Rural and remote issues

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Rural and remote issues in the AIFS library catalogue

Co-designing the Child and Family Support System: final qualitative report

DS Consultancy, Think Human (Firm), South Australia. Dept. of Human Services
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Early Intervention Research Directorate, 2020
The South Australian Government is establishing a new system of intensive support services for families and children at risk of child protection involvement. A co-design project was undertaken, with professionals and people with lived experience creating design principles and recommendations to inform the design and implementation of the new system. A summary of the findings and next steps was released in 2019. This new report provides the detailed raw data that informs the summary report and should be seen as a companion document. Chapters include: Building the system with Aboriginal families; Trauma responsive practice; Early help and support system; Designing a system that works in regional and rural contexts; Workforce development; Monitoring, learning and evaluation; and Commissioning.

CatholicCare Wilcannia-Forbes' COVID-19 response: report on document audit and evaluation

Sartore G, Wade C, Almendingen A and Devine B
East Melbourne, Vic. : Parenting Research Centre, 2020.
CatholicCare Wilcannia-Forbes is a family support agency in rural and remote New South Wales. Like other agencies faced with the COVID-19 restrictions, they have had to radically change the way they work with clients: in their cases adopting secure social media platforms, telepractice, add remote work for staff. This report evaluates which of their innovations have worked well and which should be retained after restrictions are relaxed. The evaluation drew on an audit and risk assessment of adapted service delivery models, interviews with staff, staff wellbeing data, and surveys and interviews with clients from playgroups and financial counselling services - two types of services that are difficult to replicate remotely.

VicHealth Coronavirus Victorian Wellbeing Impact Study - follow-up survey: report for survey no. 2 - how the second pandemic wave impacted the health and wellbeing of Victorians

Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Social Research Centre (North Melbourne, Vic.)
Melbourne : VicHealth, 2020.
Earlier in the year, VicHealth ran a survey to look at the impact of the coronavirus restrictions of March-May 2020 on people's health and wellbeing. However, Victoria has since experienced a second round of further restrictions. This new survey looks at how people are faring in September, with comparisons to findings from the first survey. Just over one thousand adults took part in the this second survey, answering questions about general wellbeing, social connection, physical activity, healthy eating, alcohol consumption and smoking, working, and parenting responsibilities, as well as parents' reports of children's physical activity and healthy eating. The survey found some positive results, with reduced alcohol use, reliance on low-cost unhealthy food, and financial hardship since the first lockdown. However, there was a decline in life satisfaction and wellbeing, and people struggled to both connect socially and keep physically active. Some people were particularly at risk, including people on low incomes, Indigenous people, people in the inner city, and people in communities affected by the Summer Bushfires.

VicHealth Coronavirus Victorian Wellbeing Impact Study: report for survey no. 1 - how the first coronavirus lockdown impacted the health and wellbeing of Victorians

Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Social Research Centre (North Melbourne, Vic.)
Melbourne : VicHealth, 2020.
This report looks at the impact of the coronavirus restrictions of March-May 2020 on people's health and wellbeing in Victoria. It analyses findings from a survey of 2,000 adults, regarding their health, lifestyle, general wellbeing, social connection, healthy eating, physical activity, financial hardship, smoking, alcohol consumption, working, home life, and parenting responsibilities. Findings are broken down by age, gender, employment, income, location, and community - as well as experience of the Summer Bushfire disaster - and compared to earlier surveys from 2015 and 2017. The findings highlight both negative and positive impacts from the pandemic. However, many people experienced mental wellbeing issues, lower levels of life satisfaction, a rise in food insecurity as well as consumption of sugary and alcoholic drinks, and a large number of people experienced financial hardship.

Family violence in Victoria: findings from the Victorian Population Health Survey 2017

Victorian Agency for Health Information
Melbourne : Victorian Government, 2020.
This report is the first population-representative study on family violence in Victoria. Data is taken from the 2017 Victorian Population Health Survey of 33,654 adults, to investigate prevalence, frequency, type of family violence experienced, service usage, and risk by age, gender, country of birth, Indigenous status, LGBTIQ status, socioeconomic status, location, and health status. Knowledge about where to get outside advice or support for family violence was also examined. In this study, 5.4% of respondents experienced family violence in the two years preceding the survey, and a further 4.9% of adults refused to answer the question. Though family violence occurs regardless of socioeconomic status, there was a socioeconomic gradient, where the lower the socioeconomic status, the higher the prevalence of family violence.

Families in Australia Survey - Life During COVID-19. Report no. 3, Help and support

Budinski M, Baxter J, Carroll M and Hand K
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2020.
This paper looks at how people are supporting each other during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether they are getting the help they need. It presents findings from the 'Life during COVID-19' survey, conducted in May-June 2020 with 7,306 adults, with 6,435 surveys completed in full. The survey found that relatives have been people's leading source of financial support and help with things such as shopping and domestic work, and that friends were a leading source of emotional support. People living in remote areas were more likely to receive physical help than their city counterparts, but less likely to receive emotional support or be able to access professional support. Older people aged 50-69 years were the most likely to give help but the least likely to receive it.

Service usage and service gaps during the COVID-19 pandemic

Biddle N and Gray M
Canberra, ACT : ANU Centre for Social Research & Methods, 2020.
This paper investigates people's needs for support services during the COVID-19 pandemic. It draws on a community survey of 3,219 adults conducted in May 2020, regarding their need for specific services for ten broad issues, whether they sought help, and barriers to accessing services, and differences by age, gender, and geographic region. The service needs asked about were: health and medical, employment support, financial and material assistance, day-to-day living support, residential care and supported accommodation, mental health support, drug and alcohol counselling, telephone helplines, advice and referral, and domestic and family violence. Over a third of respondents said that they had needed at least one of the types of services, and of those about three-quarter said that they sought help. One troubling finding from the analysis is that those who sought help for domestic and family violence were more likely to report facing a wide range of barriers than people seeking other types of help.

Measuring progress in Queensland's remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities

Shanks S, Elliott T and Clark M
Brisbane, Qld. : Queensland Productivity Commission, 2020.
The recent Queensland Productivity Commission inquiry into service delivery in remote and discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island communities called for fundamental structural and economic changes to improve outcomes, which would need to be supported through independent monitoring and reporting on progress. More broadly, communities, government and service providers are more likely to achieve progress when there is a shared understanding of outcomes. The paper discusses existing methods and elements and presents an approach for measuring progress using a wellbeing framework, which can be further subdivided to provide a more detailed analysis of the key drivers of change. Note, the results are preliminary and experimental - this work is only a starting point and an attempt to measure progress in a way that has not been done before in Australia.

The profile and pulse of the sector: findings from the 2019 Australian Community Sector Survey

Cortis N and Blaxland M
Strawberry Hills, NSW : Australian Council of Social Service, 2020.
This report looks at the characteristics, challenges and contribution of the community sector in Australia. It details findings from the 2019 Australian Community Sector Survey, which was conducted with 1,454 community sector staff and leaders. This survey was undertaken by the Social Policy Research Centre on behalf of the Australian Council of Social Service and the network of Councils of Social Service of Australia. Participants were asked about how service users are faring, the factors affecting sector capacity to address poverty and disadvantage, what changes are needed to enhance capacity to respond to changing levels and patterns of service need, organisational-level issues, workforce issues, advocacy work, and funding arrangements and financial sustainability. The findings highlight the growing rates of poverty and disadvantage and the growing levels of unmet need, with many agencies unable to meet demand. This report follows on from a 2019 paper of survey results, which outlined the demand for community services.

Child protection Australia 2018-19

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020.
This report provides statistics on child protection services in Australia for the 2018/2019 period. It provides data on child protection notifications, investigations and substantiations, children on care and protection orders, characteristics of children in out-of-home care, kinship care and foster care households, permanency and reunification, and intensive family support services. Statistics are provided by state and territory, with comparisons with previous years where appropriate, and with statistics for Indigenous children. In 2018-19, about 170,200 children were in contact with child protection services. Though the number of children receiving child protection services rose by about 12% over the last four years, the rate has remained stable at around 30 per 1,000 children. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children were 8 times as likely as non-Indigenous children to have received child protection services, and children from geographically remote areas were also over-represented. Over 3,700 children were reunified with family during 2018-19. A companion data visualisation report, 'Child protection Australia: children in the child protection system', is also available.

Speaking Out Survey 2019: the views of WA children and young people on their wellbeing - a summary report

Western Australia. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Subiaco, WA : Commissioner for Children and Young People WA, 2020.
This report shares the views of children and young people on what it's like to grow up in Western Australia. It presents preliminary results from the inaugural Speaking Out Survey, which involved 4,912 students from Grade 4 to Year 12 from across the state. Participants were asked about family and friends, community, physical and mental health, healthy behaviour and drug use, safety, bullying and abuse, gaming and social media, living standards, connection to culture and community, sport and leisure, education and wellbeing. Overall, most students report they are physically and mentally healthy, their material needs are covered, and they like school. However, some groups are not faring as well. Results for Aboriginal participants and participants from rural and regional areas are also discussed. Many children and young people also say their relationships with family, friends and teachers are positive overall and that they feel like they belong in their community. The methodology involved weighting and over-sampling to provide a better picture of the total student population and Aboriginal students, and now that this proof of concept has been tested, the Commissioner hopes to conduct the survey every three years.

Co-design findings and next steps: Child and Family Support System, June-October 2019

South Australia. Dept. of Human Services, DS Consultancy, Think Human (Firm)
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Early Intervention Research Directorate, 2019
The South Australian Government is establishing a new system of intensive support services for families and children at risk of child protection involvement. In order to create meaningful and sustainable change, it was agreed that the new system must be informed and co-designed by the people who need the services and the people who deliver the services. This paper summarises the findings from the co-design project. Agreed values include that the system will be designed with Aboriginal families and communities, involve trauma-responsive practice to create a healing system, establish mechanisms for early help and support, ensure equitable access to help for regional and rural families, and support and strengthen the workforce.

Evidence-informed practice and the integration of research, policy, teaching and practice in family services.

Stuart G and Hartman D
Developing Practice: The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal no. 53 2019: 34-53
This article highlights lessons from a project in New South Wales to the build the capacity of rural family services to implement evidence-based programs and practices. In particular it explores how the practitioners used research evidence, their experience of evidence-based programs, their use of the experience and insights of themselves and other practitioners, and the importance they placed on the experience and insight from families. The article then discusses the implications for evidence-informed practice, evidence-based programs, and integrating research evidence, practitioner wisdom, and family experience and insights. A potentially contentious issue is finding a balance between program fidelity and adaptation to meet local contexts.

Demand for community services snapshot, December 2019

Australian Council of Social Service
Strawberry Hills, NSW : Australian Council of Social Service, 2019.
This report profiles the demand for community services in Australia. Data is taken from the 2019 Australian Community Sector Survey, which was conducted with 1,454 community sector staff and leaders and was undertaken by the Social Policy Research Centre on behalf of the Australian Council of Social Service and the network of Councils of Social Service of Australia. Participants answered questions about their experiences of service demand, how demand for their services is changing, and how unmet demand is impacting the community. The findings highlight a significant and increasing unmet demand for community services in Australia, with 60% of the workers reporting an increase in the numbers of clients their service was unable to support and 24% describing their main service as 'rarely' or 'never' able to meet demand. Staff involved in housing and homelessness, financial counselling, and legal services were most likely to report demand pressures, as were those from regional and rural areas. This unmet demand not only contributes to cascading crises for individuals and families, relating to housing, poverty, debt, violence, physical and mental health, and the law, but it also impacts workers, impeding their capacity to work effectively with people with the most complex needs and to undertake advocacy work.

'I just wanted to keep my boyfriend happy': young country women's perceptions of intimate partner violence

Mackenzie C and Mackay T
Port Pirie, S. Aust. : Uniting Country SA, 2019.
This report adds to what is known about intimate partner violence in rural areas. It presents findings from interviews in South Australia with ten women who had experienced intimate partner violence when they were aged 16-24 years old, and were now aged between 16 and 65 years of age. The participants discussed how they define intimate partner violence, the role of new technology in dating and digital intimate partner abuse, experiences of support, barriers to separating from their abuser, and their ideas about what might help. The findings highlight the similarities of intimate partner violence for both city and country women, with these rural women describing forming relationships in similar ways to their urban counterparts and many not recognising the start of intimate partner violence and not knowing where to seek support. A brief literature review is also included, on intimate partner violence in general, for young people, and for people in rural areas. The report concludes with recommendations for local services.

Young person's well-being : exploring material, subjective and relational factors.

Rawsthorne M, Kinsela G, Paxton K and Luscombe G
Children Australia v. 44 no. 1 Mar 2019: 13-22
This article looks into what factors influence young people's wellbeing in rural and remote regions, as compared to the broader population. Data is taken from the adolescent rural cohort of the Hormones, Health, Education, Environment and Relationships (ARCHER) longitudinal study, with 342 young people New South Wales, aged 9-14 years old in, surveyed twice over two years. The young people were asked about self-efficacy and the material, subjective and relationship factors affecting their wellbeing, including local amenity, public transport and barriers to participation, sense of community belonging, safety, participation in sport, and trusted adults outside of the home. The findings identify the role of belonging, safety, and supportive adults in enhancing wellbeing, and highlight the role of the environmental context in which young people are growing. It challenges universal approaches to improving youth wellbeing and urges policy makers to consider the specific role of 'spatial factors'.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
This report brings together the latest information on the prevalence and impact of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia, and identifies key gaps in the data. Statistics are provided on: prevalence and rates; extent and nature; responses by the justice, health, and specialist support services; long term health impacts; homicide; community attitudes towards violence against women; Indigenous Australians; and vulnerable populations, including children, young women, older people, people with disability, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, LGBTIQ+ people, people in rural and remote areas, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The report also lists state and territory government policies on family, domestic and sexual violence. Family, domestic and sexual violence is a major health and welfare issue: 1 in 6 women and 1 in 16 men have experienced violence by a current or previous partner since the age of 15, with even higher rates experiencing emotional abuse. 1 in 5 women and 1 in 20 men have experienced sexual violence since the age of 15. This report updates the inaugural 2018 report, and a brief version is also available.

Central Australia Aboriginal Community-Controlled Out-of-home Care Strategy 2019-2023: executive summary.

Secretariat of National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care. Central Australia Aboriginal Community-Controlled Out-of-home Care Strategy Steering Committee
Fitzroy, Vic. : SNAICC, 2019
This paper presents the executive summary of a strategy to help develop community controlled out-of-home care services for Aboriginal people in Central Australia. The strategy aims to restore cultural authority and empower Aboriginal communities to lead and direct the policies, programs and practices that are developed to promote the care and protection of Aboriginal children. The overriding goal is to ensure that Aboriginal children and young people and their families who are in contact with child protection services in the Northern Territory are safe and have the opportunity to thrive through the provision of a holistic scope of quality and culturally safe supports led by Aboriginal families, communities and community-controlled organisations. This paper sets out the strategy's guiding principles, goals, priorities, and key actions. The full version of the strategy has not been published.

Australian Early Development Census national report 2018: a snapshot of early childhood development in Australia.

Australia. Dept. of Education and Training
Canberra, ACT : Dept. of Education and Training, 2019.
This report presents a snapshot of young children's health and development in Australia in 2018. It presents findings from the 2018 Australian Early Development Census (AEDC), previously known as the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI), which measures children's development in their first year of school to help schools, communities, and policy makers understand how children are developing before school, what is being done well, and what can be improved. Development is measured across five domains: physical health and wellbeing, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive skills (school-based), and communication skills and general knowledge. For each domain, children receive a score between zero and ten, identifying the percentage of children who are considered to be 'developmentally on track', 'developmentally at risk', and 'developmentally vulnerable'. This report presents the findings and compares results by gender, region, socioeconomic status, Indigenous background, and English-speaking background. Trends since the previous 2009, 2012, and 2015 reports are also examined. The Census shows that the majority of children are developmentally on track, and the overall percentage of children developmentally vulnerable on multiple domains has decreased from 11.8% in 2009 to 11.0% in 2018. However, some groups at children are still at risk.

Child protection Australia 2017-18

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019.
This report provides statistics on child protection services in Australia for the 2017/2018 period. It provides data on child protection notifications, investigations and substantiations, children on care and protection orders, characteristics of children in out-of-home care, kinship care and foster care households, and intensive family support services. Statistics are provided by state and territory, with comparisons with previous years where appropriate, and with statistics for Indigenous children. In 2017-18, about 159,000 children were in contact with child protection services: a rate of 28.7 per 1,000 children. Just over half of these children were the subject of an investigation only, and only 7% of children were involved in an investigation, care and protection order, and out-of-home care placement. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are over-represented in the child protection system, at 8 times the rate for non-Indigenous children. Children from very remote areas had the highest rates of substantiations, at 4 times that of children from major cities. Emotional abuse was the most common type of substantiated maltreatment.

In their own words: the hidden impact of prolonged drought on children and young people

Newman S
Sydney, N.S.W. : UNICEF Australia, 2019.
This report provides insights into the impact of drought on children and young people in Australia. It discusses findings from consultations with primary, secondary, and boarding students in Tamworth, Gunnedah, Narrabri, and Walgett, all drought-affected areas of New South Wales, as well as school counsellors, chaplains, principals, and teachers and community service providers. 16 children and 38 young people took part, regarding their life on farms and in rural areas, how daily life has changed since the drought, the impact on their family and community, coping strategies, their thoughts and hopes about the future, and their ideas about what is needed to limit negative impacts and the messages they wished to convey to decision-makers. The findings highlight the significant impacts of prolonged drought on these children and young people, and how they have been forced to grow up prematurely. However, these children and young people are making reasoned, informed, adult decisions on a daily basis and this report encourages governments and policy makers to listen to and consult with these children and young people to help build their resilience and provide support.

Supporting strong families and capable communities through cross-national research.

Taylor N, Hartman D, Bischoff R, Hayes A, Springer P, Dalton H and Perkins D
Journal of Global Health Reports v. 2 2018: Article e2018010
Mental and behavioral ill-health are growing global problems and while there are promising evidence-based approaches aimed at reducing their impact, availability of services varies greatly, not only across nations, but also between urban, regional, and remote locations. Rural areas face accessibility and acceptability challenges related to mental health services that are similar to barriers experienced in developing countries. Initiatives to address mental health challenges in under-served rural areas can inform global mental health strategies. Using a public health approach, we illustrate how innovations in rural communities build community capacity and capability in areas that are currently, and are likely to remain, under-served by specialist mental health services. We provide examples of initiatives and key principles of action from three locations in Nebraska, United States of America, and New South Wales, Australia, to highlight similarities of context and practice. While each of the initiatives was developed independently, there are striking similarities across them.

Children's use of health care services.

Warren D
Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children - annual statistical report 2017. Melbourne : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2018: 125-142
This chapter provides a snapshot of children and young people's use of health services in Australia. Using data from 'Growing Up in Australia, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children' (LSAC), it presents information on usage of different types of health services, patterns of use across age groups, problems gaining access to health services, and how use of health services differs depending on characteristics such as child's age, household income, parental education, private health insurance coverage, and location. The chapter also reports on medical attention for injuries, and how this varies by age and gender.

The wellbeing of children and young people: East Gippsland Report 2018

Save the Children Australia
East Melbourne, Vic. : Save the Children Australia, 2018.
This report presents a snapshot of how children and young people are faring in the East Gippsland region of Victoria. Using the latest data, it compares local, state, and national statistics in the domains of the Nest Action Agenda for 'developing well', 'safe and secure', 'happy and healthy', 'engaged, learning, and achieving', and 'active citizens'. This report follows on from the baseline report 'State of East Gippsland's children & youth report' conducted in 2013 by Good Beginnings Australia. That initial report led to the development of the 'Children's Wellbeing Initiative - East Gippsland', led by Save the Children, which aims to strengthen and build collaborative community responses to the needs of local children and youth. It is intended to update the report at least every five years in order to review the progress of the Initiative and ensure monitoring of children and young people's wellbeing. Whilst this second report highlights advances, it reveals that there are still more children in East Gippsland who are developmentally vulnerable than the Victorian average, and with higher rates of family violence, crime victimisation, bullying, additional needs, depression, and low breastfeeding.

Quality of social and emotional wellbeing services for families of young Indigenous children attending primary care centers : a cross sectional analysis.

Edmond K, McAuley K, McAullay D, Matthews V, Strobel N, Marriott R and Bailie R
BMC Health Services Research v. 18 9 Feb 2018: Article 100
This article assesses how well social and emotional wellbeing services are being implemented in primary care settings for Indigenous families with young children in Australia. An audit was conducted of 2466 client files from 109 primary care centres across Australia from 2012 to 2014, using data from the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease (ABCD) program. It looked at variations by child age, 3-11 month old infants, 12?59 month old young children, geographic location, referral, types of advice or assessment provided, type of professional or practitioner involved, child gender, and reason for last clinic visit. 'Social and emotional wellbeing' care is defined here as advice about domestic environment, social support, housing condition, or child stimulation. The authors' conclude that though the families of young Indigenous children appear to receive priority for social and emotional wellbeing care, many Indigenous families are not receiving services.

The state of Victoria's children report 2016: why place matters

Victoria. Dept. of Education and Training
Melbourne : Dept. of Education and Training, 2017.
This annual report series provides an overview of how children and young people are faring in Victoria, serving as an evidence base to support planning and policy development. This 2016 report focuses on explores how the outcomes for many Victorian children and young people can be different according to where they grow up. It highlights government initiatives and looks into regional differences on development in the early years, children with developmental vulnerabilities, use of early education and care services and service quality, school engagement and retention, educational outcomes and post-school pathways, health and wellbeing, protective and risk factors for health, mental health and resilience, child abuse and family violence, child protection and out of home care, community safety, school bullying, and youth justice. The report also features art work contributed by children from around Victoria.

Supporting children's well-being : outcomes of a rural child-focused education program for separating or divorced parents.

Dunstan D, Talbot C and Pozo de Bolger A
Australian Journal of Rural Health v. 25 no. 2 Apr 2017: 132-133
This brief article highlights findings from a child-focused Post Separation Cooperative Parenting program for separating or divorced parents in rural New South Wales. The program was developed by developed by Centacare New England North West Family Relationship Centre and aimed to improve parent education and skills and so lower inter-parental acrimony, improve parent-child relationships, and support child adjustment. Forty-two parents took part. The findings are positive.

Enabling children to flourish: a report on the implementation of the UCSA Child Aware Approach

Mackenzie C and Goodwin-Smith I
Port Pirie, S. Aust. : Uniting Country SA, 2017.
Child Aware Approaches aim to help adult-based community services identify and respond to children who may be at risk. The social and community service provider Uniting Country SA (formerly UnitingCare Wesley Country SA) developed a universal Child Aware Approach in 2012 and has been implementing a range of initiatives to ensure that this approach is central to the daily work of practitioners. This report presents the findings of a study into practitioner and client experiences with the new approach and makes recommendations for strengthening and broadening the program. Interviews were held with 79 practitioners and volunteer staff and focus groups were held with clients taking part in a parenting program. Overall, the findings suggest that the introduction and implementation of the Child Aware Approach has brought about positive change across Uniting Country SA, with strong staff support and positive client outcomes.

Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children : results from a nationally representative longitudinal study.

Ou L, Chen J and Hillman K
PLoS ONE v. 12 no. 4 2017: e0176563
This article adds to what is known about the use of health services by different socioeconomic groups. It investigates children's use of general practice services across childhood, and whether there are differences among socio-economic groups, non-English speaking, remote and rural areas, health status, and by health insurance coverage. Data is taken from Medicare Australia claim records linked to data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The analysis finds that the average number of annual doctor visits declines from infancy for all children, but children from higher socio-economic families, without private health insurance, or living in non-metropolitan areas were less likely to visit the doctor.

Mobile Child Protection Unit: early analysis of a new approach to child protection

New South Wales. Dept. of Family and Community Services. Analysis and Research
Ashfield, NSW : FACS Analysis and Research, 2017.
The Mobile Child Protection Unit (MCPU) is an example of an innovative response to meeting the needs of at-risk children and young people in remote communities in western New South Wales. This paper presents findings from an initial analysis of the performance of the MCPU in its first year of operation, which used administrative data to examine response timeliness, frequency of home visiting, and staffing levels. Overall, the analysis provides some encouraging findings, though further research is required. The proportion of high priority reports of risk of significant harm that received a response on the same or next day almost doubled, and caseworkers' face-to-face contact with families also increased.
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