Parenting in middle childhood and adolescence

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See more resources on Parenting in middle childhood and adolescence in the AIFS library catalogue

Sources of ethnicity differences in non-cognitive development in children and adolescents

Nguyen H, Connelly L, Thu Le H, Mitrou F, Taylor C and Zubrick S
Indooroopilly, Qld. : Life Course Centre, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, 2019.
Though research has found that children of Asian immigrants have better academic performance than their native-born counterparts in many English-speaking countries, how well are they faring in other, non-cognitive developmental outcomes? Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), this paper looks at the outcomes of pro-social behaviour, hyperactivity and inattention, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer-relationship problems, comparing children with at least one Asian-born parent, children with two Australian-born parents, and children with at least one parent from another immigrant background, for children aged from 6/7 to 14/15 years old. A particular focus is whether the home environment, parental investments, or children's efforts are associated with any differences. The study finds large differences between the children. However, the results vary significantly by trait, child age, and by whether a parent or teacher made the assessment.

Crossover of parents' work-family conflict to family functioning and child mental health.

Vahedi A, Krug I and Westrupp E
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology v. 62 May/Jun 2019: 38-49
This article investigates whether parents' work-family conflict affects parenting and their children's mental health. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, it compares mothers' and fathers' sense of work-family conflict, inter-parental conflict, and parenting irritability, and children's mental health and behaviour problems from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years of age. It finds evidence of the mediating role of parenting irritability in the association between work-family conflict and children's externalising problems, with differences by parent gender and child age, with mothers' work-family conflict showing a more persistent influence over time.

A systematic review of technology-assisted parenting programs for mental health problems in youth aged 0-18 years : applicability to underserved Australian communities.

Hansen A, Broomfield G and Yap M
Australian Journal of Psychology 1 Apr 2019: Advance online publication
This article looks at whether technology-assisted programs may present an effective alternative to face-to-face programs for helping parents address their children's mental health problems. A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials of technology-assisted parenting programs targeting mental health problems in children and young people aged 0-18 years old. The review found some evidence supporting their use but further research is required, particularly to assess whether technology can help engage groups who rarely access face to face programs, such as fathers and rural families.

Parenting in the digital age

Australia. Office of the eSafety Commissioner
Australia : eSafety Commissioner, 2019
Previous research in Australia found that over half of young people turn to their parents when something negative has happened online, but how well can parents help? This report presents the findings of a survey of 3,520 parents on their experiences and knowledge about the risks and sources of support online. It investigates parents' views on the main risks of children using the internet, their awareness of their children's negative online experiences and how they've responded, their attitudes to the internet, parenting style, where they go for online safety information, and their online safety information needs. Though almost all of these parents regarded their child's online safety as being important, only 46% felt confident to deal with potential online threats and only the same number again knew where to get help. The three most common areas of concerns reported were exposure to inappropriate content other than pornography, contact with strangers, and being bullied online. The findings also provide insights into how parents assess and react to their children's experiences and the information they find most useful in guiding children through their experiences.

Handbook of parenting and child development across the lifespan.

Sanders M and Morawska A
Cham, Switzerland : Springer, 2018.
This book explores how parents and parenting influence child development. The topics are: How parents influence children's development; The effects of parenting on children's development; Determinants of parenting; Tasks and challenges of parenting and child development across the lifespan; Supporting parenting; and Implications for policy and practice. The chapters, many written by Australian academics, include: The importance of parenting in influencing the lives of children; Biological factors in parenting and child development; Parent?child relationships and attachment; Social learning influences: modelling, instructions, consequences; Effects of the parents' relationship on children; The role of fathers in supporting children's development; Trauma and parenting: considering humanitarian crisis contexts; Parenting and human brain development; Effects of parenting on young children's language and communication; The effects of parenting on emotion and self-regulation; Peer and sibling relationships; Schooling and academic attainment; Children?s health, physical activity, and nutrition; Children with developmental disorders; Child characteristics and their reciprocal effects on parenting; Self-regulation and parental mental health; Parental cognitions: relations to parenting and child behavior; Family structure and the nature of couple relationships: relationship distress, separation, divorce, and repartnering; Social support and relationships with family and friends; Cultural background and religious beliefs; Work, poverty, and financial stress; Long-distance parenting: the impact of parental separation and absence due to work commitments on families; Communities, neighborhoods, and housing; Policies and services affecting parenting; Preparation for parenthood; Parenting of infants and toddlers; Parenting of preschool and school-aged children; Parenting of adolescents and emerging adults; Parenting of adult children: a neglected area of parenting studies; Parenting and carer responsibilities during the later years; The impact of poverty and discrimination on family interactions and problem development; Role of universal parenting programs in prevention; Parenting and family intervention in treatment; Towards a comprehensive, evidence-based system of parenting support over the lifespan; Economic benefits of sustained investments in parenting; and Future directions for research, policy, and practice

Surviving adolescents 2.0 : the must-have manual for all parents.

Carr-Gregg M and Robinson E
Melbourne, Vic. : Penguin Life, 2018.
This book offers parents advice on managing their children's transition from childhood to young adulthood. It includes strategies on effective communication, defusing family conflict, setting limits, keeping the stress of parenting at bay and avoiding common mistakes, and provides advice on issues including risk taking, sexuality, and home work. This edition updates and revised the original 2005 version.

Parent-related stress of male and female carers of adolescents with intellectual disabilities and carers of children within the general population : a cross-sectional comparison.

Patton K, Ware R, McPherson L, Emerson E and Lennox N
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities v. 31 no. 1 Jan 2018: 51-61
Carers of children with intellectual disability experience high rates of stress. This article investigates whether demographic and social characteristics play a mediating role, comparing two types of carers: those who care for an adolescent with an intellectual disability and carers of children within the general population. Data was taken from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) study and the Ask study. The findings indicate that social support, relationship status, and financial status help buffer parenting-related stress.

Seen and heard: embedding the voices of children and young people who have experienced family violence in programs for fathers

Lamb K
This thesis explores children and young people's views on fathering in the context of family violence, and whether their views could enhance family violence behaviour change programs. Though fatherhood is often used as a motivator to engage fathers in programs to address their violence, the content of these programs may not always support improved parenting or relationships with children. Furthermore, children and young people are seldom involved in any way with the program and evaluations of such programs rarely consider the outcomes for children. This thesis comprised three stages: interviews and focus groups with 16 children and young people, a digital storytelling workshop, and a feasibility workshop with practitioners. In the interviews, the children and young people revealed strong views on what constituted 'a good father', describing good communication, meaningful engagement, trustworthiness, protection and good role modelling as important attributes. In contrast, they described their own fathers as disinterested in their lives, emotionally abusive, frightening and controlling, and highlighted the impact of their father's use of coercive control tactics on their everyday lives, relationships, and plans for the future. A common theme was the need for reparation and for their fathers to 'make amends' for their violence. In the next stage of the thesis, eight young people attended a digital storytelling workshop where they made three minute digital stories on their key messages for fathers who use violence. These digital stories were then shown at a workshop run with 21 program facilitators and managers working with men who use violence, regarding the use, feasibility, and possible impacts of incorporating children's stories and voices in their programs.

Relative/kinship and foster care: a comparison of carer and child characteristics.

Delfabbro P
Ashfield, NSW : NSW Dept. of Family and Community Services, 2017.
This report presents a new analysis of baseline data from the Pathways of Care longitudinal study (POCLS) of out of home care in New South Wales. It looks at the differences between foster care and kinship care, in terms of the characteristics, service needs and vulnerabilities of carers and the characteristics, wellbeing and outcomes of children who are placed into these types of care. The findings are discussed in the context of other research into out of home care. The findings highlight differences in the care environment that these children will grow up in, from their age, health, and finances of the carers to the style of parenting they exhibit. It also finds that children placed with grandparents tend to be faring better developmentally and in terms of their socio-emotional functioning: however, it is not possible to draw causal conclusions about the relationship between different types of care and child outcomes at this stage.

Interparental conflict and outcomes for children in the contexts of poverty and economic pressure

Acquah D
London : Early Intervention Foundation, 2017.
A previous study explored the impact of parents' relationships - regardless of whether they are together or separated - on children's outcomes. This report extends that study by investigating inter-parental conflict in the context of poverty and economic pressure. It summarises the latest research on what is known about the links between poverty, economic pressure, family processes, and child and adolescent development, then examines the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions implemented in the United Kingdom and overseas aimed at improving inter-parental relationships and outcomes for children from families in or at risk of poverty. The findings highlight how poverty and economic stress affect the quality of inter-parental relationships, which in turn impact on child outcomes. The report concludes with some recommendations for research, policy, and practice.

Role of positive parenting in the association between neighborhood social disadvantage and brain development across adolescence.

Whittle S, Vijayakumar N, Simmons J, Dennison M, Schwartz O, Pantelis C, Sheeber L, Byrne M and Allen N
JAMA Psychiatry v. 74 no. 8 2017: 824-832
This article investigates whether growing up in a disadvantaged neighbourhood has a negative effects on young people's brain development, and whether positive parenting provides a buffer. Data is taken from a longitudinal study held from 2004 to 2012 in Melbourne, Victoria, with participants aged 11 to 20 years old. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were undertaken in early, middle, and late adolescence, and data on parent and neighbourhood disadvantage were also collected, as well as observations of positive maternal parenting behaviours. The study finds that growing up in a disadvantaged neighbourhood may have negative effects on children's brain development, but for males, at least, positive parenting negated these effects.

Negative reactivity and parental warmth in early adolescence and depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood.

Lloyd B, Macdonald J, Youssef G, Knight T, Letcher P, Sanson A and Olsson C
Australian Journal of Psychology v. 69 no. 2 Jun 2017: 121-129
Reactive temperaments - in particular with intense, frequent or excessive negative reactions - appear early in life and pose a risk for depressive symptoms. As there is evidence suggesting that relationships between negative reactivity and adolescent depressive symptoms may be moderated by parental warmth, this article explores this further with data from the Australian Temperament Project. It investigates risk and protective factors in early adolescence at age 13-14 years old and depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood at age 19-20 years old, with a particular interest in gender differences.

The effect of low parental warmth and low monitoring on disordered eating in mid-adolescence : findings from the Australian Temperament Project.

Krug I, King R, Youssef G, Sorabji A, Wertheim E, Le Grange D, Hughes E, Letcher P and Olsson C
Appetite v. 105 Oct 2016: 232-241
This article investigates whether parenting style is associated with eating disorders in adolescence. Using data from the Australian Temperament Project, for 1,300 children in Victoria, it compares low parental warmth and monitoring at 13-14 years old and later disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction by 15-16 years old. The article discusses the findings and the differences among boys and girls.

ReachOut Parents: informing a new digital service for parents of teenagers in Australia

ReachOut Australia
Pyrmont, NSW : ReachOut Australia, 2016.
ReachOut Parents is a new digital service that aims to improve young people's mental health and wellbeing by supporting and informing their parents. It combines practical support and tips that encourage effective communication and relationships, easy-to-read information on a range of mental health and wellbeing issues, and a peer-to-peer forum for parents. This paper describes some of the research activities undertaken to inform the content and design of the service. Drawing on a literature review, focus groups and co-design workshops, and online survey of parents and young people, the project garnered information on how young people wanted their parents to help them, the issues parents wanted help with, how parents use technology when seeking help, how they wanted the support and advice presented to them, and barriers to help seeking.

Carer parenting practices and children's relationships with their carer's family: what does the Pathways of Care Longitudinal Study tell us?

New South Wales. Dept. of Family and Community Services
Ashfield, NSW : NSW Dept. of Family & Community Services, 2016.
This paper explores relationships and parenting practices in out of home care, highlighting findings from the Pathways of Care Longitudinal Study from New South Wales. It looks at carers' and children's views of parenting practices, parenting style, and parenting efficacy, as well as overall relationship quality with carer and relationship with other children in the household, for children aged from 9 months to 17 years old. Some practice resources to help case workers support parenting are also noted.

Australian parenting and adolescent boys' and girls' academic performance and mastery : the mediating effect of perceptions of parenting and sense of school membership.

Phillipson S and McFarland L
Journal of Child and Family Studies v. 25 no. 6 Jun 2016: 2021-2033
This article adds to the evidence on how parenting relates to adolescents' academic outcomes. It investigates whether parenting behaviours - including parental warmth, anger, consistency and self-efficacy - are related to adolescents' academic performance and mastery, and whether this relationship is mediated by the adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their sense of school membership. Data was taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Gender differences are discussed.

Dynamics of parental work hours, job insecurity, and child wellbeing during middle childhood in Australian dual-income families

Lam J, O'Flaherty M and Baxter J
Indooroopilly, Qld : Life Course Centre, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, 2016.
Though parental employment provides important resources for children's wellbeing, it may also be associated with parental time availability, stress levels, and family relations. This paper looks at the relationship between parental employment characteristics and child well-being during middle childhood in dual-earner families, using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). It examines changes in the association between parental work hours, job insecurity and child wellbeing, within and across parent-child relationships, and consider gender differences and possible mediators, including measures of parenting style and work-family balance.

Intergenerational relations in newly-arrived communities in Victoria: a pilot study report

Mansouri F, Ben-Moshe D and Johns A
Carlton, Vic. : Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria, 2015.
This scoping study explores the nature of relations between parents and adolescents in newly-arrived migrant communities in Victoria as families negotiate the challenges of migration, settlement, and integration. Young people in particular face tensions from the multiple cultural influences on their identity. The study aims to identify key issues for policy and practice development, and the specific supports needed to help improve intergenerational relations and settlement. It draws on a review of the literature as well as roundtables with community members and agencies. The roundtables considered: the cultural challenges facing newly emerging and migrant communities; the reasons behind financial stress within these communities; parent concerns over the influence of friends and teachers on children; and language barriers between young people and their parents.

Parenting adolescents : developing strategies for FIFO parents.

Lester L, Waters S, Spears B, Epstein M, Watson J and Wenden E
Journal of Child and Family Studies qv. 24 no. 12 Dec 2015: 3757-3766
This article looks at issues in parenting adolescents in fly-in-fly-out (FIFO) work families and the effectiveness of an online parenting resource for these families. The study involved 21 partners, 23 workers, and 41 adolescents from FIFO families in Western Australia. The families described parental monitoring, behaviour management, relationship quality, communication strategies, and parent and adolescent mental health, and coping with the challenges of FIFO work patterns. The barriers to seeking support were also discussed.

Parents as advocates for the psychosocial survival of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

Lewis P, Mooney-Somers J, Jordens C and Kerridge I
Journal of Child and Family Studies v. 24 no. 4 Apr 2015: 872-881
This article explores the impact of cancer diagnosis, treatment and survival during adolescence and young adulthood on the practice and experiences of parenting - in particular parent advocacy for their child's care. Focus groups were held with 22 parents of young people diagnosed with various cancers between the ages of 11 and 19 years old.

Parenting in a new culture : a parenting guide for families from culturally diverse communities in Australia.

Kaur J and McInnes K
Preston, Vic. : Spectrum MRC Inc., 2014.
Written for new migrants in Australia, this parenting guide provides information and support on raising a children in a new country. It discusses: the challenges and opportunities of parenting in Australia; the different ideas and values that children will be exposed to; Australian laws about children and parents' legal obligations to protect children from harm; child developmental stages; and parenting adolescents.

Strictly parenting : everything you need to know about raising school-aged kids.

Carr-Gregg M
Melbourne : Viking, 2014.
In our desire to give our children the best, we may have given them way too much, and overlooked the importance of setting boundaries. This book asks parents to be their child's parents and not their best friends. It reviews parenting styles and the rise of 'crap' parenting, discusses key developmental stages, and presents the author's top parenting tips for building resilient, well-developed children. The book concludes with advice of common issues, from chores to choosing a school, to body-piercing and self-harm.

Tricky teens : how to create a great relationship with your teen - without going crazy!

Fuller A
Warriewood, N.S.W. : Finch Publishing, 2014.
This book provides advice on how parents can help their children - and themselves - through the critical development period of adolescence. It features information on normal adolescent development pathways and what to expect, helping young people with common issues, and parenting strategies and alternatives. The book also offers encouragement to parents to stay positive through what can be a stressful time.

Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal youth : an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

Hopkins K, Zubrick S and Taylor C
PLoS ONE v. 9 no. 7 Jul 2014: e102820
This article investigates the factors that promote resilience or protect psychosocial development in Australian Aboriginal young people. Using findings from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS), it compares adolescents from low- and high-risk families and identifies the independent influence of individual, peer, family, neighborhood and cultural factors, in including racism, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, prosocial friendship, parenting, family unemployment, exposure to violence, self-esteem, and self-regulation. The article describes distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors.

Parenting teens and tweens: resources for policy and practice

Child Family Community Australia, Australian Institute of Family Studies
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2014.
Middle childhood and adolescence - also known as the "tween" and "teen" years - are important periods on the journey to adulthood. This document presents key statistics and resources on the issues facing these children and young people, as well as Australian programs that can support families and good parenting during this period.

Mothers' and fathers' work hours, child gender, and behavior in middle childhood.

Johnson S, Li J, Kendall G, Strazdins L and Jacoby P
Journal of Marriage and Family v. 75 no. 1 Feb 2013: 56-74
This article examines the association between typical parental work hours and children's behaviour. It tests the hypotheses of a detrimental relationship between long work hours and child behaviour and that behaviour problems are due to reduced parent-child time, over-reactive parenting, and family dysfunction. Drawing on data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, the article examined father and mother working hours - from 0 to 55+ hours per week, time spent by mothers and fathers in child care, over-reactive parenting, internalising and externalising behaviour problems in children, and stressful life events.

Assessing contemporary parenting dimensions: development and psychometric investigation of the Parenting Behaviours and Dimensions Questionnaire

Reid C
This thesis develops and tests a new comprehensive and psychometrically sound self-report measure of parenting, for use with parents of preadolescent children. This new 'Parenting Behaviours and Dimensions Questionnaire' (PBDQ) is also used to address some of the questions in the literature relating to the generalisability and universality of parenting theory and assessment across various parenting subgroups.

Inflexible parents, inflexible kids : a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

Williams K, Ciarrochi J and Heaven P
Journal of Youth and Adolescence v. 41 no. 8 Aug 2012: 1053-1066
This article examines the association between parenting style and adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility helps people cope with life more effectively and pursue their goals. A longitudinal study was conducted with 749 secondary students over 6 years, from Years 7 to 12, measuring change sin psychological flexibility and parenting style over this period. The article discusses the findings and the relationship between parenting changes and the development of the psychological flexibility in young people.

Parenting for grandparents and other relative carers

Victoria. Office of the Child Safety Commissioner
Melbourne : Child Safety Commissioner, 2011.
This book is written for grandparents or other family members who are unexpectedly called upon to care for a young relative. It provides information and support, and discusses parenting concerns and strategies, the impact of kinship care on the carer and the child, behaviour problems, schooling, parenting adolescents, respite care, and safety concerns and cybersafety. The book also lists services and supports in Victoria.

Parenting teenagers: relationships and behaviour : topic report.

Mountney K
Edinburgh : Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, 2010
We know from calls to helplines that parents of teenagers often struggle and feel isolated, particularly around behaviour and relationship issues. This literature reviews examines the research on these parenting issues. Topics include: conflict, parenting and support, communication and relationships, moving to independence, parental satisfaction, divorce and re-partnering, and what parents know - and want to know - about their teenagers' lives. The report also notes the issues for families affected by disability and the gaps in the research evidence. This review was conducted by the About Families project to help inform voluntary and public sector agencies in the development of services.
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