Poverty and child abuse and neglect

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Poverty and child abuse and neglect in the AIFS library catalogue

Child protection in the time of COVID-19

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021.
There are concerns the COVID-19 pandemic has increased children's risk of abuse - the government restrictions have increased families' stresses while also limiting interactions with professionals who could detect and report abuse. This report presents preliminary child protection data from March to September 2020, covering the first wave of COVID-19 restrictions in Australia and part of the second wave of restrictions in Victoria. It compares the data to that of 2019, and also looks at risk factors such as parents and children seeking support, unemployment and reliance on income support, financial and housing stress, working and schooling from home, family law parenting disputes, parental mental health and substance use, and domestic violence. The data shows that though risk factors for child abuse and neglect increased during COVID-19 - in particular financial hardship, housing stress and poor mental health - notifications to child protection services fell during the first wave, though they increased once restrictions eased. Public tip-offs about online child sexual exploitation material more than doubled during this period also.

Child abuse and neglect risks during COVID-19

Texas Association for the Protection of Children
Dallas, TX : TexProtects, 2020.
This paper explains that though child abuse reports have dropped significantly in America during the COVID-19 pandemic, there are reasons to believe that family violence and abuse could have increased. Though the state of Texas saw a 50% decline in calls to child protective services and online reports, these drops can be attributed to children not being in school or in the presence of mandatory reporters, rather than a decline in child abuse rates. This paper highlights research on risk factors for abuse and the impact of disasters and recessions on these risks, and presents projections for child abuse in Texas. Family stressors such as unemployment and mental health issues have increased right now, so is it reasonable to fear that child abuse is also increasing.

Factors associated with disparities experienced by tamariki Maori in the Care and Protection System

Ernst & Young, Oranga Tamariki Evidence Centre (New Zealand), New Zealand. Oranga Tamariki, Ministry for Children
Wellington, N.Z. : Oranga Tamariki Ministry for Children, 2020.
This report looks into the factors behind the over-representation of Maori children in the child welfare system in New Zealand. It investigates the extent to which demographic, socioeconomic, parent, and child characteristics influence the disparities between Maori and 'European and other' ethnicities. Though Maori children are more likely to be involved in first reports of concern and first time movements through most stages of the care and protection system, these differences are less when socioeconomic and other factors - such as parental income, socioeconomic decile, parental Corrections involvement, school disengagement, and mental health provider contact - are taken into account.

The early years: investing in our future

Cassells R, Dockery M, Duncan A, Kiely D, Kirkness M, Twomey C, Nguyen T and Seymour R
Perth, W.A. : Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin University, 2017.
This report highlights the inequality faced by many young children growing up in Western Australia and the critical importance of investment in the early years of childhood. It presents statistics on disadvantage from pregnancy to the preschool years, comparing outcomes in regional areas, for Aboriginal children, and in other states and territories in Australia. It looks at evidence - and gaps in the evidence - on health risky behaviour during pregnancy, births and early infant health, mental health language development in toddlerhood, participation in Early Childhood Education and Care, pre-school access and equity groups, developmental outcomes in preschool, early learning disadvantage, the prevalence and depth of child poverty, child protection, Indigenous over-representation, the impact of the Stolen Generations, and poverty, locational disadvantage and neglect. Children living in the most disadvantaged communities across Australia are far less likely to receive the recommended amount of of preschool and more likely to become developmentally vulnerable in their first five years of life. The report concludes by calling for increased welfare support for families with the greatest need, maintain the real rate of welfare payments, and providing universal free access to high quality child care services.

Annual report 2018-19

South Australia. Child Death and Serious Injury Review Committee
Adelaide, SA : Child Death and Serious Injury Review Committee, 2019.
The Child Death and Serious Injury Review Committee contributes to efforts to prevent death or serious injury to children in South Australia by reviewing the circumstances and causes of cases of death and serious injury and making recommendations to Government for changes to legislation, policies and procedures that may help prevent similar events. This report presents their findings and recommendations from the reviews of all deaths of children who have died in South Australia, both during the 2018 calendar year and cumulatively since the Committee's work began in 2005. Sections include: rates and patterns of deaths, death rates by region, age and causes of death, deaths of non-resident children, child death and socioeconomic disadvantage, child deaths and the child protection system, deaths of Aboriginal children, deaths of children with disability, infant mortality, safe sleeping of infants, deaths from illness or disease, and deaths from external causes, including drowning and suicide. Illness and disease have been the leading causes of death for South Australia's children since 2005, with transport-related incidents the most common cause of death for young people aged 15-17 years. A higher number of children died in areas of greater levels of socioeconomic disadvantage, and across all categories of death, the death rate is higher for Aboriginal children. Over a quarter of children who have died, or their families, had had contact with the child protection system in the three years prior to their deaths.

Child abuse-related deaths, child mortality (0-4 years) and income inequality in the USA and other developed nations 1989-91 v 2013-15 : speaking truth to power.

Pritchard C, Williams R and Rosenorn-Lanng E
Child Abuse Review v. 28 no. 5 Sep/Oct 2019: 339-352
This article compares international rates of child mortality, child abuse-related deaths, and child undetermined deaths in developed nations, with a particular focus on the role of income inequality and how America compares. The findings highlight how America, despite being the richest country in the world, has the highest rates of child abuse and total child mortality among developed nations, as well as the highest income inequality. The article also discusses methodological issues in comparing mortality data across nations and the association between poverty and child death.

Biennial report of the deaths of children in New South Wales, 2016 and 2017: incorporating reviewable deaths of children

NSW Ombudsman, New South Wales Child Death Review Team
Sydney, NSW : NSW Ombudsman, 2019.
This report reviews the deaths of children in 2016 and 2017 in New South Wales in order to identify any trends and patterns and to make recommendations on how similar deaths might be prevented. It brings together two biennial child death review reports by the NSW Ombudsman that were previously published separately: the report of the NSW Child Death Review Team and the review of 'reviewable' deaths, which are deaths that may be due to abuse or neglect or that occur in suspicious circumstances or in care or detention. The report presents information on trends in the deaths of children, the leading causes of death, deaths from multiple causes, sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy, deaths resulting from unintentional injury, deaths from suicide, and deaths occurring in the context of abuse or neglect, with some information on trends included. Over the past 15 years, the mortality rate in New South Wales declined by 27%, mostly reflecting a significant decline in infant deaths. Mortality rates vary by gender, Indigenous background, remoteness and socio-economic status, with significantly higher rates of death for Indigenous children, children in remote areas, and children in disadvantaged areas - as well as children with a child protection history. The leading cause of death is natural causes, except for 15-17 year olds, who are at higher risk of transport accidents and suicide.

Changing the odds for vulnerable children: building opportunities and resilience

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2019.
This report outlines six key policy areas which, when taken in a coordinated and coherent way, increase the chances of childhood well-being and address risk factors of vulnerability. These policy areas aim to empower vulnerable families and improve parenting skills, boost children's emotional and social skills, make child protection services more child-centred and accessible and improve after-care services, increase children's educational success and improving early education quality, improve children's health including pre-natal care and nutrition, and reduce children's poverty and material deprivation and removing barriers for parental employment. First, the report looks into the individual, family and environmental factors that contribute to child vulnerability and the special considerations for children in vulnerable countries.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
This report brings together the latest information on the prevalence and impact of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia, and identifies key gaps in the data. Statistics are provided on: prevalence and rates; extent and nature; responses by the justice, health, and specialist support services; long term health impacts; homicide; community attitudes towards violence against women; Indigenous Australians; and vulnerable populations, including children, young women, older people, people with disability, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, LGBTIQ+ people, people in rural and remote areas, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The report also lists state and territory government policies on family, domestic and sexual violence. Family, domestic and sexual violence is a major health and welfare issue: 1 in 6 women and 1 in 16 men have experienced violence by a current or previous partner since the age of 15, with even higher rates experiencing emotional abuse. 1 in 5 women and 1 in 20 men have experienced sexual violence since the age of 15. This report updates the inaugural 2018 report, and a brief version is also available.

Protective factors of children and families at highest risk of adverse childhood experiences: an analysis of children and families in the Growing Up in New Zealand data who 'beat the odds'

University of Auckland. Centre for Social Data Analytics, New Zealand. Ministry of Social Development
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2019.
"With increasing access to integrated administrative data, it is easy to identify infants who are likely to suffer childhood adversities. However, many infants who appear 'at risk' end up thriving, experiencing few of the adversities that beset other children with similar risk factors. Understanding what helps children 'beat the odds' is important for policy-makers and frontline services that want to help families at risk. The present report analyses the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) birth cohort to identify protective factors for at-risk children who 'beat the odds'. For the purpose of illustration, we build a predictive risk model using variables that are observed prenatally or at-birth in the GUiNZ data. These are mainly economic and demographic factors, and are chosen because they are typically available in administrative data. We use a predictive risk model to identify children who are at the highest risk of being exposed to Adversities of Childhood Experiences (ACEs) by 54 months. Children are classified as 'beating the odds' if they are in the highest 20% risk group based on the predictive risk model, but by age 54 months have not experienced a single ACE. Using univariate and multivariate approaches, 749 factors that are collected in the GUiNZ data are tested for their protective association with 'beating the odds'. These factors are classified by the researchers in five categories: (i) strength of the parent-child relationship; (ii) strength of the mother-partner relationship, (iii) parental health and wellness; (iv) community and neighbourhood characteristics, and (v) family finances. Taking advantage of the breadth of these investigated categories, we identified several factors that appear to be protective in children at high risk of ACEs ... surprisingly, based on standardised effect size, parental relationship factors are found to have the strongest associations with 'beating the odds' ... Our findings suggest that programmes that focus solely on mother-child interactions, without attending to the mother-partner relationship, might be missing an important opportunity for reducing adversities in childhood."--Policy summary.

The children's report: Australia's NGO coalition report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child

Irani F
Sydney, N.S.W. : Australian Child Rights Taskforce, UNICEF Australia, 2018.
This report assesses Australia's progress in protecting children and their rights. It reviews how well Australia is meeting its obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, drawing on the available research, and makes recommendations for improvement against each of the provisions of the Convention. Sections include: General measures of implementation; General principles; Civil rights and freedoms; Violence against children; Family environment and alternative care; Disability, health and welfare; Special protection measures; Sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography; and Involvement of children in armed conflict. A particular feature of this report is the inclusion of children and young people's views. Consultations were held with 527 children, young people, and youth from around Australia, and their quotes are included throughout the report. Though Australia ratified the Convention in 1990, there remains a critical absence of well-resourced, strategic and coordinated measures to implement and protect children's rights, and - despite Australia's relative economic prosperity, progress has regressed in areas of critical importance since the last review in 2012. Particular areas of concern are rates of abuse in familial and institutional settings, the care asylum seeker and refugee children, and the persistent, systemic, and entrenched disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

Children's headline indicators

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018.
This website collates the latest information on how Australia's children are faring, presented as interactive graphs and tables. Children's welfare is measured against the Children's Headline Indicators - 19 priority measures of: smoking during pregnancy, infant mortality, birthweight, breastfeeding, immunisation, overweight and obesity, dental health, social and emotional wellbeing, injuries, attending early childhood education programs, transition to primary school in terms of developmental vulnerability, attendance at primary school, literacy and numeracy, teenage births, family economic situation, shelter, child abuse and neglect, social and emotional wellbeing, and family social network.

A study of the use of Section 106a of the Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998 in the New South Wales Children's Court.

Ainsworth F and Hansen P
Children Australia v. 42 no. 3 Sep 2017: 198-204
In 2006, the law was amended in New South Wales to say that if a child has previously been removed from parental care and not restored to the parents, then that is evidence that any subsequent child born to these parents is in need of care and protection and can be subject to removal. The parents must then rebut this evidence if they are to recover or retain custody of the new born child. This amendment is covered by section 106A of the Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998. This article reviews the use of this amendment in the Children's Court, with an analysis of cases finalised across 3 of the courts from July to December 2013. It reviews legal outcomes and possible influencing factors including date of removal, place of removal, number of children previously removed, reliance on section 106A, and parents' age, ethnicity and Indigenous status, occupation and income source, disability and mental health, substance abuse, domestic violence, criminal history, and homelessness. The only significant finding was that if section 106A was cited in Court documents, then restoration of a child to the family is less likely.

The first thousand days: an evidence paper

Moore T, Arefadib N, Deery A and West S
Parkville, Vic. : Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, 2017.
This paper synthesises current Australian and international evidence on the biological, social, global, and environmental influences on child development. It examines the impact of early experiences in the 'first thousand days' on all aspects of development and functioning, including physical health and wellbeing, mental health, social functioning, and cognitive development, as well as the underlying determinants of health. Experts have long been aware that the period from conception to age 2 is an important period of development, but researchers have only recently started to unlock the processes by which genes, experiences, and environments interact to influence development. This paper is part of the 'Strong Foundations: Getting it Right in the First 1000 Days' collaborative project.

Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

Doidge J, Higgins D, Delfabbro P and Segal L
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 64 Feb 2017: 47-60
This article investigates a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment, drawing on a population-based birth cohort, the Australian Temperament Project (ATP). The ATP has followed 2,443 young people in Victoria from birth to age 27 years. Though incidence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence was collected retrospectively in early adulthood, potential risk factors have been collected since birth. The study finds that higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Overall, nine independent risk factors were identified, highlighting the social groups in Australia who are most vulnerable to child maltreatment.

Economic predictors of child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

Doidge J, Higgins D, Delfabbro P, Edwards B, Vassallo S, Toumbourou J and Segal L
Children and Youth Services Review v. 72 Jan 2017: 14-25
The association between poverty and child maltreatment has long been known, but the mechanisms involved are little understood. This article investigates this association further, with estimates and retrospective reports using data from the Australian Temperament Project - a longitudinal study of 2443 children and their parents in Victoria, with the children now aged 23-24 years old. It compares the association of childhood economic factors - including parental education, occupation, and unemployment; type of housing; and retrospective perception of poverty - with retrospective reports of different types of child maltreatment. The article also estimates how much child maltreatment is theoretically preventable by addressing childhood economic disadvantage, and the implications for prevention efforts.

The relationship between poverty, child abuse and neglect: an evidence review

Bywaters P
York U.K. : Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2016.
"This report identifies and discusses evidence about to key aspects of the relationship between poverty and child abuse and neglect: the impact of poverty on a child's chance of being abused or neglected and the impact on adult poverty of abuse or neglect in childhood. It explores the economic costs of child abuse and neglect and outlines broad policy implications, with a particular focus on the UK."

CRC25: Australian child rights progress report : a report on 25 years of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in Australia

Australian Child Rights Taskforce
Australia : Australian Child Rights Taskforce, 2016.
The 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) calls on governments to take responsibility to build a better world for children. This report marks 25 years since Australia ratified the convention, and highlights our progress, the entrenched issues that remain, and even direct breaches of the Convention. It reviews children's rights and outcomes in the areas of: poverty and homelessness, out of home care, disability, adoption, early education and care, abuse and neglect, bullying, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse backgrounds and refugees, LGBTI children and young people, access to health care and health status, access to justice and the criminal justice system, identity, participation, citizenship, and birth and name registration. Recommendations for state, territory, and Commonwealth governments are also included. Note, the Australian Child Rights Taskforce is Australia?s peak child rights network, made up of more than 100 organisations, and is co-convened by UNICEF Australia and the National Children's and Youth Law Centre (NCYLC).

Evaluation of the Sustaining NSW Families program: final report

KPMG (Australia), NSW Kids and Families
North Sydney, N.S.W. : NSW Kids and Families, 2015.
The Sustaining NSW Families (SNF) Program is a nurse-led sustained health home visiting program in New South Wales that commences in pregnancy and continues until the child's second birthday. It targets families who reside in areas of low socio-economic status who are moderately vulnerable and who have associated psychosocial distress; that is, medium risk families who do not have complex problems. The program is designed as a prevention program to improve child outcomes for children who may be at risk of compromised development, and employs other allied health professionals to provide guidance and participate in case reviews. The program commenced in 2010 and now operates in five sites across the state. This evaluation study was commissioned to assess the implementation, impacts, outcomes, and costs/benefits of the program. As part of this, the evaluation also investigated whether optimal participation was achieved and who within the target client group received the most benefit from the service. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the evaluation.

The effectiveness of child protection income management in Australia

Parkinson S
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Government of South Australia, 2015.
The Child Protection Systems Royal Commission was established in August 2014 to investigate the adequacy of the child protection system in South Australia. To assist its work, this report was commissioned to review the evidence on the effectiveness of child protection income management and whether such schemes may have unintended consequences for families. The review largely discusses Australian research. Child Protection Income Management is one of three schemes of quarantining welfare payments in Australia, and can be recommended by child protection staff if they believe it will benefit at-risk children and address financial vulnerability.

Who kills children? Re-examining the evidence.

Pritchard C, Davey J and Williams R
British Journal of Social Work v. 43 no. 7 Oct 2013: 1403-1438
To help improve prevent child homicide, recent research studies have examined the levels of risk of different type of assailants. This new article re-examines the evidence to investigate what was common to the assailants instead, focusing on poverty. It compares child mortality, child abuse, and poverty data from 19 countries including Australia, to investigate whether all-causes-of-death and child abuse-related deaths are related to poverty. It then re-evaluates a decade of cases of child homicide assailants in the United Kingdom to determine any differential risks of killing a child. The analysis finds that child mortality and poverty are strongly correlated but child- abuse-related deaths are not. Child homicide by family members are extremely rare, but three distinct assailant categories can be identified: mentally ill parents, mothers with a child on the Child Protection Register, and men with previous convictions for violence. Though these categories are essentially psycho-criminological rather than socio-economic, poverty worsens most situations.

Entering out-of-home care during childhood : cumulative incidence study of population groups in two developed countries.

O'Donnell M, Maclean M, Brownell M, Gilbert R and Sims S
13th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect : protecting children - new solutions to old problems : 10-13 November 2013. Canberra, A.C.T. : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2013: 28p
This presentation examined and compared the cumulative incidence of out of home care for cohorts of children over time in two countries, using linked longitudinal population level data from the Western Australian Departments of Health and Child Protection and from Population Health Research Data in Manitoba, Canada. The research aimed to determine the variation between countries: in the age when children first enter out of home care, proportion of children affected, how patterns have changed over time, and demographic and parental risk factors for entry. This document contains the slides shown during the presentation, which feature summary text and charts.

Social transfers and child protection

Barrientos A, Byrne J, Villa J and Pena P
Florence, Italy : UNICEF Office of Research, 2013.
The main objective of social transfers is to address poverty and deprivation: whether they can also contribute to improved child protection outcomes will depend on the extent to which poverty plays a role in child abuse, violence and exploitation. This paper examines the known effects of social transfers on child protection risks and outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. It also discusses how the design and implementation of social transfers can maximise positive impact.

Journey's Home research report no. 2: findings from Waves 1 and 2

Chigavazira A, Johnson G, Moschion J, Scutella R, Moschion J, Tseng Y and Wooden M
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, 2013.
The Journeys Home longitudinal study aims to investigate the factors affecting housing stability and the causes and consequences of homelessness. It will follow a national sample of people experiencing high levels of housing insecurity and homelessness in Australia. Comparing data the first two waves of the study, from 2011 and 2012, this report examines transitions in to and out of homelessness and whether there is any early evidence on risk or protective factors associated with certain homeless transitions.

Does child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people in youth detention? Findings from a birth cohort study.

Doolan I, Najman J, Mills R, Cherney A and Strathearn L
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 37 no. 5 May 2013: 303-309
This article investigates whether the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people in youth detention in Australia can be explained by a background of child abuse, child neglect, and family disadvantage. It compares data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal study in Queensland, with data from social services, to compare Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people's experience of abuse, family disadvantage, and involvement with the criminal justice system.

Economic conditions and child abuse

Lindo J, Schaller J and Hansen B
Bonn, Germany : IZA, 2013.
"Although a huge literature spanning several disciplines documents an association between poverty and child abuse, researchers have not found persuasive evidence that economic downturns increase abuse, despite their impacts on family income. In this paper, we address this seeming contradiction. Using county-level child abuse data spanning 1996 to 2009 from the California Department of Justice, we estimate the extent to which a county's reported abuse rate diverges from its trend when its economic conditions diverge from trend, controlling for statewide annual shocks. The results of this analysis indicate that overall measures of economic conditions are not strongly related to rates of abuse. However, focusing on overall measures of economic conditions masks strong opposing effects of economic conditions facing males and females: male layoffs increase rates of abuse whereas female layoffs reduce rates of abuse. These results are consistent with a theoretical framework that builds on family-time-use models and emphasizes differential risks of abuse associated with a child's time spent with different caregivers."

Family stressors and children's outcomes

Jones E, Gutman L and Platt L
London : Dept. of Education, c2013.
This report investigates the impact of family stresses and resources on child outcomes, using two longitudinal studies from Great Britain. First, it examines what family factors, stresses, and parental behaviours are associated with children's outcomes at age seven. It then examines whether stressful life events experienced at different periods of childhood are associated with poor outcomes in adolescence. Data is taken from the Millennium Cohort Study and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Child outcomes include verbal skills, non-verbal skills, maths skills, school readiness, and behavioural difficulties, and adolescent outcomes include school results at ages 14 and 16 and emotional, behavioural, social, and school wellbeing at age 13. Risk and protective factors assessed include child illness or disability, family size, family poverty, parent education and literacy skills, parent smoking or drug use, social support, benefits receipt, home ownership, peer contact, and neighbourhood safety. Stressful life events assessed include bereavement, child abuse, homelessness, relocation, and divorce.

Report for the NSW Child Death Review Team on measuring socioeconomic status

Saunders P
Sydney, N.S.W. : NSW Ombudsman, 2012.
One task of the NSW Child Death Review Team is to review the deaths of children to help inform prevention efforts in New South Wales. One variable of interest is socioeconomic status, but concerns have been raised over the accuracy of current measurement approaches. This paper was commissioned to provide advice on appropriate options for measuring and reporting socioeconomic status. The paper considers components of socioeconomic status, definitional and measurement issues, current approaches and indicators, and constraints relating to data availability in New South Wales. It concludes by recommending that the NSW Child Death Review Team use the Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD) quintiles, accompanied by adjusted measures to provide greater detail into the lowest quintile.

Journey's Home research report no. 1: Wave 1 findings

Scutella R, Johnson G, Moschion J, Tseng Y and Wooden M
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, 2012.
The Journeys Home longitudinal study aims to investigate the factors affecting housing stability and the causes and consequences of homelessness. It will follow a national sample of people experiencing high levels of housing insecurity and homelessness in Australia. This report presents key findings from the first wave of the study, which was conducted with 1,682 people in late 2011. It reports on the characteristics of study participants, their rates of homelessness, and the relationship between a range of risk and protective factors commonly associated with homelessness and respondents actual homeless experiences.

Economic determinants and consequences of child maltreatment

Berger L and Waldfogel J
Paris, France : Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD, 2011.
"Substantial numbers of children in the advanced industrialized countries experience child abuse and neglect each year, resulting in considerable social, emotional, and economic costs to both the children themselves and to their societies as a whole. Yet, whereas scholars and policymakers have grown increasingly concerned with promoting child well-being, particularly among low income children, limited attention has been paid to child maltreatment. This paper reviews the existing research on the economic determinants and consequences of child abuse and neglect, drawing on theoretical and empirical studies from a wide range of disciplines. We first provide background information about child maltreatment in advanced industrialized countries. Next, we present current theory and empirical evidence regarding links between low income and child maltreatment. We then turn to the evidence on the long-term consequences of maltreatment. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of interventions to prevent abuse and neglect. We argue that results from a large number of studies clearly imply that economic resources play an important role in influencing risk for child abuse and (particularly) child neglect, although conclusive causal evidence has thus far been elusive. Furthermore, existing evidence that child abuse and neglect impose tremendous long-term costs both to victims and to society as a whole justifies heightened efforts to reduce child maltreatment. Finally, although a few proven programs exist, the evidence base with regard to effective policies and programs for preventing maltreatment is generally quite weak."
Subscribe to