Risk factors for child maltreatment

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See more resources on Risk factors for child maltreatment in the AIFS library catalogue

Preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs): leveraging the best available evidence

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (U.S.). Division of Violence Prevention
Atlanta, GA : National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019.
Adverse Childhood Experiences, or ACEs, are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood or adolescence such as experiencing abuse, witnessing violence, or growing up in a household with substance misuse. ACEs can have negative, lasting effects on health, wellbeing, and opportunity. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has produced a suite of technical packages to help states and communities take advantage of the best available evidence to change norms, environments, and behaviors in ways that can prevent ACEs from happening in the first place as well as to lessen the immediate and long-term harms of ACEs. This paper outlines the core strategies of these packages: strengthen economic supports for families; promote social norms that protect against violence and adversity; ensure a strong start for children; teach skills; connect youth to caring adults and activities; and intervene to lessen immediate and long-term harms.

Supporting vulnerable babies and young children : interventions for working with trauma, mental health, illness and other complex challenges

Bunston W and Jones S
London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2019, c2020.
This book is written for health professionals, social workers and child protection practitioners working with babies and young children facing a range of complex issues. Authors from Australia and overseas discuss good practice and highlight the importance of this developmental period. Chapters include: introducing the infant: and how to support vulnerable babies and young children; reflective supervision's essential place in thoughtful practice; restoring ruptured bonds: the young child and complex trauma in families; developing an intervention for infants and young children in foster care; keeping the child in mind when thinking about violence in families; 'murder in their family': making space for the experience of the infant impacted by familial murder; homelessness in infancy: finding 'home' for babies in crisis accommodation after family violence; self-determining support for Indigenous children in Australia: the Bubup Wilam case study; the 'international infant': examining the experiences and clinical needs of separated and reunited transnational infant-parent dyads; 'invisible children': how attachment theory and evidenced-based procedures can bring to light the hidden experience of children at risk from their parents; infants and young children living within high-conflict parental disputes: 'keep me safe and organise my emotional world'; playing behind the barbed-wire fence: asylum-seeking infants and their parents; infants with cancer: the oncology unit as their second home; high-risk infant mental health outreach: creating a professional community of caregivers using a collaborative mental health and nursing approach; and the art of finding authentic discourses for parents about and with their donor-conceived children.

NSW child protection reports involving children with teenage parents in 2016-17

New South Wales. Dept. of Family and Community Services. Insights, Analysis and Research Unit
Ashfield, NSW : FACS Insights, Analysis and Research, NSW Department of Communities and Justice, 2019.
This report presents information on the number and characteristics of children in the protection system in New South Wales in 2016-2017 with a teenage parent and identified as being at risk of significant harm. Though only 1.4% of children met this criteria, these children were more likely to be assessed as unsafe, be reported at a younger age, to have received reports across most categories of abuse and neglect, and enter out-of-home care. Nine in ten of their parents themselves had child protection involvement as a child. Differences are also noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal teenage parents. Teenage parents are often subject to an intergenerational cycle of abuse and neglect, making their children a small but distinct and important sub-group requiring a targeted service response.

Children in out-of-home care with young parents

Hopkins J, Butler M, Shuttleworth L, Paxman M, Zhou A and Burke S
Ashfield, NSW : NSW Dept. of Family and Community Services, 2019.
This report looks into the number and circumstances of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal teenage parents with children in out of home care in New South Wales. Using data from the Pathways of Care longitudinal study (POCLS), it investigates the association of parent age with child protection history, type of abuse, entry into care, restoration attempts, contact with children, and relationship with child, comparing parents aged 15-19 years, 20-25 years, and 26 years and over. The study found that a small but significant number of children in out of home care were born to teenage parents. These parents also had high rates of child protection involvement themselves. Restorations were successful on the first attempt for 71.9% of children with Aboriginal teenage mothers and 78% of children with non-Aboriginal teenage mothers.

Lifetime risk of child protection system involvement in South Australia for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, 1986-2017, using linked administrative data.

Segal L, Nguyen H, Mansor M, Gnanamanickam E, Doidge J, Preen D, Brown D, Pearson O and Armfield J
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 97 Nov 2019: 104145
This article investigates children's risk of child protection system involvement - looking at risk of involvement across their whole childhood rather than year at a time. It analyses linked administrative data from South Australia for all 608,547 children born between 1986 and 2017. It compares investigations, substantiations, and out-of-home care involvement, and differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children, age groups, and across years. Rates varied across this period, but 1.5% of non-Aboriginal and 12.7% of Aboriginal children were placed in care.

Exploring outcomes for young people who have experienced out-of-home care

Lima F, Maclean M and O'Donnell M
Perth : Telethon Kids Institute, 2019.
Young people leaving the care system are at high risk of disadvantage, due to the significant and complex issues they have faced in childhood and the lack of supports available as they transition to independent adult life. This report was commissioned to learn more about the outcomes of young people leaving care in Western Australia. It compares the physical and mental health, school achievement, justice involvement, and child protection involvement of children who had been in care, children with at least one substantiated maltreatment allegation but no time in care, and children with no child protection contact. It draws on linked population data for children born between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 1995 in Western Australia, regarding hospital admissions, mental health diagnoses and service use, secondary education completion, further education, juvenile justice sentences, adult justice sentences, early pregnancy, and multiple adverse outcomes. The findings are consistent with those of studies from other jurisdictions, with young people who had been in care were more likely to have adverse outcomes than the other children. Young people who were Aboriginal, female, born in a more disadvantaged area, or first entered care after the age of 10 were particularly at risk. Note, these children had wide-ranging periods in care, from two days up to 18 years, so further analysis is needed into differences by time spent in care, age on entering and leaving care, and placement type.

Intergenerational impacts of family violence - mothers and children in a large prospective pregnancy cohort study.

Gartland D, Giallo R, Woolhouse H, Mensah F and Brown S
EClinicalMedicine 18 Aug 2019: Advance online publication
This article adds to what is known about the intergenerational impact of family violence. It looks at the prevalence of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence in a cohort of new mothers, its association with their postpartum physical and mental health, and their own children's emotional-behavioural difficulties at 4 years of age. Data is taken from the Maternal Health Study, a longitudinal study of 1,507 women recruited during pregnancy in Victoria. The study found high rates of violence in the lives of these mothers, with two out of five reporting abuse in childhood and almost one in three reporting intimate partner violence during the first four years of motherhood, with increased rates of poor physical and mental health. In turn, higher levels of such adversity and poor health in mothers was associated with a higher risk of emotional-behavioural difficulties in their children. However, the children of mothers with childhood but not adulthood abuse had similar rates of emotional-behavioural difficulties to children whose mothers hadn't experienced any family violence.

Hospitalisations for maternal assault are associated with increased risk of child protection involvement.

Orr C, Fisher C, Sims S, Preen D, Glauert R and O'Donnell M
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 95 Sep 2019: 104014
The children of mothers who experience family violence are known to face a higher likelihood of child maltreatment, but what about the children of mothers who experience violence in general? This article looks at the association between child maltreatment allegations and having a mother hospitalised due to assault, using child protection data linked with hospital administrative data from Western Australia. It finds that these children are significantly more likely to receive a maltreatment allegation than other children, with Aboriginal children and the children of mothers assaulted during pregnancy particularly at risk.

Inter-agency indicators of out-of-home-care placement by age 13-14 years : a population record linkage study.

Green M, Kariuki M, Chilvers M, Butler M, Katz I, Burke S, Tzoumakis S, Laurens K, Harris F and Carr V
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 93 Jul 2019: 91-102
This article investigates whether cross-agency administrative data can be used to identify children at risk of placement in out-of-home-care before the age of 13-14 years old. It draws on data from the New South Wales Child Development Study, which involved linked data from 1994-2016 for 72,079 children and their parents. The study identifies a combination of six risk indicators that can classify children placed in out of home care with approximately 95% accuracy, and the presence of at least four of these indicators provides 99.6% accuracy.

Promoting the safety of children and young people with intellectual disability : perspectives and actions of families and professionals.

Robinson S and Graham A
Children and Youth Services Review v. 104 Sep 2019: Article 104404
This article reports on families and professionals' views on child abuse safety and risk among children and young people with intellectual disability. Interviews were conducted with 6 family members and 10 disability support professionals, regarding children's own priorities for safety, the strategies that children and young people used when they felt unsafe, the role of service systems in facilitating or constraining safety, and the skills and capabilities needed by children and young people. The findings highlight the differences and similarities in the views and approaches of families and professionals, and the implications for education.

Do measures of child protection recurrence obscure the differences between reporting and substantiation?

Jenkins B, Tilbury C, Hayes H and Mazerolle P
Children and Youth Services Review v. 104 Sep 2019: Article 104391
This article investigates whether there are differences in the factors associated with child abuse being reported or substantiated. It has been held that the same factors predict both the reports and substantiations of child abuse, since child protection decisions are determined primarily by what evidence is available. However, this article contends that there are meaningful differences in these predictors, and any similarity is due to the way recurrence measures are constructed. It tests this theory with administrative data from Queensland of a sample of 9,608 children. It found that children subject to high rates of reporting were relatively unlikely to have high rates of substantiation, and that different predictors were involved. The findings raise concerns for any performance measurement or risk assessment instruments based on measures of recurrence.

How do welfare and tax settings affect children's involvement with child protective services?: research brief

Harrow C
Wellington N.Z. : Oranga Tamariki Ministry for Children, 2019.
This paper investigates whether there is a causal relationship between low income and child maltreatment and thus whether welfare reforms that lower or raise incomes can affect rates of abuse. It reviews New Zealand and overseas studies that employ experimental designs to control for confounding factors. Overall, the available evidence shows there is a causal association between low income and maltreatment outcomes, suggesting that welfare policies that decrease incomes are likely to contribute to negative outcomes for children. There is also evidence that increasing the incomes of at-risk populations is linked to a reduced incidence of child maltreatment. A number of studies found a significant relationship between low income and neglect, consistent with the wider literature, but the link with physical abuse or other types of abuse is less clear. The paper also considers some of the factors that can affect the impact of welfare and tax policies.

Sexual abuse of children in custodial institutions, 2009-2017: investigation report

Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (Great Britain)
London : Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2019.
As part of the work of the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, this report looks into sexual abuse of children in custodial institutions in England and Wales. Though children in detention are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, very little is known about their experiences or the extent to which institutions have discharged their duty of care to protect them. The report investigates the nature and extent of sexual abuse of children in custodial institutions - including young offender institutions, secure training centres, and secure children's homes - as well as institutional responses to abuse and institutional and systemic protections, focusing on the recent years of 2009-2017. The report identifies the risks and barriers to reporting found in these places and calls for their culture and ethos to move from control and discipline to a child-centred approach to care and support and, indeed, for community alternatives to remand to be considered.

Child maltreatment 2017

United States. Children's Bureau
Washington, DC : Children's Bureau, 2019.
This annual report series presents data about child abuse and neglect known to child protective services agencies in the United States. This report presents data for 2017, for each state, regarding children who received an investigation or alternative response, number of child victims, children by age group and report source, maltreatment types, child fatalities, child and perpetrator risk factors, substance-exposed infants, perpetrator relationship, and prevention and postresponse services. The 2017 data show that three-quarters of victims were neglected, 18.3% were physically abused, and 8.6% were sexually abused, and an estimated 1,720 children died of abuse and neglect. Though the number and rate of victims have fluctuated during the past 5 years, the number of children who received a child protective response has increased 10%.

Changing the life trajectories of Australia's most vulnerable children. Report no. 4, 24 months in the Early Years Education Program - assessment of the impact on children and their primary caregivers

Tseng Y, Jordan B, Borland J, Coombs N, Cotter K, Guillou M, Hill A, Kennedy A and Jane Sheehan
Parkville, Vic. : University of Melbourne, 2019.
The Early Years Education Program is an early years care and education program in Victoria targeting children who are exposed to significant family stress, abuse, or social disadvantage. The program aims to address the consequences of family stress on children's development and ensure that at-risk and vulnerable children arrive at school developmentally equal to their peers and equipped to be successful learners. This is the fourth report from an evaluation of the program, and looks at the impacts on children and their carers after the first 2 years of enrolment. A total of 145 infants and toddlers were recruited to the EYEP trial, from 99 families engaged with family services or child protection services. Outcomes include IQ, language skills, protective factors related to resilience, social-emotional development, carer psychological distress, and the home environment. This fourth report found that the program had a significant positive impact on IQ, protective factors related to resilience, and social-emotional development. However, these varied by gender: for example, resilience was significantly improved for boys but not at all for girls.

Changing the life trajectories of Australia's most vulnerable children. Report no. 3, The Early Years Education Program (EYEP) model

Jordan B and Kennedy A
Parkville, Vic. : University of Melbourne, 2019.
The Early Years Education Program is an early years care and education program developed by the Children's Protection Society. The program targets children who are exposed to significant family stress, abuse, or social disadvantage, and aims to address the consequences of family stress on children's development and ensure that at-risk and vulnerable children arrive at school developmentally equal to their peers and equipped to be successful learners. This report describes the conceptual frameworks underpinning the model and its key components. It discusses the background of the program, early years education pedagogy, attachment theory, parent engagement and participation, wrap around services, and structures and processes to support and scaffold the work of EYEP educators. The Victorian Department of Human Services 2007 list of risk factors to healthy child development are included as an appendix.

Overcrowded housing : one of a constellation of vulnerabilities for child sexual abuse.

Cant R, O'Donnell M, Sims S and Harries M
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 93 Jul 2019: 239-248
This article investigates whether household overcrowding is a distinct risk factor for child sexual abuse. It uses linked administrative data for children born in Western Australia from 1990 to 2009, and controls for other socio-economic risk factors. The findings indicate that very high levels of overcrowding are associated with an increased risk of child sexual abuse, with implications for risk assessment and intervention efforts.

'Women as Protectors' process evaluation

Romanou E and Margolis R
London : NSPCC, 2019.
'Women as Protectors' is a protective and capacity-building program for women in contact with men who pose a risk of sexual harm to children. The 10-week group work program aims to increase women's knowledge of sexual abuse and the ongoing risks that the man poses to their family, and is combined with Protective Behaviours sessions for children and mentoring. This report is one of three presenting the findings of an evaluation of the program. This report focuses on the factors associated with the effective delivery, appeal and acceptability of the service to its providers and users. The evaluation found that the program has many of the hallmarks of a feasible service but was let down by the dearth in referrals in some areas and low uptake of the Protective Behaviours sessions and mentoring. However, the positive findings from the outcomes evaluation component suggest it would be well worth the effort to overcome these issues.

'Women as Protectors' outcomes evaluation

Romanou E and Margolis R
London : NSPCC, 2019.
'Women as Protectors' is a protective and capacity-building program for women in contact with men who pose a risk of sexual harm to children. The 10-week group work program aims to increase women's knowledge of sexual abuse and the ongoing risks that the man poses to their family, and is combined with Protective Behaviours sessions for children and mentoring. This report is one of three presenting the findings of an evaluation of the program. This report focuses on the outcomes of the program, and looks at the client characteristics of women who were referred to the program, short-term outcomes for women and children, longer term impacts such as mental health, parental self-efficacy, and attitudes towards relationships with men, and the strengths and weaknesses of the service. Overall, the evaluation found that participants had positive outcomes at the end of the program, but only around half of participants saw improvements in mental or emotional wellbeing. The report concludes by considering how the service elements, content, targeting, and delivery could be improved. The appendices are published separately as a technical report, and include details on methodology, the questionnaires and measures, and further statistics.

The tripartite tragedy : alcohol and other drugs, intimate partner violence and child abuse.

Hameed M
Children Australia v. 44 no. 1 Mar 2019: 32-41
This article reviews what is known about the relationship between parental alcohol and other drug problems, intimate partner violence, and child abuse. It presents a 'review of reviews' to understand the evidence on the relationship between alcohol and other drug problems and intimate partner violence, and the causal mechanisms at work, then considers how this relates to parenting and child abuse risk. The article concludes with the implications for policy, intervention and prevention, further research, and knowledge exchange. The findings highlight the complex nature of intimate partner violence and its role as a family stress factor that can increase the risk of child abuse.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019 - in brief

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
This paper presents key findings from the 2019 'Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia' report. That report series brings together the latest information on the prevalence and impact of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia, and identifies key gaps in the data. It highlights data relating to: Groups more vulnerable to family, domestic and sexual violence; Responses to family, domestic and sexual violence; Impacts of family, domestic and sexual violence; and Attitudes and behaviours relating to family, domestic and sexual violence. Family, domestic and sexual violence is a major health and welfare issue: 1 in 6 women and 1 in 16 men have experienced violence by a current or previous partner since the age of 15, and 1 in 5 women and 1 in 20 men have experienced sexual violence.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
This report brings together the latest information on the prevalence and impact of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia, and identifies key gaps in the data. Statistics are provided on: prevalence and rates; extent and nature; responses by the justice, health, and specialist support services; long term health impacts; homicide; community attitudes towards violence against women; Indigenous Australians; and vulnerable populations, including children, young women, older people, people with disability, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, LGBTIQ+ people, people in rural and remote areas, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The report also lists state and territory government policies on family, domestic and sexual violence. Family, domestic and sexual violence is a major health and welfare issue: 1 in 6 women and 1 in 16 men have experienced violence by a current or previous partner since the age of 15, with even higher rates experiencing emotional abuse. 1 in 5 women and 1 in 20 men have experienced sexual violence since the age of 15. This report updates the inaugural 2018 report, and a brief version is also available.

Filicide in Australia, 2000-2012: a national study

Brown T, Lyneham S, Bryant W, Bricknell S, Tomison A, Tyson D and Fernandez Arias P
Canberra, A.C.T. : Criminology Research Grants Program, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2019.
This study adds to what is known about filicide in Australia. The killing of a child by their parent is a rare event and inconsistently recorded in homicide data, which presents challenges for identifying trends and patterns and developing prevention measures. The study analysed state and territory homicide data from the 12-year period from 2000-01 to 2011-12, regarding the number and characteristics of filicide incidents, victims and offenders. On average, a child is killed by a parent every two weeks in Australia, and this rate has remained relatively stable over time despite decreases in total homicides and domestic homicides. The involvement of intimate partner violence, mental illness, and parental separation were also identified. The findings are also summarised in the trends & issues in crime and criminal justice paper 'Filicide offenders'.

Protective factors of children and families at highest risk of adverse childhood experiences: an analysis of children and families in the Growing Up in New Zealand data who 'beat the odds'

University of Auckland. Centre for Social Data Analytics, New Zealand. Ministry of Social Development
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2019.
"With increasing access to integrated administrative data, it is easy to identify infants who are likely to suffer childhood adversities. However, many infants who appear 'at risk' end up thriving, experiencing few of the adversities that beset other children with similar risk factors. Understanding what helps children 'beat the odds' is important for policy-makers and frontline services that want to help families at risk. The present report analyses the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) birth cohort to identify protective factors for at-risk children who 'beat the odds'. For the purpose of illustration, we build a predictive risk model using variables that are observed prenatally or at-birth in the GUiNZ data. These are mainly economic and demographic factors, and are chosen because they are typically available in administrative data. We use a predictive risk model to identify children who are at the highest risk of being exposed to Adversities of Childhood Experiences (ACEs) by 54 months. Children are classified as 'beating the odds' if they are in the highest 20% risk group based on the predictive risk model, but by age 54 months have not experienced a single ACE. Using univariate and multivariate approaches, 749 factors that are collected in the GUiNZ data are tested for their protective association with 'beating the odds'. These factors are classified by the researchers in five categories: (i) strength of the parent-child relationship; (ii) strength of the mother-partner relationship, (iii) parental health and wellness; (iv) community and neighbourhood characteristics, and (v) family finances. Taking advantage of the breadth of these investigated categories, we identified several factors that appear to be protective in children at high risk of ACEs ... surprisingly, based on standardised effect size, parental relationship factors are found to have the strongest associations with 'beating the odds' ... Our findings suggest that programmes that focus solely on mother-child interactions, without attending to the mother-partner relationship, might be missing an important opportunity for reducing adversities in childhood."--Policy summary.

Safe inside?: child sexual abuse in the youth secure estate

Soares C
London : Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2019.
This study investigates the extent to which children feel safe from sexual abuse in the youth secure estate in England and Wales, and the role of staff, systems and processes within this. The youth secure estate currently comprises Young Offender Institutions, Secure Training Centres, and Secure Children's Homes, which hold children detained on criminal justice grounds as well as children held on welfare grounds for their own protection. Previous research has highlighted the levels of violence, restraint, and child sexual abuse in these establishments, as well as children's reports of feeling unsafe. This new study draws on interviews with staff and young people aged 14?17 years old to learn more about the systems and practices in place to keep children safe, their delivery and effectiveness, the awareness and views of children and staff of safeguarding procedures and policy, use of technology and surveillance, risk management, the adequacy of staff training and how this translates into practice, experiences around incidents and reporting of abuse, the management of inappropriate behaviour and sexual abuse, the nature of different types of abuse, perceived risk of child sexual abuse, and children's sense of safety and main concerns. This study has been produced as part of the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse.

Filicide offenders

Brown T, Bricknell S, Lyneham S, Tyson D and Fernandez Arias P
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2019.
This report investigates the characteristics of parents who kill their children, to help inform risk assessment and prevention efforts. It assesses the 238 cases of filicide in Australia that occurred from 2000-01 to 2011-12, in which 284 children were killed by their parents or step-parents. Data is taken from the National Homicide Monitoring Program. It provides information on homicide rates, state and territory trends, offender age and gender, Indigenous status, marital status and separation, alcohol and drug use, previous offending and history of domestic violence, mental illness, suicide and attempted suicide, custodial relationship with victim, victim age and gender, and cause of death. Around 10% of homicide victims in Australia are children and adolescents, and the majority of these are victims of filicide.

Child protection and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children

Child Family Community Australia, Australian Institute of Family Studies
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2019.
This paper looks at the latest data on the over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the child protection and out-of-home care systems in Australia. It examines rates of substantiations of notifications, the findings of the Royal Commission into the Protection and Detention of Children in the Northern Territory, the extent of abuse and neglect among Indigenous children, why Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children might be more likely to be abused or neglected, the most common types of abuse and neglect reported, placement rates in out of home care, and how this differs from abuse and care among non-Indigenous children. Data is taken largely from the 2016-17 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare report, published in 2018. The paper also discusses the Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander Child Placement Principle for out of home care and the barriers to children being placed in accordance with this principle. It concludes with an outline of the key government and peak body campaigns to address this over-representation.

How life outside of a school affects student performance in school

Jacob B and Ryan J
Washington, D.C. : Economic Studies at Brookings, 2018.
This report adds to what is known about the impact of child abuse on educational outcomes. It presents findings from an analysis of linked administrative data in Michigan in the United States, which matched child maltreatment records with educational data on all public school children in the state. It investigates: the prevalence of child maltreatment investigations in the public school population by the time students reach third grade; whether the risk of maltreatment differs by race, gender, socioeconomic status or geographic location; and the association between maltreatment and academic performance. It finds that roughly 18% of third-grade students have been subject to at least one formal investigation for child maltreatment, with some schools having rates of over 50%. It also finds that early childhood maltreatment is associated with significantly lower academic outcomes, even after controlling for school, neighbourhood, race and other key demographics: children from disadvantaged areas who have been investigated for maltreatment perform worse in school than their peers who have not been referred. These findings highlight how child abuse is widespread and that it is critical for school systems to develop ways to support children who have experienced maltreatment.

Child maltreatment 2016

United States. Children's Bureau
Washington, DC : Children's Bureau, 2018.
This annual report series presents data about child abuse and neglect known to child protective services agencies in the United States. This report presents data for 2016, for each state, regarding children who received an investigation or alternative response, number of child victims, children by age group and report source, maltreatment types, child fatalities, child and perpetrator risk factors, substance-exposed infants, perpetrator relationship, and prevention and postresponse services. The 2016 data show that three-quarters of victims were neglected, 18.2% were physically abused, and 8.5% were sexually abused, and an estimated 1,750 children died of abuse and neglect.

Changing the life trajectories of Australia's most vulnerable children. Report no. 2, The first twelve months in the Early Years Education Program - an initial assessment of the impact on children and their primary caregivers

Tseng Y, Jordan B, Borland J, Coombs N, Cotter K, Hill A and Kennedy A
Parkville, Vic. : University of Melbourne, 2018.
The Early Years Education Program is an early years care and education program in Victoria targeting children who are exposed to significant family stress, abuse, or social disadvantage. The program aims to address the consequences of family stress on children's development and ensure that at-risk and vulnerable children arrive at school developmentally equal to their peers and equipped to be successful learners. This is the second report from an evaluation of the program, and looks at the impacts on children and their carers after the first 12 months of enrolment. A total of 145 infants and toddlers were recruited to the EYEP trial, from 99 families engaged with family services or child protection services. Outcomes include IQ, language skills, protective factors related to resilience, social-emotional development, carer psychological distress, and the home environment. This second report found that the benefits of the program are encouraging but not as yet conclusive.
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