Parents with a mental illness and child abuse/neglect

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Parents with a mental illness and child abuse/neglect in the AIFS library catalogue

Mechanisms underlying exposure to partner violence and children's emotional-behavioral difficulties.

Skinner L, Gavidia-Payne S, Brown S and Giallo R
Journal of Family Psychology v. 33 no. 6 Sep 2019: 730-741
This article investigates the associations between children's exposure to postnatal intimate partner violence and their emotional-behavioural wellbeing at 10 years of age. In particular it investigates whether a mediating role is played by maternal depression, economic disadvantage, involvement in home learning activities at 4 years of age, and child gender. Data is taken from the Maternal Health Study from Melbourne, Victoria. The findings indicate that postnatal intimate partner violence was associated with higher maternal depression when the child was 4 years of age, which was associated with child emotional-behavioural problems at 10 years of age, regardless of any continued exposure to violence or maternal depression. Differences by economic status were also seen.

Maternal mental health and infant emotional reactivity : a 20-year two-cohort study of preconception and perinatal exposures.

Spry E, Moreno-Betancur M, Becker D, Romaniuk H, Carlin J, Molyneaux E, Howard L, Ryan J, Letcher P, McIntosh J, Macdonald J, Greenwood C, Thomson K, McAnally H, Hancox R, Hutchinson D, Youssef G, Olsson C and Patton G
Psychological Medicine 10 April 2019: Advance online publication
This article investigates the links between maternal mental health and infant emotional problems. It compares maternal mental health during the preconception, antenatal, and postnata periods and child emotional reactivity at 1 year of age. Data is taken from two intergenerational longitudinal studies: the Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study and the Australian Temperament Project Generation 3 study, also from Victoria. The study finds that mothers with persistent mental health problems before pregnancy were twice as likely to have an infant with high emotional reactivity. Mental health problems in the antenatal and postnatal periods are also associated with infant emotional reactivity, but this association is largely due to mental health problems before pregnancy. The possible mechanisms are also discussed.

The cost of perinatal depression and anxiety in Australia

PricewaterhouseCoopers (Australia), Gidget Foundation, Perinatal Wellbeing Centre, Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Australia Inc., Peach Tree Perinatal Wellness Inc.
Australia : Gidget Foundation Australia, 2019.
Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) during pregnancy and the first year after birth is a common condition and affects 1 in 5 mothers and 1 in 10 fathers in Australia. This report presents estimates on the cost of PNDA to the health system, economy and wellbeing of those impacted. In 2019, PNDA is estimated to cost $877m, such as increased use of health and social services, increased risk of chronic illness and substance abuse, increased risk of child health and developmental risks, and productivity losses from increased workforce exit, absenteeism, and carer role. These costs are substantial for both parent and child in the short to medium term and also lifetime.

Mental health: draft report

Australia. Productivity Commission.
Canberra : Productivity Commission, 2019.
The Productivity Commission is now undertaking an inquiry into the role of improving mental health to support economic participation and enhancing productivity and economic growth. This draft report has been prepared for further public consultation and input. It presents the draft findings and recommendations of the inquiry to date, drawing upon the many submissions received so far. It finds that mental ill-health is widespread, with costs to the Australian economy of at least $43 to $51 billion per year, plus another $130 billion associated with diminished health and reduced life expectancy. The treatment of mental illness has been tacked on to a health system that has been largely designed around the characteristics of physical illness, but also many people who do seek treatment are not receiving the level of care they need. The report presents draft recommendations for reforming prevention and early intervention, addressing critical gaps in healthcare service availability and delivery, and assisting people with mental illness to get into work and enable early treatment of work-related mental illness. Chapters include: Draft recommendations and findings; The case for major reform; What mental ill-health and suicide are costing Australia; Re-orienting health services to consumers; Primary mental healthcare; Supported online treatment; Specialist community mental health services; Emergency and acute inpatient services; Physical and substance use comorbidities; Towards integrated care: linking consumers and services; Mental health workforce; Psychosocial support; Carers and families; Income and employment support; Housing and homelessness; Justice; Interventions in early childhood and school education; Youth economic participation; Mentally healthy workplaces; Social participation and inclusion; Suicide prevention; Federal roles and responsibilities; and Funding arrangements.

Forecasting Future Outcomes: Stronger Communities Investment Unit - 2018 insights report

Taylor Fry Consulting Actuaries, New South Wales
Sydney, N.S.W. : NSW Government, 2019
This paper presents a new actuarial model to guide investment to vulnerable families and presents estimates on future service use and costs for selected at risk groups in New South Wales. This model was developed by the Taylor Fry consulting firm to guide funding under the NSW Government's 'Their Futures Matter' reforms, which aim to deliver improved outcomes for vulnerable children, young people and their families through a coordinated, wrap-around, and evidence-based service system. The paper explains the approach of the model and sets out data for several key vulnerable groups: young children aged 0-5, young adolescents, young people transitioning to adulthood, young mothers, children of young mothers, young adolescents with parental mental health risk factors, young people using mental health services, and the 1,000 individuals with highest service costs. Under each group it looks at characteristics, estimated future cost of government services, projected future social outcomes, and within group variations. It models data from linked state and commonwealth data concerning child protection, housing and homelessness services, justice, health, education, mental health, alcohol and drugs, parental risk factors, and welfare. This paper is intended to support business cases for new policies and interventions aimed at improving outcomes for vulnerable children and families.

A cross-sectional study on intergenerational parenting and attachment patterns in adult children of parents with mental illness.

Patrick P, Reupert A and McLean L
Child and Family Social Work 4 Apr 2019: Advance online publication
This article explores how growing up with a parent with mental illness affects children's own parenting style and relationships later in adulthood. It compares the views of 86 adults on parenting, adult attachment, and relationship satisfaction, comparing adults with a parent with a mental illness and adults from the general population. The study found little difference between the groups, though the adult children of parents with mental illness were found to be more permissive in their parenting and may need additional parent education.

Experiences of having a parent with serious mental illness : an interpretive meta-synthesis of qualitative literature.

Kallquist A and Salzmann-Erikson M
Journal of Child and Family Studies v. 28 no. 8 Aug 2019: 2056-2068
This article explores the views of adults who grew up with a parent with serious mental illness. It reviews qualitative studies from around the world, including Australia, on how adults' lives are affected by growing up with a parent with serious mental illness, their childhood experiences, and the support they received during their childhood and as adults. The findings highlight the lifelong impacts of this childhood experience and the ongoing need for support.

When dad can stay home: fathers' workplace flexibility and maternal health

Persson P and Rossin-Slater M
Bonn, Germany : IZA, 2019.
This paper investigates how flexible working conditions for fathers can help new mothers' physical and mental health. It analyses the impact of a social insurance reform in Sweden from 2012 that granted fathers the flexibility to take up to 30 days of paid leave on an intermittent basis alongside the mother. The reform increased the likelihood of fathers using any post-baseline leave in the first two and six months after childbirth. In turn, increasing father flexibility and thus availability reduced the risk of the mother experiencing physical postpartum health complications, as seen in reduced likelihoods of mothers' getting any antibiotic and anti-anxiety prescription drugs. The findings suggest that mothers bear the burden from a lack of workplace flexibility - not only directly through greater career costs of family formation, as previously documented - but also indirectly, as fathers' inability to respond to domestic shocks exacerbates the maternal health costs of childbearing. The findings also have important implications for debates about workplace flexibility and paid family leave policies.

Conflicts between work and family and fathers' mental health.

Cooklin A
2018 AIFS Conference highlights. Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2019: 3p
This article highlights key findings from a recent study into the work-family conflicts experienced by fathers and whether it has an adverse impact on their mental health. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, the study explored fathers' employment characteristics, changes over time in work-family pressures and conflict, and mental health. The study found that fathers' work-family conflict is powerfully linked to mental health, but also that supportive workplaces factors such as workplace flexibility, job security, reasonable work hours, and control over work scheduling can also play a protective role. This article is adapted from the presentation 'Job quality, change and stability in work-family conflict and fathers' mental health', presented by Amanda Cooklin at the AIFS 2018 conference.

Fathers' work and family conflicts and the outcomes for children's mental health.

Leach L
2018 AIFS Conference highlights. Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2019: 3p
This article highlights key findings from a recent study into the work-family conflicts experienced by fathers and whether it has adverse impacts on children's mental health. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, the study explored fathers' experiences of competing demands in parenting and work and found that parenting and relationship resources deteriorate when fathers' work-family conflict increases or is sustained. This in turn affects children's socio-emotional development and wellbeing. This article is adapted from the presentation 'The impact of change and stability in fathers' work-family conflict on children's mental health', presented by Liana Leach at the AIFS 2018 conference.

Testing competing mediators of the association between pre-conception maternal depression and child health-related quality of life : the MatCH study.

Moss K, Loxton D, Dobson A, Slaughter V and Mishra G
Archives of Women's Mental Health 17 Jan 2019: Advance online publication
Research has found an association between depression in women from before they conceive and their children's psychosocial functioning. This article investigates whether post-birth maternal depression, post-birth maternal stress, and parenting quality mediates this association. It uses data from the MatCH (Mothers and their Children's Health) Study, a project within the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). 2,917 women from the 1973-78 ALWSH cohort were invited to complete an additional survey about the health and development of their children. The findings have implications on tailoring interventions for depression in women considering pregnancy and mothers of young children.

Filicide in Australia, 2000-2012: a national study

Brown T, Lyneham S, Bryant W, Bricknell S, Tomison A, Tyson D and Fernandez Arias P
Canberra, A.C.T. : Criminology Research Grants Program, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2019.
This study adds to what is known about filicide in Australia. The killing of a child by their parent is a rare event and inconsistently recorded in homicide data, which presents challenges for identifying trends and patterns and developing prevention measures. The study analysed state and territory homicide data from the 12-year period from 2000-01 to 2011-12, regarding the number and characteristics of filicide incidents, victims and offenders. On average, a child is killed by a parent every two weeks in Australia, and this rate has remained relatively stable over time despite decreases in total homicides and domestic homicides. The involvement of intimate partner violence, mental illness, and parental separation were also identified. The findings are also summarised in the trends & issues in crime and criminal justice paper 'Filicide offenders'.

Adverse childhood experiences and school readiness outcomes: results from the Growing Up in New Zealand study

University of Auckland. Centre for Social Data Analytics, New Zealand. Ministry of Social Development
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2019.
This report explores the association between adverse experiences in early childhood and later school readiness, using data from the 'Growing Up in New Zealand' longitudinal study. Adverse experiences include exposure to maltreatment and experiencing parental divorce, family abuse, mental illness, substance abuse, or incarceration, while school readiness was measured with a range of cognitive development tests. The study found that adverse childhood experiences were common in this group: by 54 months old, nearly 53% had experienced at least one adverse experience and 2.6% had experienced 4 or more. These adverse experiences were consistently associated with family income, deprivation, mother's education and age, and partner's age. The study also found a clear dose-response association between adverse experiences and school readiness.

Breaking down the barriers: findings of the National Commission on Domestic and Sexual Violence and Multiple Disadvantage.

National Commission on Domestic and Sexual Violence and Multiple Disadvantage (London, England), Agenda (Charity), Against Violence & Abuse (Organization)
London : Agenda and AVA, 2019.
The National Commission on Domestic and Sexual Violence and Multiple Disadvantage was established by British charities AVA and Agenda to investigate the situation of women who have experienced violence and go on to face a range of other issues including addiction and poor mental health. This report presents the Commission's findings and recommendations. The report provides insights into the challenges facing these women in England and Wales, and looks at: the links between domestic and sexual abuse and multiple disadvantage - particularly mental health, substance use issues, homelessness, and poverty - across women of different identities, in particular race, ethnicity and disability; the experiences of women facing these issues, including their views on what services would best meet their needs and support them to rebuild their lives; current provision to support these women, including gaps and current shortcomings in the system; and evidence, ideas and good practice around how best to support these women. The Commission drew together a panel of leading experts, a Community of Practice of professionals, public submissions, and volunteer peer researchers. Eleven main themes emerged from the data collected; poverty, accessibility, homelessness, the criminal justice system, multiple disadvantage and trauma, trauma-informed response, partnership, parenting, gender-sensitive service provision, funding and commissioning, and early intervention. This final report includes a copy of the report by the peer researchers 'Hand in hand: survivors of multiple disadvantage discuss service & support'.

Adverse childhood experiences and healthcare costs in adult life.

Loxton D, Townsend N, Dolja-Gore X, Forder P and Coles J
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse v. 28 no. 5 2019: 511-525
This article looks at one long-term impact of adverse childhood experiences - their impact on increased health care expenditure in adulthood. It investigates the prevalence of childhood adversity - from having a household member with a mental illness to experiencing psychological abuse - and compares these women's spending on primary, allied, and specialist healthcare services over the 20 years from 1996-2015. Data is taken from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, for the cohort born in 1973-1978, linked with government data on Medicare subsidies and rebates. 41% of the participants reported some form of adversity in childhood, including 8% reporting physical abuse, 17% reporting psychological abuse, and 9% witnessing intimate partner violence. Overall, women who had experienced adversity in childhood had higher healthcare costs than their peers, with these costs increasing over time.

'Are they shouting because of me?': voices of children living in households with domestic abuse, parental substance misuse and mental health issues

Great Britain. Office of the Children's Commissioner
London : Children's Commissioner for England, 2018.
This report looks at life growing up under the 'toxic trio' of mental health, parental substance misuse, and domestic abuse. It presents findings from interviews with 15 children and young people in England about their experiences of living in households with these three issues, including how it affected their emotional wellbeing, school life and relationships with friends, and the ways in which they attempted to cope. Though the participants revealed the problems of living with high levels of tension and unpredictability at home, and about an evolving sense of shame and growing up quickly, they were also very clear about how much they loved and trusted their parents and the great lengths they went not to tell others for fear of being separated.

Association of material hardship with maternal and child outcomes: technical report of cross-sectional analysis of nine-month data from Growing Up in New Zealand cohort - 2018

Dominick C
Wellington, N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2018.
Although poverty is associated with increased risk of negative outcomes, little is known about the magnitude of this association and the developmental pathways most at risk. Using data from the 'Growing Up in New Zealand' longitudinal study, this report investigates the extent to which material hardship - used here rather than low income - is associated with mother and infant outcomes. The study found that maternal mental health, child socio-emotional development indicators, and the number of child respiratory illnesses are all associated with material hardship. The findings reinforce the need to address poverty to prevent or mitigate its negative influences on children.

Hand in hand: survivors of multiple disadvantage discuss service & support

Hailes A
London : Agenda and AVA, 2018.
A National Commission on Domestic and Sexual Violence and Multiple Disadvantage has been established by British charities AVA and Agenda to investigate the situation of women who have experienced violence and go on to face a range of other issues including addiction and poor mental health. As part of this work, volunteer peer researchers were recruited and trained to conduct interviews with other women in their communities to ensure that the voices of those with lived experience were included. This report presents the findings and analysis of these interviews with 29 women from England and Wales, highlighting the far-reaching impacts of abuse and trauma. Topics discussed include types and experiences of abuse, 'honour' based violence and abuse, impacts of abuse, identifying abuse, help-seeking, police, health services, mental health services, substance use services, specialist domestic abuse services, housing and homelessness, and issues relating to children.

Emotional-behavioral resilience among children of first-time mothers with and without depression across the early childhood period.

Giallo R, Gartland D, Woolhouse H, Mensah F, Westrupp E, Nicholson J and Brown S
International Journal of Behavioral Development v. 42 no. 2 Mar 2018: 214-224
This article investigates children's resilience in the face of maternal depression, which research has otherwise highlighted has a negative impact on children's development. It identifies maternal and family factors associated with children faring well from infancy to age 4, using data from the Maternal Health Study of Melbourne, Victoria, for 1,085 mothers experiencing depressive symptoms across the early childhood period. The findings indicate that a significant number of these children are resilient, and this was associated with maternal higher education and involvement in home learning activities.

How do Australian adult mental health clinicians manage the challenges of working with parental mental illness? A phenomenological study.

Tchernegovski P, Reupert A and Maybery D
Child and Family Social Work v. 23 no. 3 Aug 2018: 381-389
This article explores how clinicians in adult mental health services face engage with clients who are also parents. Interviews were held with 11 Australian clinicians regarding their experiences in working with parents, effective strategies, managing sensitive parenting conversations, making decisions about child safety, and working with child protection services.

Annual report 2017-18

South Australia. Child Death and Serious Injury Review Committee
Adelaide, SA : Child Death and Serious Injury Review Committee, 2018.
The Child Death and Serious Injury Review Committee contributes to efforts to prevent death or serious injury to children in South Australia by reviewing the circumstances and causes of cases of death and serious injury and making recommendations to Government for changes to legislation, policies and procedures that may help prevent similar events. This is their thirteenth annual report, and presents their findings and recommendations from the reviews of all deaths of children who have died in South Australia, both during the 2017 calendar year and cumulatively since the Committee's work began. Sections include: rates and patterns of deaths, death rates by region, age and causes of death, deaths of non-resident children, child death and socioeconomic disadvantage, child deaths and the child protection system, child protection systems and unsafe sleeping, deaths of Aboriginal children, deaths of children with disability, infants mortality, deaths from illness or disease, deaths from external causes, deliberate acts by another causing death, review of nine events of child death and serious injury involving a parent with mental illness, deaths attributed to suicide, hot water scalding, and self-harm. Information is also provided on committee matters and methodology. Particular issues discussed include the ongoing association between higher numbers of child deaths and greater levels of socioeconomic disadvantage, the ongoing higher rate of Indigenous children dying from illness or disease, and the association between sudden unexpected deaths of infants, unsafe sleeping factors, and contact with the child protection system.

Paternal psychological distress, parenting, and child behaviour : a population based, cross-sectional study.

Gulenc A, Butler E, Sarkadi A and Hiscock H
Child : Care, Health and Development v. 44 no. 6 Nov 2018: 892-900
Research has found that poor maternal mental health and parenting style are risk factors for child behaviour problems, but what about fathers? This article investigates the association between fathers' psychological distress and parenting style and behaviour problems in children at 3 years of age. Data was taken for 669 fathers participating in a broader study. Mothers' mental health and parenting was also considered. The findings indicate that fathers also have an impact on their children's behaviour, through psychological distress, harsh discipline, or overinvolved parenting, and need to be involved in any interventions aimed at addressing behaviour problems.

Child homicide in Queensland: a descriptive analysis of offences finalised by Queensland criminal courts, 2005-06 to 2016-17 : research report

Manning M, Hidderley L, Pathe M and Young J
Brisbane, Qld : Queensland Sentencing Advisory Council, 2018.
In 2017, the Attorney-General asked the Queensland Sentencing Advisory Council to review the adequacy of penalties imposed on sentence for criminal offences arising from the death of a child. To help inform this work, this report provides a descriptive analysis of the characteristics and sentencing outcomes associated with child homicide offences finalised by Queensland criminal courts in the 12-year period between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2017. It does not provide explanations for any identified patterns or trends, but these issues are discussed in the accompanying consultation paper 'Sentencing for criminal offences arising from the death of a child'. Statistics are presented on: victim characteristics, cause of death, child abuse and child protection history, offender characteristics, homicide by children, Indigenous Australians, prior offending, motive and risk factors, sentencing outcomes, pleas, manslaughter and homicide offences, sentences, appeals, and parole eligibility. The literature on risk factors and characteristics is also noted. The findings highlight the complex and diverse nature of child homicide, and the challenges it poses for the criminal justice system.

Maternal intimate partner violence victimization and child maltreatment.

Ahmadabadi Z, Najman J, Williams G, Clavarino A, d'Abbs P and Abajobir A
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 82 Aug 2018: 23-33
This article adds to the evidence on the association between intimate partner violence and child abuse in the family. It investigates whether this association between violence against the mother and abuse of the child is affected by various socio-economic, familial, and psychological factors. Data were taken from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), from the 14 and 30-year follow-ups. The analysis finds that In families with maternal IPV, two in five children reported being maltreated, compared to one in five children maltreated in families without maternal IPV. Girls were at higher risk of sexual abuse and boys were more likely to be emotionally maltreated. Except for the risk factor of paternal mental health problems, this association was substantially independent of the various factors studies - confirming that there is a robust association between maternal IPV and child maltreatment.

The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on refugees' parenting and their children's mental health : a cohort study.

Bryant R, Edwards B, Creamer M, O'Donnell M, Forbes D, Felmingham K, Silove D, Steel Z, Nickerson A, McFarlane A, Van Hooff M and Hadzi-Pavlovic D
Lancet Public Health v. 3 no. 5 May 2018: e249-e258
The mental health of refugee parents is thought to play a role in their children's own mental health, but the evidence is mixed and limited. This article adds to the research with data from 'Building a New Life in Australia, the Longitudinal Study of Humanitarian Migrants' - a large, longitudinal, representative sample of resettled refugees and their children. It investigates the impact of a history of trauma and postmigration stress on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in caregivers, the impact of caregiver PTSD on their parenting style, and the mental health outcomes of their children, including conduct problems, hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, and peer problems. The findings indicate that PTSD in refugees is associated with harsh parenting styles, leading to adverse effects on their children's mental health. There is also evidence for a direct association between caregiver PTSD and children's emotional difficulties.

Factors associated with child protection recurrence in Australia.

Jenkins B, Tilbury C, Hayes H and Mazerolle P
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 81 Jul 2018: 181-191
There is much research into what factors are associated with repeated child protection involvement, but most of these studies have been conducted in the United States. This article investigates whether the same identified child, family, and case factors are also associated with repeated child protection involvement in the Australian context. It analyses administrative child protection data from Queensland, for a sample of 9,608 children first reported to authorities in 2010/2011. The analysis finds that the factors associated with recurrence in Australia were broadly similar to those identified in overseas studies, including child protection intervention, younger age, prior child protection involvement in the household, Indigenous background, and parental characteristics including drug use, mental health problems, and history of maltreatment as a child.

Time for a new zeitgeist in perinatal mental health.

Judd F, Newman L and Komiti A
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry v. 52 no. 2 Feb 2018: 112-116
This opinion piece argues that it is now time for perinatal psychiatrists to turn their attention to the design and delivery of services targeting high-risk women and their infants. Antenatal and postnatal depression have been the dominant focus for clinicians and researchers over the last three decades, and great advances have been made. However, there has been less work on developing evidence-based treatments and services for complex cases where there are many underlying risk factors not only for depression but also for parenting difficulties, such as through psychoses, mental illness, drug use, and histories of trauma. The authors highlights the impact of maternal risk factors on attachment, parenting, and foetal development and considers early identification and intervention approaches.

Severity of illness and adaptive functioning predict quality of care of children among parents with psychosis : a confirmatory factor analysis.

Campbell L, Hanlon M, Galletly C, Harvey C, Stain H, Cohen M, Van Ravenzwaaij D and Brown S
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry v. 52 no. 5 May 2018: 435-445
This article investigates levels of adequate parenting among parents with psychotic disorders, and the predictors of quality parenting. It analyses data from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis in 2010, for the 234 people who were parents living with dependent children. The article considers levels of participation, interest and competence in childcare, and investigates the impact of psychosocial support, illness severity, substance abuse, adaptive functioning, and parenting role on parenting adequacy. The analysis finds that the majority of parents provided adequate parenting, though greater symptom severity and poorer adaptive functioning place parents at risk. The implications for targeted support are briefly discussed.

A profile of social, separation and generalized anxiety disorders in an Australian nationally representative sample of children and adolescents : prevalence, comorbidity and correlates.

Spence S, Zubrick S and Lawrence D
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry v. 52 no. 5 May 2018: 446-460
This article examines the prevalence of social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and generalised anxiety disorder among children and young people in Australia. It draws on data from Young Minds Matter, the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, conducted in 2013/2014 with the parents of 6,310 children and young people aged 4 to 17 years old. It also investigates patterns of comorbidity between these disorders, individual and family correlates, and service use. The article finds that these anxiety disorders are relatively common in children and young people, and are associated with not living with both biological parents, having a parent with a mental health problem, parent unemployment, and peer victimisation.

Household food security and child health outcomes in families with children aged 6 months to 4 years residing in Darwin and Palmerston, Northern Territory, Australia

McCarthy L
This thesis adds to the evidence on food insecurity among Australian families with young children. It explores food security and its risk factors and impacts among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children aged 0.5-4 years residing in the Darwin and Palmerston urban areas of the Northern Territory. Several studies were conducted to identify the factors that influence food security status in families from 17 child care centres, compare the health of children in food secure and food insecure households, explore Indigenous Australian families' experiences of food security, and determine the performance of the US 18-item household food security module within Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian families. The findings highlight the prevalence of food insecurity among young children, the impact on obesity levels, the strategies Indigenous families employ to combat food insecurity, and the parental mental health, socioeconomic, and neighbourhood risk factors involved.
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