Resilience and child abuse and neglect

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See more resources on Resilience and child abuse and neglect in the AIFS library catalogue

Changing the life trajectories of Australia's most vulnerable children. Report no. 4, 24 months in the Early Years Education Program - assessment of the impact on children and their primary caregivers

Tseng Y, Jordan B, Borland J, Coombs N, Cotter K, Guillou M, Hill A, Kennedy A and Jane Sheehan
Parkville, Vic. : University of Melbourne, 2019.
The Early Years Education Program is an early years care and education program in Victoria targeting children who are exposed to significant family stress, abuse, or social disadvantage. The program aims to address the consequences of family stress on children's development and ensure that at-risk and vulnerable children arrive at school developmentally equal to their peers and equipped to be successful learners. This is the fourth report from an evaluation of the program, and looks at the impacts on children and their carers after the first 2 years of enrolment. A total of 145 infants and toddlers were recruited to the EYEP trial, from 99 families engaged with family services or child protection services. Outcomes include IQ, language skills, protective factors related to resilience, social-emotional development, carer psychological distress, and the home environment. This fourth report found that the program had a significant positive impact on IQ, protective factors related to resilience, and social-emotional development. However, these varied by gender: for example, resilience was significantly improved for boys but not at all for girls.

Responding to adverse childhood experiences: an evidence review of interventions to prevent and address adversity across the life course

Di Lemma L
Cardiff : Public Health Wales ; Wrexham : Bangor University, 2019.
"Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful events during childhood that can have a profound impact on an individual's present and future health ... In Wales, many sectors are working to identify and respond to adversity in order to improve outcomes for those who have experienced ACEs ... To support innovation in addressing ACEs we have undertaken a review of evidence on common approaches to prevent ACEs and/or mitigate their negative impacts. Over 100 interventions were identified and collated across four common approaches: supporting parenting; building relationships and resilience; early identification of adversity; and responding to trauma and specific ACEs. Whilst the interventions vary in type, the review identified cross-cutting themes, which could be used to inform a whole system approach (spanning individual, family and community levels) to tackle ACEs across the life course, supporting the development of an ACE-informed approach. The report concludes by highlighting current gaps in the evidence and suggests key areas for further work to tackle ACEs for our future generations."--Introduction.

Changing the life trajectories of Australia's most vulnerable children. Report no. 2, The first twelve months in the Early Years Education Program - an initial assessment of the impact on children and their primary caregivers

Tseng Y, Jordan B, Borland J, Coombs N, Cotter K, Hill A and Kennedy A
Parkville, Vic. : University of Melbourne, 2018.
The Early Years Education Program is an early years care and education program in Victoria targeting children who are exposed to significant family stress, abuse, or social disadvantage. The program aims to address the consequences of family stress on children's development and ensure that at-risk and vulnerable children arrive at school developmentally equal to their peers and equipped to be successful learners. This is the second report from an evaluation of the program, and looks at the impacts on children and their carers after the first 12 months of enrolment. A total of 145 infants and toddlers were recruited to the EYEP trial, from 99 families engaged with family services or child protection services. Outcomes include IQ, language skills, protective factors related to resilience, social-emotional development, carer psychological distress, and the home environment. This second report found that the benefits of the program are encouraging but not as yet conclusive.

Rapid evidence assessment: characteristics and vulnerabilities of victims of online-facilitated child sexual abuse and exploitation

May-Chahal C and Palmer E
London : Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2018.
To assist their work in the United Kingdom, the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse has commissioned three studies into online-facilitated child sexual abuse. This report presents the findings of one study, which investigated children's characteristics, vulnerabilities, and resilience regarding online-facilitated child sexual abuse and exploitation. Literature from the United Kingdom and overseas is reviewed, and other topics include vulnerability profiles and typologies, the relationship between sexting and sexual extortion or solicitation, and transnational online child sexual abuse. This report highlights what conclusions can be drawn and identifies the gaps in the evidence. Particular risk factors that were identified include a history of child maltreatment, disability, social isolation, and participating in risky offline behaviours.

Resilience in non-offending mothers of children who have reported experiencing sexual abuse.

McGillivray C, Pidgeon A, Ronken C and Credland-Ballantyne C
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse v. 27 no. 7 2018: 793-810
Non-offending mothers of sexually abused children experience significant loss and trauma. This article investigates the psychosocial traits of non-offending mothers, with a particular focus on the mediating role of various psychosocial factors on the relationship between resilience and psychological distress. 68 women took part in the study. The findings indicate that mothers with higher resilience reported higher levels of positive reappraisal, self-compassion, social support, and significantly lower levels of psychological distress compared to mothers with lower resilience. Increased levels of self-compassion and social support were found to be predictive of lowered psychological distress, while increased positive reappraisal predicted increased psychological distress. The findings have implications for interventions for non-offending mothers, who play a crucial role in children's recovery.

Literature review on the outcomes for survivors of child maltreatment in residential care or birth families

Carr A, Duff H and Craddock F
Edinburgh : Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry, 2017.
This report reviews the literature on outcomes for survivors of child maltreatment. It looks at outcomes for individuals who experienced child maltreatment while living with their birth families, outcomes for individuals abused as children while in long-term residential child care, and the issue of structural neglect in congregate care institutions which care for large groups of children, with inadequate and unstable staffing, and limited physical resources. Topics include physical and mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors for adverse outcomes. The findings indicate that survivors of child maltreatment have adverse outcomes across the lifespan, and that the severity of adverse outcomes may be partly influenced by the number of different types of maltreatment experienced as well as the duration and severity of these, and the presence of protective factors such as supportive relationships and personal strengths. This report was commissioned by the Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry to help inform their work.

The impacts of child sexual abuse: a rapid evidence assessment

Fisher C
London : Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2017.
To assist their work, the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse has commissioned this rapid evidence assessment to summarise what is known about the impact of child sexual abuse victims and survivors throughout their life course, the families of victims and survivors, and wider society, and identify the gaps in the evidence base. It is important to note that it is very challenging to determine clearly whether an outcome has actually been caused by child sexual abuse, either directly or indirectly, or whether instead it is linked to it in some other way. Nonetheless, the research base shows that being a victim and survivor of child sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in all areas of a person's life, in many cases enduring over a lifetime. Sections include: physical health; emotional wellbeing, mental health and internalising behaviours; externalising behaviours; interpersonal relationships; socioeconomic outcomes; religious and spiritual beliefs; vulnerability to revictimisation; outcomes by life stage and gender; resilience and recovery: risk and protective factors and triggers; the role of wider society in recovery; impacts on non-abusing parents and caregivers; impacts on non-abusing siblings; impacts on partners; impacts on children ; impacts of CSA on wider society; impacts on the uptake of public services; and financial impacts for wider society.

Journeys of resilience: from adverse childhoods to achieving adulthood

Artemis Research NZ Ltd, SuPERU (New Zealand), New Zealand. Ministry of Social Development
Wellington N.Z. : Superu, 2017.
The New Zealand Government commissioned this project to understand how many at-risk families go on to achieve positive education and employment outcomes and the key factors that influence this success. Part one of the project draws on a recent analysis of linked administrative data by the Treasury which analysed the potential relationship between a range of risk factors - including a parent with a corrections history, spending most of one's childhood with a parent on a benefit, and a child abuse notification by age five - and outcomes in education and employment. Part two of the project draws on interviews with 49 people who had achieved positive education or employment outcomes despite experiencing adversity during their childhood. The report identifies the individual, interpersonal, and community factors that help people overcome adversity, highlights the importance of resilience, and briefly considers the implications for service providers and government policy. Resilience for Maori in the context of whanau is also discussed.

Risk and protective factors for child abuse and neglect

Child Family Community Australia, Australian Institute of Family Studies
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2017.
This paper provides an overview of the risk and protective factors for child abuse and neglect in families. It is important that practitioners and policy-makers working with children and families operate from a broad understanding of these risk and protective factors and the ways in which they interact. However, it is important to keep in mind that though certain risk factors may exist among families where child abuse and neglect occur, this does not mean that the presence of these factors necessarily leads to child abuse and neglect.

Responding sensitively to survivors of child sexual abuse: an evidence review

Sneddon H, Wager N and Allnock D
Luton, UK : The International Centre, University of Bedfordshire, 2016.
This report summarises the evidence on the characteristics of adults who were sexually abused as children and how best to support them. Topics include: how best to provide support to clients who may have experienced childhood sexual abuse, delivery principles developed in Australia for working with adult survivors, principles developed in Canada for sensitive practice for use with all clients, practical suggestions on handling disclosure, risk and protective factors, potential outcomes across the life course, models of trauma recovery, common elements of effective interventions, and sensitive practice.

'All I want is a life free from violence' - the impact of family and domestic violence on children.

National Children's Commissioner (Australia)
Children's rights report 2015. Sydney, NSW : Australian Human Rights Commission, 2015: 98-177
In 2014/15, the National Children's Commissioner reviewed the special issue of the impact of family and domestic violence on children and young people. This chapter presents her findings and recommendations for change. Over the last two years the impact of family and domestic violence on women and their children has increasingly been the subject of media attention and policy initiatives, and the Commissioner is keen to ensure that the voices and needs of children are included. The chapter describes current frameworks and policy, statistics and prevalence, and the state of the knowledge; explains why family and domestic violence a child rights issue; and presents the findings of the Commissioner's national examination, which included a literature review, written submissions, roundtables, a webinar, data analysis, and engagement with children and young people through supported processes. Custom data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics on children aged 0 to 17 years who were victims of physical assault and sexual assault offences at a residential location that came to the attention of and were recorded by police during the four year period between 2010 and 2013 are provided in an appendix, together with data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and Kids Helpline client contact information. Topics include: definitional challenges in the data, how children experience this violence, the intersection with child protection, impacts and resilience, current services and supports, perpetrator interventions for behaviour change, current public policy approaches and educational campaigns, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, sibling and teenage partner violence, and family violence and the family law system.

Better systems, better chances: a review of research and practice for prevention and early intervention

Fox S, Southwell A, Stafford N, Goodhue R, Jackson D and Smith C
Braddon, ACT : Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, 2015.
This rapid strategic literature review investigates the factors that promote positive child development and enable effective prevention and early intervention at a system-wide level. There is clear evidence that children's life chances are influenced by their families and communities and that they are able to be changed for the better. This review examines: Child development pathways and processes; The social and economic benefits of prevention and early intervention; Risk and protective factors for positive child development; Key pathways for intervention from antenatal through to adolescence; and System design elements that facilitate prevention and early intervention.

Protective factors approaches in child welfare

United States. Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway (U.S.)
Washington, DC : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau, 2014.
"This issue brief provides a succinct overview of protective factors approaches to the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect. It is designed to help policymakers, administrators, child welfare and related professionals, service providers, advocates, and other interested individuals understand the concepts of risk and protective factors in families and communities and learn ways in which building protective factors can help to lessen risks for child abuse and neglect."

The Resilience Practice Framework

Benevolent Society (Paddington, N.S.W.), Parenting Research Centre
Paddington, NSW : The Benevolent Society, 2014
The Resilience Practice Framework is designed to help practitioners promote resilience in children and families. The approach aims to maximising the likelihood of better outcomes for children by building a protective network around them. Based on the work of Gilligan (1997) and Daniel & Wassell (2002), it identifies six domains of a child's life that contribute to the factors known to be associated with resilience: secure base, education, friendships, talents and interests, positive values, and social competencies. This suite of documents includes an overview of the framework and 8 practice guides, which explore: practitioner skills; secure and stable relationships; increasing self efficacy; increasing safety; improving empathy; increasing coping/self regulation; cumulative harm; and infants at risk of abuse and neglect.

Understanding connections and relationships: child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and parenting

Murphy C, Paton N, Gulliver P and Fanslow J
Auckland, N.Z. : New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse, University of Auckland, 2013.
This issues paper reviews the international evidence on the frequency with which intimate partner violence and child maltreatment co-occur. Topics include: prevalence and co-occurrence, children's exposure to intimate partner violence, the impacts of family violence on children and young people, coping strategies and antisocial behaviour, the impacts of intimate partner violence on mothering, intimate partner violence and fathering, protective factors for children, New Zealand studies, and Maori and Pasifika families. The paper aims to promote discussion on this issue and raise awareness of the need to address intimate partner violence in order to reduce children's vulnerability to maltreatment.

The long-term effects of child sexual abuse.

Cashmore J
5 August 2013
This webinar will present an overview of recent Australian and international research on the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. The research on the longer-term impact of child sexual abuse indicates that victim/survivors may experience a range of negative consequences for mental health and adjustment in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Not all victim/survivors will experience these difficulties - family support and strong peer relationships appear to be important in mediating the impact of abuse. Teasing out the effects of child sexual abuse is complex and may be complicated by other adverse experiences in childhood and adulthood (including being victimised again). Aspects of the abuse, including the relationship with the perpetrator and the betrayal of trust, the age and gender of the child, and the particular form of abuse as well as others' reactions to and handling of any disclosures, also appear to be important factors. This webinar will draw upon findings from CFCA paper no. 11, 'The long-term effects of child sexual abuse', which was written by Associate Professor Cashmore and Dr Rita Shackel.

Family stressors and children's outcomes

Jones E, Gutman L and Platt L
London : Dept. of Education, c2013.
This report investigates the impact of family stresses and resources on child outcomes, using two longitudinal studies from Great Britain. First, it examines what family factors, stresses, and parental behaviours are associated with children's outcomes at age seven. It then examines whether stressful life events experienced at different periods of childhood are associated with poor outcomes in adolescence. Data is taken from the Millennium Cohort Study and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Child outcomes include verbal skills, non-verbal skills, maths skills, school readiness, and behavioural difficulties, and adolescent outcomes include school results at ages 14 and 16 and emotional, behavioural, social, and school wellbeing at age 13. Risk and protective factors assessed include child illness or disability, family size, family poverty, parent education and literacy skills, parent smoking or drug use, social support, benefits receipt, home ownership, peer contact, and neighbourhood safety. Stressful life events assessed include bereavement, child abuse, homelessness, relocation, and divorce.

Bridges to adulthood: understanding the lifelong influence of men's childhood experiences of violence : analyzing data from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)

Contreras J
Washington, DC : International Center for Research on Women ; Rio de Janeiro : Instituto Promundo, 2012.
This report explores the prevalence and nature of violence against boys in low- and middle-income countries, and its impacts into adulthood. Data is taken from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) for six countries: Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico and Rwanda. Information is presented for: childhood exposure to violence, including domestic violence, child sexual abuse, and bullying; protective factors; and the influence of childhood violence on adult attitudes to gender and gender roles, adulthood criminal behaviour and paying for sex, relationship dynamics and parenting, men's health, and intimate partner violence. The implications for action are also discussed.

What's the buzz? Bumblebees - a therapeutic preschool for abused children.

Prentice K, Signal T and Taylor N
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand v. 4 no. 1 Apr 2012: 11-21
The Bumblebees Therapeutic Preschool is an early intervention preschool initiative in Bundaberg, Queensland. It provides assessment, therapy, and education for children aged 3-6 who have experienced or are at risk of child abuse, and aims to increase resilience and alleviate behaviour problems. This article evaluates the program's effectiveness in achieving these aims, based on an assessment of 72 participants at intake and exit.

Families with futures : family studies into the 21st century

Karraker M and Grochowski J
London : Routledge, c2012.
"[This book] provides a ... contemporary look at the discipline's theories, methods, essential topics, and career opportunities. Featuring strong coverage of theories and methods, readers explore family concepts and processes through a positive prism. Concepts are brought to life through ... examples from everyday family life and cutting-edge scholarship."

Just one violent incident: gendered violence and its impact on children

Simmons P
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Office of the Guardian for Children and Young People, 2011.
This paper is an excerpt from an address delivered by the South Australian Guardian for Children and Young People in Sepetmner 2011. She discusses gendered violence and its impact on children and how services might respond. Topics include: Defining gendered violence against children; The recent history of developments in addressing gendered violence; International views of gendered violence against children; The impact of culture; The impact on children; The state's responsibilities; Protective factors; Implications for programs and services; and Listening to children. The title comes from the author's introduction: "If there is just one incident of violence, children will remember it. If there are multiple incidents, children will unfortunately adapt to it in frightening ways."

Risk and resilience in U.S. military families

MacDermid S and Riggs D
New York : Springer, c2011.
"Among the costs of the ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are the human losses - over 5,000 dead and over 35,000 wounded. Additionally, service personnel often return with traumatic brain injuries, missing limbs, and severe psychological disorders. All of this exacerbates the stress that family members have had to endure since initial deployment. Written by military and civilian scholars across the medical and mental health fields, [this book] focuses on four key areas of research: marital functioning, parenting and child outcomes, family sequelae of wounds and injuries, and single service members (who comprise half of currently active troops). The results are up-to-date (and occasionally surprising) findings on psychological health issues affecting service members and their loved ones, and proven strategies for promoting family resilience, intervening to reduce dysfunctional behavior, and guiding families through the recovery process. Training issues and recommendations for further research round out this singular volume. "

Children's exposure to domestic violence in Australia

Richards K
Canberra : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2011.
Children's 'witnessing' or exposure to domestic violence has been increasingly recognised as a form of child abuse, both in Australia and internationally. Although it is difficult to accurately assess the scope of the problem, research has demonstrated that a substantial amount of domestic violence is witnessed by children. As this paper outlines, witnessing domestic violence can involve a range of incidents, ranging from the child 'only' hearing the violence, to the child being forced to participate in the violence or being used as part of a violent incident. In this paper, current knowledge about the extent of children's exposure to domestic violence in Australia is described, along with the documented impacts that this exposure can have on children. This includes psychological and behavioural impacts, health and socioeconomic impacts, and its link to the intergenerational transmission of violence and re-victimisation. Current legislative and policy initiatives are then described and some community-based programs that have been introduced in Australia to address the problem of children's exposure to domestic violence are highlighted. The paper concludes that initiatives focused on early intervention and holistic approaches to preventing and responding to children's exposure to domestic violence should be considered as part of strategies developed to address this problem. (Publisher abstract)

Key facts about child maltreatment

Asmussen K
London : NSPCC, 2010.
This briefing summarises the current research on child maltreatment. Drawing on studies from Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, it outlines information on the causes and consequences of child abuse. Sections include: What is child maltreatment?; How common is child maltreatment?; What are the causes of child maltreatment?; What are the consequences of child maltreatment?; Resilience; Child deaths; Who are the perpetrators?; What do children think of their abuse and abusers?; How can child abuse be stopped?; What works in stopping parents from abusing their children?; What works in preventing parents from abusing their children?; and Implications for policy and practice.

Family is for life: connections between childhood family experiences and wellbeing in early adulthood.

Price-Robertson R, Smart D and Bromfield L
Family Matters no. 85 2010: 7-17
A large body of international research has shown that the experiences of childhood can exert an enduring influence on an individual's life. However, there is a dearth of recent Australian research demonstrating connections between childhood experiences within the family, and outcomes in adulthood. This article provides prevalence figures for a range of childhood familial experiences (both positive and adverse), and examines the associations between these experiences and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. The paper uses data from the Australian Temperament Project, a longitudinal study of children's development that commenced in 1983 and has collected 14 waves of data over the first 24 years of life. Key findings suggest that positive development (or 'doing well') in young adulthood relies on the active investment of caregivers' love, affection and encouragement during childhood, rather than simply the absence of adverse experiences. They also indicate that although young adult survivors of childhood maltreatment may be faring adequately in the social sphere, they are still much more likely than others to suffer from internalising problems such as depression and anxiety.

Protecting children from violence : evidence based interventions

Lampinen J and Sexton-Radek K
New York : Psychology Press, 2010.
"Providing an evidence-based understanding of the causes and consequences of violence against children, experts in the field examine the best practices used to help protect children from violence. Various types of violence are reviewed including physical and sexual abuse, (cyber-)bullying, human trafficking, online predators, abductions, and war. In addition, it reviews the various perpetrators of such violence including parents and relatives, strangers, other children, and societal institutions. The possible outcomes of such violence including physical injuries, death, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorders, and damage to the social fabric of the local community are also explored."

Working with vulnerable families : a partnership approach

Arney F and Scott D
Port Melbourne, Vic. : Cambridge University Press, 2010.
This book explores the ways agencies can work with vulnerable families to enhance child welfare and prevent child abuse. The chapters highlight a relationship-based practice approach to supporting families who are facing overwhelming situations, as well as interagency collaboration and working with parent strengths. Chapters include: Think child, think family, think community, by Dorothy Scott, Fiona Arney and Graham Vimpani; Family strengths: an international perspective, by John DeFrain, Sylvia Asay and Judi Geggie; Harnessing 'resilience' when working with children and families, by Edwina Farrall and Fiona Arney; Working within and between organisations, by Dorothy Scott; Family centred practice in early childhood settings, by Dorothy Scott; Sustained nurse home visiting with families of Aboriginal children, by Fiona Arney, Kerrie Bowering, Alwin Chong, Virginia Healy and Bob Volkmer; Including fathers in work with vulnerable families, by Richard Fletcher; Parenting in a new culture: working with refugee families, by Kerry Lewig, Fiona Arney, Mary Salveron and Maria Barredo; Responding to parents with complex problems who are involved with statutory child protection services, by Fiona Arney, Ruth Lange and Carole Zufferey; Engaging family members in decision-making in child welfare contexts, by Marie Connolly; Supporting parents whose children are in out-of-home care, by Mary Salveron, Kerry Lewig and Fiona Arney; Using evidence-informed practice to support vulnerable families, by Fiona Arney, Kerry Lewig, Leah Bromfield and Prue Holzer; and Spreading promising ideas and innovations in child and family services, by Kerry Lewig, Fiona Arney, Mary Salveron, Helen McLaren, Christine Gibson and Dorothy Scott.

Childhood sexual experiences : narratives of resilience

Hunter S
Abingdon, UK : Radcliffe, c2010.
Sexual relations between children and adults is a highly controversial issue, and is usually framed as child sexual abuse. However, not all people regard their childhood sexual experiences as abusive or having an impact on their lives. Without detracting from the significant trauma of child abuse, this book seeks to explore divergent narratives of childhood sexual experiences, in particular to examine the factors leading to resilience in adversity or reduced perceptions of severity. The chapters look at the current literature on child sexual abuse and experiences, family and environmental protective and risk factors, the psychology of disclosure, coping mechanisms, gender differences, affect on sexuality, and the implications for therapy, and draws upon the narratives of adults who describe their perceptions - in childhood and adulthood - of their experiences. The outline of a ten week recovery programme is also included.

Impacts of military life on families: results from the Perstempo survey of Canadian forces spouses

Dursun S and Sudom K
Canada : Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis, 2009.
"It has been recognized that increasing workload and time away can have adverse consequences for members and their families. The Human Dimensions of Deployments Study (HDDS) was established in order to examine the effects of perstempo, or personnel tempo, on Canadian Forces (CF) members, their families, and the organization. This report presents an overview of the findings from an HDDS survey sent to spouses/partners of CF members in 2005/06. The stressors experienced by the spouses of CF members, the potential outcomes of high levels of stress, and factors that may buffer against or exacerbate these outcomes, are discussed. The survey revealed that although the majority of spouses/partners are supportive of their CF member's career, the demands of military service, including deployments, can have negative impacts upon family life. It is evident that spouses provide vital support to service members' well-being, readiness, performance, and ability to carry out missions. At a time when the frequency and intensity of operational deployments is increasing, it is particularly important to assess the impacts of perstempo on CF members and their families, as well as factors that may serve to mitigate or exacerbate such impacts."

Resilient communities: socio-demographic factors associated with lower than expected rates of child protection reporting in small areas in NSW

Butler M, Hopkins J and Nivison-Smith I
Ashfield, NSW : NSW Dept. of Community Services, 2009.
This report examines the relationship between child protection referral rates and socio-demographic factors. It analyses data for local government areas in New South Wales, using an area-based regression approach, to identify the child, parental, and neighbourhood factors associated with both higher and lower rates of child abuse incidents. The report also discusses the concept of resilient communities and factors associated with lower than expected child protection referral rates, which, the authors note, can also be the result of under-reporting or higher reporting thresholds.
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