Social inclusion

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Social inclusion in the AIFS library catalogue

National Stigma Report Card: report on findings from the Our Turn to Speak Survey - understanding the impact of stigma and discrimination on people living with complex mental health issues

Groot C, Rehm I, Andrews C, Hobern B, Morgan R, Green H, Sweeney L and Blanchard M
Melbourne : Anne Deveson Research Centre, SANE Australia, 2020.
This report looks into the experience of stigma and discrimination among people living with complex mental health issues, including its impact on different areas of life and withdrawal from and expectations from life opportunities. It presents the findings from the first 'Our Turn to Speak' survey, which was conducted with 1,912 adults between October 2019 and April 2020. Stigma is reviewed overall and in the domains of relationships with friends and family, employment, health and social services, mass media, education and training, financial and insurance services, cultural and religious communities, sports and community groups, legal and justice system, and public space. This report is accompanied by a separate paper that makes recommendations for action as well as an interactive website of the data.

General Social Survey: summary results, Australia, 2019.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
This website provides new data on the social characteristics, wellbeing and social experiences of people in Australia. It presents statistics from the 2019 General Social Survey, which was conducted with approximately 3,500 households from across Australia. Key topics include: life satisfaction; personal stressors; involvement in social, community support, and civic and political groups; family and community support; cultural tolerance and discrimination; trust; financial stress; and voluntary work. It also looks at populations of interest, including people with a mental health condition, long term health condition, or disability, migrants, people who have experienced homelessness, and people with different sexual orientations. Findings include: just over two-thirds of respondents had face to face contact with family or friends living outside their household at least once a week; nearly one in five were unable to raise $2,000 within a week for something important; one in six had experienced some form of discrimination in the past year; and just over one in ten had been without a permanent place to live at some time in their lives. Comparisons are also made with findings from previous surveys.

Poipoia te kakano kia puawai: family structure, change and the wellbeing of tamariki Maori

Kukutai T, Prickett K, Atatoa-Carr P and Rata A
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2020.
This report examines family structure and change for Maori children, and the potential impacts for early childhood development and wellbeing. Though there is growing evidence that family structure has an impact on children's health and wellbeing and the intergenerational transmission of inequity, these effects vary by socio-economic context and across ethnic and racial groups. This report uses data from the New Zealand Longitudinal Census and the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study. It finds that though most Maori children live in a stable two-parent family, they are more likely to spend some time in a sole parent household than other children, and diverse family trajectories are linked to poorer cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes. However, they are not the main driver: the most important predictors are mothers' education and age, material hardship, and neighbourhood deprivation. The study also finds that cultural connectedness promotes socio-emotional development: as diverse family trajectories are associated with higher levels of cultural connectedness among Maori children, it serves a protective role.

How's life? 2020: measuring well-being

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2020.
This is the fifth in a series of biannual reports measuring and comparing well-being across OECD and partner countries. It examines quality of life and living conditions, using an updated set of over 80 indicators in the areas of: income and wealth, jobs and earnings, housing conditions, health status, work-life balance, education and skills, social connections, civic engagement and governance, environmental quality, personal security, and subjective well-being. Generally, OECD countries that do better on average also feature greater equality between population groups and fewer people living in deprivation. Since 2010, the OECD average improved for household disposable income, the employment rate, the gender wage gap, long working hours, housing overcrowding, longevity, life satisfaction, exposure to air pollution, and sense of safety. However, there has been no progress in reducing income inequality and improving housing affordability when looking at the OECD average.

The experience of financial hardship in Australia : causes, impacts and coping strategies.

Bourova E, Ramsay I and Ali P
Journal of Consumer Policy v. 42 o. 2 2019: 189-221
This article explores people's experiences of financial hardship. It presents findings from a survey of 1,101 adults on the causes of their hardship, the impact on their lives, the coping strategies they employed to get by financially, and use of services. It also considers differences among those who were single or in relationships, those with mental health issues, and by sources of income. The findings highlight how financial hardship can happen to almost anyone, and how it can impact negatively upon a wide range of aspects including health, relationships, and social inclusion, as well as the ability to afford necessities. The findings are discussed with reference to the broader international literature on financial hardship.

Leave no one behind: what children and young people have said about living in poverty

South Australia. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Commissioner for Children and Young People, 2019.
This report aims provides insight into how children and young people in South Australia understand poverty and makes recommendations to help address its ill effects. It discusses findings from several engagement projects with children and young people undertaken over the last 2 years, regarding the causes, impacts and responses to poverty, the impact of poverty on children and young people and what can be done to eradicate poverty, as well as focus groups with young people with personal experiences of poverty.

Our better selves: appreciating and re-imagining our work to create change : state of the family report 2019

Manderson R and Toner G
Ainslie, ACT : Anglicare Australia, 2019.
This nineteenth State of the Family report explores the work of 'Our Better Selves', an Anglicare Australia project about how their work can help Australia become a society where everyone is seen as unique and valuable and where mutual care and compassion are central to identity. Furthermore, the project asked how can human services within the Anglicare Network express the values and practices of such a society by putting the interests and the experiences of the most marginalised and silenced at its heart and use this to change communities. Five separate teams from across the Anglicare Australia Network were partners in the project: a mental health community centre in Brisbane; a post-release drug and alcohol service in Newcastle; a youth homelessness to housing scheme in Adelaide; a housing support service in Alice Springs; and a child and parent centre in Mandurah. They conducted inquiries into their services, exploring what works best for the people they serve, drawing further on the strengths of everyone involved, and building on the connections their work creates.

Social wellbeing in primary schools

Cahill H, Shlezinger K, Dadvand B, Farrelly A, Romei K and Kern P
Parkville, Vic. : Youth Research Centre, University of Melbourne, 2019.
The report presents information on the social wellbeing of primary school students in Victoria, including the impact of a social and emotional learning program - the Resilience, Rights and Respectful Relationships program - on their wellbeing and peer relationships. 877 students from grades 4-6 completed a survey on their social wellbeing and peer relations, and focus groups were held with program participants - 179 students in 2017 and 84 students in 2018. Topics include: psychological wellbeing, sense of belonging at school, connectedness to peers, loneliness, bullying, inclusion, body image, sexism and gender relations, and the impact of the program on capacity to manage emotions and to resolve conflicts, positive relationships between genders, and peer support and help-seeking skills. Overall, the students reported relatively high levels of wellbeing, and most students were engaged with their learning and felt connected to their schools, teachers and peers. Boys were more likely than girls to experience and perpetrate violence, and girls were more likely to report being lonely and experience exclusion and complexity in resolving friendship problems. This project is part of a larger 3-year study with 40 primary and secondary schools.

Mental health: draft report

Australia. Productivity Commission.
Canberra : Productivity Commission, 2019.
The Productivity Commission is now undertaking an inquiry into the role of improving mental health to support economic participation and enhancing productivity and economic growth. This draft report has been prepared for further public consultation and input. It presents the draft findings and recommendations of the inquiry to date, drawing upon the many submissions received so far. It finds that mental ill-health is widespread, with costs to the Australian economy of at least $43 to $51 billion per year, plus another $130 billion associated with diminished health and reduced life expectancy. The treatment of mental illness has been tacked on to a health system that has been largely designed around the characteristics of physical illness, but also many people who do seek treatment are not receiving the level of care they need. The report presents draft recommendations for reforming prevention and early intervention, addressing critical gaps in healthcare service availability and delivery, and assisting people with mental illness to get into work and enable early treatment of work-related mental illness. Chapters include: Draft recommendations and findings; The case for major reform; What mental ill-health and suicide are costing Australia; Re-orienting health services to consumers; Primary mental healthcare; Supported online treatment; Specialist community mental health services; Emergency and acute inpatient services; Physical and substance use comorbidities; Towards integrated care: linking consumers and services; Mental health workforce; Psychosocial support; Carers and families; Income and employment support; Housing and homelessness; Justice; Interventions in early childhood and school education; Youth economic participation; Mentally healthy workplaces; Social participation and inclusion; Suicide prevention; Federal roles and responsibilities; and Funding arrangements.

Where does Canada stand?: the Canadian Index of Child and Youth Well-being : 2019 baseline report

Toronto, ON : UNICEF Canada, 2019.
"Canada's wealth has been steadily rising, but our overall level of child and youth well-being hasn't budged in more than a decade. Why? The Canadian Index of Child and Youth Well-being measures levels, inequalities and trends in the state of children and youth. It's a big 'selfie' of Canada, a snapshot that looks at many aspects of childhood to help Canadians understand what growing up is like for kids, focus efforts and accelerate progress where it is most needed. The Index brings together a wide range of data into one framework to encourage a comprehensive and balanced view of how kids in Canada are faring. We are tracking 125 indicators across nine dimensions of the lives of children and youth, from birth to age 18, using the most recent, population-level, statistical data. This report is a profile of children and youth that provides a baseline from which future reports will track progress. It complements the UNICEF Report Cards that look at life for kids in the world's rich countries ... Many of the indicators, about 60 per cent, are based on how children and youth report their own well-being ... About one third of the indicators measure Canada's achievement of the SDG [Sustainable Development Goals] targets for children."

The influences of social connectedness on behaviour in young children: a longitudinal investigation using GUiNZ data

Jose P, Stuart J, Pryor J and Ja N
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2019.
This report investigates the relationship between family/whanau vulnerability and preschool children's behavioural and developmental outcomes, and whether social connectedness might act as a protective factor for vulnerable children. Data is taken from the Growing up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) longitudinal study. It found that higher levels of vulnerability in the antenatal period - including maternal education, maternal depression, household overcrowding, household income, household deprivation, and financial stress - were found to predict higher levels of externalising and internalising behaviour, higher levels of illness and developmental problems, and lower levels of prosocial behaviour in children at 4 and half years of age. Children raised in families that had experienced relationship transitions also reported higher externalising and internalising behaviour, and lower prosocial behaviour. Although neither family connectedness nor community connectedness appeared to reduce the impact of risk factors on externalising or internalising behaviour, family connectedness did enhance prosocial behaviour under conditions of low vulnerability. The report also investigated temporal pathways, comparing vulnerability in pregnancy, 9 months, 2 years, and 4.5 years of age. Over time, family connectedness was shown to predict reduced family stress and increased perceived support, both of which, in turn, predicted better behavioural outcomes. Overall, the findings indicate that social connectedness could be a useful protective factor.

Child poverty, deprivation and well-being : evidence for Australia.

Saunders P and Brown J
Child Indicators Research 25 Apr 2019: Advance online publication
This article explores the association of child poverty, deprivation and well-being from children's point of view. It introduces a child-centric approach to measuring this relationship, drawing on a survey of 2,672 children and young people aged 11-16 years old in New South Wales. It presents estimates on the incidence and severity of poverty and deprivation among young people and how it relates to a range of measures of wellbeing including life satisfaction, happiness, and connectedness. The findings reveal how children who perceive themselves as poor or deprived have lower levels of well-being than their peers.

Society at a glance 2019: OECD social indicators - a spotlight on LGBT people.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2019.
This is the ninth edition of Society at a Glance, the OECD overview of social indicators. It provides quantitative evidence on social wellbeing and trends around the world, from the 36 OECD member nations as well as selected other countries. Topics include: household income, fertility, migration, family, employment, education spending, expected years in retirement, inequalities, poverty, out of work benefits, social spending, affordable housing, health spending, life expectancy, HIV/AIDS, suicide, tobacco and alcohol consumption, life satisfaction, confidence in institutions, violence against women, voting, and online activities. This edition also features two special chapters. The first is on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people: their numbers, how they fare in terms of economic outcomes and well-being, and what policies can improve LGBT inclusivity. The second on people's perceptions of social and economic risks and the extent to which they think governments address those risks.

Young person's well-being : exploring material, subjective and relational factors.

Rawsthorne M, Kinsela G, Paxton K and Luscombe G
Children Australia v. 44 no. 1 Mar 2019: 13-22
This article looks into what factors influence young people's wellbeing in rural and remote regions, as compared to the broader population. Data is taken from the adolescent rural cohort of the Hormones, Health, Education, Environment and Relationships (ARCHER) longitudinal study, with 342 young people New South Wales, aged 9-14 years old in, surveyed twice over two years. The young people were asked about self-efficacy and the material, subjective and relationship factors affecting their wellbeing, including local amenity, public transport and barriers to participation, sense of community belonging, safety, participation in sport, and trusted adults outside of the home. The findings identify the role of belonging, safety, and supportive adults in enhancing wellbeing, and highlight the role of the environmental context in which young people are growing. It challenges universal approaches to improving youth wellbeing and urges policy makers to consider the specific role of 'spatial factors'.

To have and to have not: measuring child deprivation and opportunity in Australia

Sollis K
Canberra, ACT : Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, 2019.
This paper summarises the findings and recommendations from a study into levels of deprivation and wellbeing among children in Australia. The study used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to measure outcomes against five of the six domains of the 'Nest' framework of the dimensions a child needs to live a good life: they are loved and safe, have material basics, are healthy, are learning, and are participating. The findings highlight the pockets of deprivation that exist in Australia, in particular for children with disability, children living in monetary poverty, and children living in jobless families.

Measuring child deprivation and opportunity in Australia: applying the Nest framework to develop a measure of deprivation and opportunity for children using the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

Sollis K
Canberra, ACT : Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, 2019.
This report investigates levels of deprivation and wellbeing among children in Australia. It uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) to measure outcomes against five of the six domains of the 'Nest' framework of the dimensions a child needs to live a good life: they are loved and safe, have material basics, are healthy, are learning, and are participating. The Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) approach - developed by UNICEF - was used to assess deprivation. The findings highlight the pockets of deprivation that exist in Australia, in particular for children with disability, children living in monetary poverty, and children living in jobless families. Outcomes were also compared across time, from age 6/7 to age 10/11. For all of the children, the highest rate of deprivation at almost all stages was through frequent bullying or social exclusion, with deprivation in health also relatively high and tending to get worse over time. The report concludes with policy recommendations.

Money matters - but so do people : children's views and experiences of living in a 'disadvantaged' community.

Bessell S
Children and Youth Services Review v. 97 Feb 2019: 59-66
This article explores children's views on what makes a strong and supportive community. Surveys were held with 108 children aged 8-12 years old. The findings highlight that though family poverty and inadequate public infrastructure can have a negative impact on children, strong and supportive relationships also play a significant positive role. The findings have implications for community development initiatives.

Material deprivation and capability deprivation in the midst of affluence : the case of young people in Australia.

Redmond G and Skattebol J
Children and Youth Services Review v. 97 Feb 2019: 36-48
This article explores young people's views of material deprivation, focusing on their experience of a lack of adequate food and clothing. It draws on interviews with 193 young people as well as findings from a survey of 5,440 children and young people aged 9-14 years old. The findings highlight how this material deprivation is most apparent among marginalised young people, such as young people with disability, young carers, and Indigenous young people. The findings also highlight Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to deprivation, where the lack of adequate food and clothing denies young people the capability to avoid shame and engage in social participation and education.

Social exclusion in families affected by paternal imprisonment.

Besemer K and Dennison S
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology v. 51 no. 2 Jun 2018: 221-238
This article adds to the research on social exclusion among caregivers of children affected by paternal incarceration, by comparing its prevalence and experience to that of the general population and the mediators involved. It finds that caregivers of children with imprisoned fathers experience significantly high rates of social exclusion, though, compared to a matched sample, this is mostly related to financial hardship.

Feeling the pinch: National Economic and Social Impact Survey 2018

Salvation Army (Australia). Social Programme Dept.
Blackburn, Vic. : Salvation Army Australia Social Programme Department, 2018.
This annual survey provides insights into the challenges and deprivation experienced by clients of the Salvation Army's 'Doorways' emergency relief services in Australia. This report presents the findings of the 2018 survey and makes recommendations for action. 1,267 clients took part in surveys and interviews, regarding their income and employment, cost of living, housing, children, and wellbeing - providing information on their household and housing tenure, income support type, difficulties in finding work, food insecurity, accommodation expenses, financial stress, housing stress and adequacy, frequency and reasons for moving house, homelessness, child deprivation, and social connection and disconnectedness. The participants also spoke about the challenges of daily life and what support would make the biggest difference.

Material deprivation and social exclusion among young Australians: a child-focused approach

Saunders P, Bedford M, Brown J, Naidoo Y and Adamson E
Sydney, NSW : Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, 2018.
This project investigates two things: the extent and nature of deprivation among young people in New South Wales, and how it is best measured and calculated. It adopts the 'consensual approach' that aims to address the limitations of income-based approaches and incorporate the views of the study group themselves on what should be measured. Phase one of the project identified a set of 18 items and activities viewed as essential for all young people to lead a 'normal kind of life' - including a mobile phone and the internet at home but also books at home and a meal out with the family at least once a month. The set was developed through focus groups with over 80 young people and previous consensual studies and represents measures of material deprivation and social exclusion. Phase two measured the extent and form of deprivation experienced by young people aged 11 to 17 years old, and its association with wellbeing, social support, and school attitudes. The 'What Young People Need' survey involved over 3,000 young people: over 2,700 public high school students in years 7 to 10 and over 300 disadvantaged young people participating in The Smith Family's Learning for Life program. This project marks the first time that the consensual approach has been used to measure poverty in children, providing new insights and a multidimensional perspective. The findings indicate significant numbers of young people experience severe deprivation: about one in five of the student sample and two in five of The Smith Family sample are deprived of at least three essential items. Furthermore, a new Child Deprivation Index was calculated to reveal that the young people experiencing higher levels of deprivation also had lower levels of wellbeing and connectedness and were less likely to be doing well at school or consider getting good school marks as important.

Feeling the pinch: National Economic and Social Impact Survey 2018 : key findings

Salvation Army (Australia). Social Programme Dept.
Blackburn, Vic. : Salvation Army Australia Social Programme Department, 2018.
This annual survey provides insights into the challenges and deprivation experienced by clients of the Salvation Army's 'Doorways' emergency relief services in Australia. This booklet highlights findings from the 2018 survey, which involved 1,267 clients in surveys and interviews. Charts are provided on: the causes of financial hardship and disadvantage, barriers to finding work, income and the costs of living, food insecurity and going without, housing stress, living conditions, homelessness, needing to move house, and social isolation. The participants also noted the services and redress that made the biggest difference in their lives - whether assistance paying bills, accessing healthy food, or securing a safe place to live.

Engaging with children's voices on poverty: the value of their lived experience

Monks H
Subiaco, WA : CoLab, Telethon Kids Institute, 2018
Research on child poverty is been dominated by quantitative approaches investigating prevalence, mechanisms, and impact. However, there is a small but growing body of evidence that explores child poverty from the perspective of children themselves, as it is experienced in the context of their everyday lives. This paper provides an overview of this research, and its value for understanding the nature of poverty. Sections include: economic insecurity; emotional and psychological wellbeing; friendships, leisure and social participation; schooling and aspirations for the future; family functioning; housing, neighbourhood and community; coping strategies and pathways out of poverty; and the implications for policy and practice. A brief snapshot version of this research has also been published.

What promotes social and emotional wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children? Lessons in measurement from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

Marmor A and Harley D
Family Matters no. 100 2018: 4-18
Though social and emotional wellbeing is an important outcome for policy makers in health and education, it is not adequately reflected by mainstream mental health assessment tools - in particular for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families. This article aims to identify the early childhood factors associated with later social and emotional wellbeing when the child is ready to start school, and to develop a new indicator that could capture a more holistic view of wellbeing. It draws on data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children to look at selected individual and family factors during pregnancy and up to 2 years of age compared to children's prosocial behaviour, mental health, connectedness, and other surrogate proxies for social and emotional wellbeing at school commencement. Though the authors were unable to create a single index of social and emotional wellbeing, the findings highlight the need to apply caution in applying Western biomedical health and wellbeing measures to Indigenous concepts and states.

How's life? 2017: measuring well-being

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2017.
This is the fourth in a series of biannual reports measuring and comparing well-being across OECD and partner countries. It examines quality of life and living conditions, using 50 indicators in the areas of: income and wealth, jobs and earnings, housing conditions, health status, work-life balance, education and skills, social connections, civic engagement and governance, environmental quality, personal security, and subjective well-being. This 2017 edition also looks at the situation of migrants, comparing their wellbeing to that of the people they left behind and the locals of their new country. Country profiles have also been issued separately.

MDI grade 7: Loddon school district and community report 2016

Human Early Learning Partnership (Vancouver, B.C.), Social Research Centre (North Melbourne, Vic.)
Charlton, Vic. : North Central Local Learning & Employment Network, 2017.
The Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI) is a self-report questionnaire for children to help schools learn about the factors that promote social-emotional health and well-being in Grades 4 and 7. The MDI was designed in Canada and the recently revised 2015-2016 version is currently being trialled in Australia to assess whether the instrument continues to provide robust data in this content. 74 schools from 11 school districts in Victoria are participating in the trial. This report presents findings from one of the trial sites, the Loddon district, where 178 children in Grade 7 took part. Findings are presented for social and emotional competencies, physical and mental health, self-esteem, diet, connections to adults, peer belonging, use of after school time, organised activities and screen time, barriers to participating in desired after school activities, neighbourhood safety, attachment to school, academic self-concept, and bullying. The overall assets for well-being are also presented as a Well-Being Index.

Cultural inclusion.

Miller M
Deakin, ACT : Early Childhood Australia, 2017.
Written for parents and educators, this booklet highlights the critical role of adults in supporting the attitudes and behaviours that demonstrate respect for diversity and difference. It discusses the role of parents and community, racial literacy and racism in early childhood education, cultural competence and growing up in multicultural Australia, Indigenous Australia as a starting point for cultural competence, conscious and unconscious bias, and cultural inclusion and its barriers.

The hard road: National Economic & Social Impact Survey 2017

Salvation Army (Australia). Southern Territory, Salvation Army. Australia Eastern Territory
Blackburn, Vic. : Salvation Army, 2017.
This report presents findings from The Salvation Army's sixth Economic and Social Impact Survey. This survey series explores the levels of deprivation and disadvantage experienced by those who access Salvation Army emergency relief services in Australia, and the barriers and challenges they face. The findings are presented under 6 sections: Demographic profile; Housing, homelessness and mobility; Income and employment; Cost of living; Children; Technology; and Wellbeing. 1,380 people participated in the 2017 survey, providing insights into the financial strain that occurs from living on income support while trying to maintain an adequate standard of living. For many, this means going without essential items and seeking support through The Salvation Army's services for food and basic necessities to survive. This 2017 survey also explores digital access and participation for the first time, highlighting another area of exclusion.

Children making sense of economic insecurity : facework, fairness and belonging.

Butler R
Journal of Sociology v. 53 no. 1 Mar 2017: 231-244
This article explores how children cope with economic insecurity, drawing on a qualitative research study with families in regional Victoria. Drawing on Goffman's concept of 'facework', it develops a theoretical framework to analyse three types of 'facework' used by children from low-income families to maintain social inclusion and uphold dignity: going without, cutting down, and staying within. The concept of 'fairness' is also highlighted. The findings echo existing research that, for children in affluent nations, not being able to participate in important conversations, activities, and shared experiences with others is the most significant negative outcome of financial adversity.

Strengthening prevention and early intervention services for families into the future

Toumbourou J, Hartman D, Field K, Jeffery R, Brady J, Heaton A, Ghayour Minaie M and Heerde J
Australia : FRSA and Deakin University, 2017.
Many of Australia's health and social problems are preventable, and many arise from modifiable risk factors in families and child development. This paper aims to initiate discussion as to how a coordinated strategy to increase family-based prevention and early intervention services could be utilised to prevent eight priority problems: substance abuse, antisocial behaviour and crime, obesity, mental illness, developmental injury such as from foetal alcohol problems or child maltreatment, chronic illness, school failure, and social exclusion. The paper analyses the potential for family and relationship services to contribute to solutions for these key problems and presents recommendations for coordinating strategies to increase family and relationship-based prevention and early intervention services in Australia. It also discusses prevention and early intervention frameworks, how family and relationship services may increase protective factors, the need for advances in intake screening and assessment, the strengths within these services that support this approach, challenges for services taking on a prevention role, and the economic benefits of this approach.
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