family outcomes: relationship quality, fertility, domestic violence and infidelity. The essay uses data from the World Values Survey and the Global Family and Gender Survey, for Argentina, Australia, Chile, Canada, Colombia, France, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Use of homelessness services by contemporary ex-serving Australian Defence Force members 2011-17: summary report

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
This resource presents statistics on the use of homelessness services by the more recent generation of Australian Defence Force veterans. The Department of Veterans Affairs commissioned this report, which links data from the Specialist Homelessness Services Collection and information from the Department of Defence staff and payroll management system for ex-serving ADF members who had been in service after 2001. Between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2017, 1,215 of these veterans used specialist homelessness services, representing 1.1% of this population: women, younger people, or people with less ADF experience were more likely to be clients of these services. Reasons for seeking support included accommodation, financial, and interpersonal relationships reasons. Sections include: How many ex-serving ADF members used specialist homelessness services?; How does SHS use by ex-serving ADF members compare with use by the Australian population?; How are ex-serving ADF SHS clients different to other ex-serving ADF members?; What were the characteristics of ex-serving ADF SHS clients when they first sought support?; Where did ex-serving ADF SHS clients access support?; What was the housing status of ex-serving ADF SHS clients when they sought support?; How much support did ex-serving ADF SHS clients receive?; and Why did ex-serving ADF SHS clients seek homelessness services?; and What services did ex-serving ADF SHS clients need, and what services did they receive? Technical notes are also provided.

Housing occupancy and costs, 2017-18

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019.
This website presents information on levels of housing occupancy and costs in Australia, estimated from the Survey of Income and Housing (SIH). It provides spreadsheets on housing occupancy, housing costs as a proportion of income, household composition, housing utilisation, rental affordability, lower income households, recent home buyer households, residential property ownership, and state and territories. In 2017-18, around two thirds of households owned their own home with or without a mortgage, a slight decrease from the previous year, while the proportion of households renting their home increased slightly. One in five households owned one or more additional residential properties.

Households and family life.

Lass I
The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey : selected findings from Waves 1 to 17 : the 14th Annual Statistical Report of the HILDA Survey. Melbourne, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2019: 6-28
This chapter explores changes in three aspects of family life in Australia: trends in living arrangements and household types; the use of paid formal child care and after school care; and the characteristics of 'interethnic' couples - that is, couples where partners were born in different countries. Data is taken from the first 17 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, which were conducted between 2001 and 2017. Information is presented on: proportion of individuals in each household type, change in living arrangements over the life course, use of formal child care by family type and age of child, the characteristics of parents who use child care - including education level and attitudes to parenting, difficulties in accessing child care, expenditure on child care, number of interethnic couples, interethnic relationships among migrants and second generation Australians, characteristics of people living in an interethnic relationship, main language spoken in interethnic couples, and division of child care and housework among interethnic couples. In terms of household types, living arrangements have been relatively stable across the 17-year study period, with most households still containing a couple with dependent children.

Household and family projections, Australia 2016 to 2041

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019.
This website provides projections of the number of households, families, and living arrangement types for Australia over the next 2 decades. The projections are not intended as predictions or forecasts, but are illustrations of growth and change in the population that would occur if one of three hypothesised assumptions about future living arrangements of Australia's population were to prevail over the projection period. Projections are presented nationally and for states, territories, capital cities, and regions. Family households are projected to remain the most common household type in Australia, with couples with children expected to decrease very slightly and single-male-parent families projected to increase significantly. Between 3.0 and 3.5 million Australians are projected to be living alone in 2041. The website discusses the findings with further detail provided in spreadsheets.

Young adults in the parental home, 2007 & 2018

Payne K
Bowling Green, OH : National Center for Family & Marriage Research, Bowling Green State University, 2019
This fact sheet looks at trends in young people staying at home over the last decade in America. Data is taken from the Current Population Survey from 2007 and 2018, and presented in the form of charts. Not all young adults who co-reside with a parent are single, some are cohabiting or married and living with either their own or their partner's parents. In 2018, 33% of young adults aged 18-34 were living in a parent's home, up from 29% in 2007.

A profile of Australia's veterans 2018

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018.
Though people who join the military are required to be in good health, the unique experience of military service means many veterans face health and welfare challenges above those of the general Australian population. This report outlines what is known about veterans' health and welfare in Australia, and provides a baseline for reporting and monitoring for this important population. It looks at socioeconomic characteristics, overall health, lifestyle risk factors, and use of health and welfare services, with information provided on housing, social support, education and skills, employment, income and finance, justice and safety, mortality, self-assessed health status, disability, health conditions, smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, overweight and obesity, and use of primary care, medicines, hospital care, mental and specialised health care, and aged and community care services. The report also discusses data sources, gaps in the data, and how they might be addressed.

Population and households

Australian Institute of Family Studies
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2018.
This webpage presents some charts on trends in population and households in Australia, using the latest statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The charts are: proportions of population aged 0-14 years and 65 years and over, 1901-2017; average household size, 1911-2016; families with and without children - 1976 and 2016; and proportion of family types, 1976-2011. In 1976, couple families with children made up nearly half of families (48%) - by 2016, this had gone down to a little over a third of families (37%).

Children's housing experiences.

Warren D
Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children - annual statistical report 2017. Melbourne : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2018: 9-24
This chapter provides an overview of the variety of housing circumstances that children experience in Australia. Using data from 'Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children' (LSAC), it provides information on the types of housing that children live in, whether their parents own or rent, mortgages and costs, the condition of their homes, neighbourhood liveability, how often they relocate, the impact of family separation on housing, and rates of short-term or ongoing housing stress, inadequate housing, and overcrowding. Changes from infancy to adolescence are also included, as are differences by socioeconomic status, between rural and urban areas, and with general population data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. By age 14-15, only 22% of these children had remained in the same home for their entire life - 22% had moved once and 56% had lived in three or more homes since birth. These moves were often due to a parent separating or re-partnering: of children who moved house around the time of their parents' separation, 41% moved into a situation of housing affordability stress.

Indigenous NSW: findings from the 2016 Census

Angus C
Sydney, N.S.W. : NSW Parliamentary Research Service, 2018.
This paper provides a snapshot of how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples compare with non-Indigenous residents across a range of key indicators. It presents data from the 2016 Census along with comparisons from the 2006, 2011 and 2016 censuses, regarding population, age, gender, languages, disability, unpaid care, family composition, household composition, income, home ownership, education, employment, youth employment, and occupation. The paper also compares data from 3 regions - Sydney, the Greater Metropolitan Region, and regional New South Wales - to show how location affects outcomes. While the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and between regions, remains significant, trends over the past decade show improvements in most of the indicators.

Households and family life.

Lass I
The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey : selected findings from Waves 1 to 16 : the 13th Annual Statistical Report of the HILDA Survey. Melbourne, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2018: 6-26
This chapter explores changes in three aspects of family life in Australia: household living arrangements; the use of paid child care for preschool children; and the characteristics of 'large' families with three or more children. Data is taken from the first 16 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, which were conducted between 2001 and 2016. Information is presented on: trends in household types; proportion of individuals in different household types one year later - that is, household changes from one year to the next; paid child care for children not yet in school; use of paid child care by parents' labour force status; other types of child care used by these parents; weekly hours of paid care used; expenditure on child care; households by number of children across OECD countries in 2015; proportion of families by size and parent partner status; family characteristics in families of different sizes, including parent age and education, parent relationship status, same-sex families, relationship satisfaction, employment and financial situation, Indigenous status and country of birth, region, child age, and religiosity and traditional attitudes about marriage and children.

Estimating homelessness, Australia 2016

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018.
This publication presents estimates of the prevalence of homelessness from the 2016 Census, with comparisons to data from the 2001, 2006, and 2011 Censuses. It also looks at people whose living arrangements are close to the statistical boundary of homelessness, but who are not classified as homeless, as well as their characteristics and living arrangements. Three key groups are youth, people displaced due to domestic and family violence, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. In the 2016 Census, there were 116,427 people classified as being homeless - a rise of 4.6% over the last five years and a rate of 50 homeless persons for every 10,000 persons.

Census 2016 : location and education affects how many children you have.

Evans A and Gray E
ANU Newsroom 27 Jun 2017
Using new statistics from 2016 Australian Census of Population and Housing, this news item highlights recent trends in the nature of families in Australia. The census counted 6.1 million families in Australia in 2016. As well as the increase in cohabitation, there are also increasing numbers of people in an intimate relationship with a person with whom they do not live. This figure is hidden in the census however, and other research estimates that about 25% of the reported 'single' population are actually partnered. Couples reporting a same-sex relationship has also increased, up 39% from 2011. The census also reveals how having children is not distributed evenly across the population, with differences by location and education. Women are increasingly having fewer or no children - 17% of women aged 40-44 are childless.

Families and households, 2017

Great Britain. Office for National Statistics
Newport, Wales : Office for National Statistics, 2017.
This annual series provides information on trends in living arrangements in the United Kingdom, including families, couples, households, people living alone, young adults living with their parents, and people in shared accommodation. Estimates are based on social survey data from the latest Labour Force Survey household dataset. This edition presents the latest information for 2017, with some trends since 1996. In 2017, there were 19.0 million family households, 27.2 million households in total, and 3.9 million people living alone in the United Kingdom.

World family map 2017: mapping family change and child well-being outcomes

Social Trends Institute, Institute for Family Studies (Charlottesville, VA)
New York : Social Trends Institute, 2017.
The World Family Map report series aims to broaden our understanding about how family characteristics affect children and youth around the world. It will map trends in family structure, family socioeconomics, family processes, and family culture. Information is presented on: living arrangements, marriage and cohabitation, childbearing and fertility, non-marital childbearing, poverty and child poverty, undernourishment, parental education and employment, public spending on family benefits, family life satisfaction, communication and family meals, public attitudes and traditional family values. This 2017 edition provides data from 49 countries from both developed and developing regions, including Australia as available. It also features a special essay, 'The cohabitation go-round: cohabitation and family instability across the globe', which compares children's experience of instability and family transitions in cohabitating and married families, drawing on data from the United States and 16 European countries. The essay finds that children born into cohabiting families are more likely to see their parents split by age 12 than children born into married families in almost every country. However, these children do at least experience far fewer family transitions than children born to single women. Previous editions of this series were produced by Child Trends Inc.

Snapshot of Australia : 2016 Census data summary.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Reflecting Australia : stories from the Census, 2016. Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017.
This article presents the first findings from the 2016 Australian Census, providing a quick portrait of the country in terms of where we live, how old we are, where we were born, our religion, income, living arrangements and our housing. The 2016 Census counted 23.4 million people living in Australia, an increase of 8.8% since the 2011 Census. More than two-thirds of private households had one family living in them: despite remaining the most commonly reported type of household, the proportion of one family households has continued to decrease in the last 25 years. The 2016 Census counted 6.1 million families across Australia: again, though couple families with children remains the most common type of Australian family in 2016, this proportion has decreased over time.

Changing perceptions of family : a study of multigenerational households in Australia.

Easthope H, Liu E, Burnley I and Judd B
Journal of Sociology v. 53 no. 1 Mar 2017: 182-200
Though one in five people in Australia currently live in a multigenerational household, this type of living arrangement is not considered 'the norm' in our culture. This article explores the perceptions of people living in such households, focusing on whether they feel this living arrangement is socially accepted, issues of dependence or housing affordability, and whether social expectations around the form and role of families has changed over time. Surveys were conducted with 392 people living in multigenerational households in Sydney and Brisbane, as part of a broader study.

Australia revealed, 2016: Census of Population and Housing

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017.
This webpage presents the first findings from the 2016 Australian Census. It provides a quick portrait of the country in terms of population, ageing, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, migrant background, religion, median income, home ownership and housing density, and families and households. Overall, there are more of us, we're living longer, becoming more urbanised, more diverse, less religious, living closer together, earning more, and forming the same type of family unit. On that last point, family composition changed little between 2011 and 2016: there more than six million families in Australia on Census night - up from over five million families in 2011 - with about 45% of these families being couples with children, 38% were couples without children, and 16% were single parent families. Of all single-parent families, female single parents make up 82%, and male single parents make up 18%. There were more than 47,000 same-sex couples in 2016 - up from 33,000 in 2011 - and almost one in four people now live in single person households too.

Families and households in the UK, 2016

Great Britain. Office for National Statistics
Newport, Wales : Office for National Statistics, 2016.
This annual series provides information on trends in living arrangements in the United Kingdom, including families, couples, households, people living alone, young adults living with their parents, and people in shared accommodation. Estimates are based on social survey data from the latest Labour Force Survey household dataset. This edition presents the latest information for 2016, with some trends since 1996. In 2016, there were 18.9 million family households, with 12.7 million of these being married or civil partner couple families. Note, civil partnerships were introduced in 2005 and marriage was amended to include same sex couples in 2014. There were 13.9 million dependent children living in families in the UK in 2016: the number living in lone parent families has changed little over the last decade but the number in cohabiting couple families has increased by about 10% while the number in married couple families has fallen proportionately.

Australia's ageing population - special series

Australian Institute of Family Studies
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2016
This webpage provides a snapshot of older people in Australia, drawing largely on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and the Productivity Commission. Topics include: Caring for an ageing population; Population; Living arrangements; Health; Family and friends; Technology and the internet; Government-funded services; Older people as providers; and What about the future? The number of Australians aged 85 and over is projected to more than quadruple by 2050, from around 0.4 million in 2010 to 1.8 million.

How we live now : Australian families at a glance.

Dunn A, Jeyaratnam E and Jackson-Webb F
The Conversation 24 May 2016
As part of a series of article on major changes in families and relationships, this page presents an assortment of statistics and infographics on families and households in Australia. These include: household types, changes in households types over the last few decades, average household size, children in different family types, adults who have had children, number of same sex couples, living arrangements of same-sex attracted people, age specific marriage rates, proportion of people living together before marriage, duration of marriages that end in divorce, divorces involving children, the age of first having a child, and the proportion of children born to unmarried parents. Data is taken largely from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Institute of Family Studies. Families make up 71.5% of all households in Australia.

The modern Australian family

Baxter J
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2016.
The Facts Sheet provides a range of statistical information on families in Australia today. It explores the different phases of family - from the families we live in as children to the families we form as we grow older - as well as some of the stressors we face and who we turn to for support. Data is taken from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), and the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Topics include: children's living arrangements, contact with separated parents, changes in living arrangements across young adulthood, contact with parents and siblings in adulthood, attitudes to marriage and cohabitation, relationship status across different age groups, sources of support, living arrangements of refugees and migrants, and reported stressors. This Facts Sheet has been prepared to celebrate the 2016 National Families Week, with this year's theme being 'Stronger Families, Stronger Communities'.

Journey's Home research report no. 6: complete findings from Waves 1 to 6

Bevitt A, Chigavazira A, Herault N, Johnson G, Moschion J, Scutella R, Tseng Y, Wooden M and Kalb G
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, 2015.
The Journeys Home longitudinal study aims to investigate the factors affecting housing stability and the causes and consequences of homelessness in Australia. This report analyses findings from the full six waves of the study to investigate the risk and protective factors associated with homelessness, the characteristics that distinguish those entering homelessness, the factors that are important in the road out of homelessness, the length of time that people experience homelessness, the role of geographic factors, and service usage patterns. Topics include: overall experiences of homelessness; family history and exposure to violence; current family circumstances and support; education, employment and income support; homelessness and criminality; health and wellbeing; and housing and labour markets of areas. It also presents findings from special topics collected in Wave 6: dependent children, children's school attendance, sleep quality and homelessness, mobile phone use, and internet access.
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