Social inclusion

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Social inclusion in the AIFS library catalogue

Dropping off the edge 2021: persistent and multilayered disadvantage in Australia

Jesuit Social Services, University of Canberra
Richmond, Vic. : Jesuit Social Services, 2021.
Since 1999, Jesuit Social Services have investigated how disadvantage is concentrated in a small number of locations in Australia and how different forms of disadvantage overlap to limit life opportunities. This 2021 report expands the study to include additional indicators of intergenerational disadvantage and environmental factors, as well as qualitative data from selected communities. However, the series continues to show the complex and persistent nature of disadvantage, and how it is concentrated in a small and disproportionate number of communities. The series now uses 37 measures of disadvantage, to provide nuanced insights into the range and depth of disadvantage facing different communities.

Story of our children and young people: Northern Territory 2021.

Menzies School of Health Research, Northern Territory
Casuarina, NT : Menzies School of Health Research, 2021.
This biennial series profiles the wellbeing of children in the Northern Territory, from the antenatal period to young adulthood. It presents statistics against the 58 indicators of The Nest framework of the Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY), in the six domains of: being loved and safe; having material basics; health; learning; participation; and having a positive sense of identity and culture. Statistics are presented as total figures for all children, with regional profiles, and case studies and stories of young people and services are also included. This report presents the latest statistics to 2021, and features case studies and comparisons with national data. An online data platform is also available, which can be sorted by Aboriginal status and sub-region.

The digital divide in telepractice service delivery.

Barraket J
CFCA short article 8 Sep 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has driven major growth in the creation and use of online services, including for the clients of child, family and community welfare services. This article briefly describes the nature of digital exclusion, then highlights the evidence on what works to respond to the digital divide and the implications for service managers and program planners in the COVID-19 era and beyond. Though telepractice can provide benefits to clients and service providers, including increased accessibility and lower costs, attention must paid to individual client's circumstances and digital inclusion. The digital divide needs to be considered when planning programs and services to ensure those that are already excluded do not fall further behind.

Your voice, your views, your say: Tasmania's Child and Youth Wellbeing Strategy consultation report

Hobart, Tas. : Child and Youth Wellbeing Team, Tasmanian Government, 2021.
The Tasmanian Government is currently developing a comprehensive, long term, whole of government strategy for child and youth wellbeing. This paper presents findings from consultations with the public, with 3,500 contributions received from children and young people, parents, advocates and service providers. It highlights common themes and suggestions from across the key areas of being loved and safe, having material basics, health, learning, participating, and identify and culture.

Migrant and refugee women in the COVID-19 pandemic: impact, resilience and the way forward - national consultation report, February 2021

Harmony Alliance - Migrant and Refugee Women for Change
Kingston, A.C.T. : Harmony Alliance, 2021.
This paper highlights the key issues facing migrant and refugee women in the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. It presents findings from consultations held with members of Harmony Alliance at the end of 2020, regarding issues such as mental health, access to services, family violence, economic security, digital inclusion, racism, and the particular issues of younger people. Despite the focus on the negative impacts of the pandemic, the consultation also revealed many stories of resilience, innovation, and leadership by migrant and refugee women to help themselves and their communities in the face of adversity. However, the overarching finding is that the concerns faced by migrant and refugee women in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic are interconnected and mutually reinforcing, requiring holistic solutions.

General Social Survey: summary results, Australia, 2020.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2021.
This website presents survey findings on the social characteristics, wellbeing and social experiences of people in Australia in 2020, with comparisons to surveys from previous years. The 2020 General Social Survey was conducted from 15 June-5 September, during the COVID-19 pandemic, with approximately 5,300 households taking part. Topics include life satisfaction, personal stressors, involvement in social and community support and civic and political groups, family and community support, cultural tolerance and discrimination, trust, financial stress, and voluntary work. Findings for special population groups are also highlighted, including people with mental health conditions, people with a long term health condition, people with disability, migrants and temporary residents, and people with different sexual orientations. Overall life satisfaction was slightly down from previous years, and there was significantly less face to face contact with family or friends and less involvement in community groups.

Healing spiritual harms: supporting recovery from LGBTQA+ change and suppression practices

Jones T, Jones T, Power J, Despott N and Pallotta-Chiarolli M
Melbourne : Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, 2021.
There is growing acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and gender diverse, queer and asexual (LGBTQA+) sexualities and gender identities. However, many religious people still consider LGBTQA+ people as disordered and needing treatment, and religion-based LGBTQA+ conversion practices continue. This report looks into the impact of these change and suppression practices on LGBTQA+ people and their recovery support needs. Drawing on interviews with 35 survivors of LGBTQA+ conversion practices and 18 mental health practitioners, it documents their experiences of harm and recovery and highlights how health practitioners can help.

Suicide rates for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people : the influence of community level cultural connectedness.

Gibson M, Stuart J, Leske S, Ward R and Tanton R
Medical Journal of Australia 7 Jun 2021: Advance online publication
Cultural devastation and loss is held to be a factor in the high suicide rates of Indigenous people - but conversely, does community empowerment and cultural connectedness play a protective role? This study compares community level data from Queensland on language, cultural activities, social networks, support, health, and wellbeing with statistics on the suicide deaths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 10-19 from 2001-2015. The study found that Indigenous suicide mortality rates were influenced by community level culturally specific risk and protective factors: rates were higher in areas with low levels of cultural social capital - such as community participation in cultural events, ceremonies, organisations, and community activities - than in areas with high levels of cultural social capital. Rates were also higher in communities reporting high levels of discrimination.

When I wake up I smile: a book of wellbeing by 156 children across Tasmania

Tasmania. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Hobart : Commissioner for Children and Young People Tasmania, 2021.
This picture book captures the views of Tasmanian children on wellbeing. Art works and quotes are grouped into the themes of: belonging and identity, being loved and safe, things I need, being healthy, learning, doing things together, and connecting to culture. This book stems from consultations held with children and young people in Tasmania on wellbeing and what they need for good or improved wellbeing. It was commissioned by the Tasmanian Government to help inform their development of a child and youth wellbeing strategy.

We call it happy: CCYP wellbeing consultations with 0 to 18 year old Tasmanians

Tasmania. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Hobart : Commissioner for Children and Young People Tasmania, 2021.
This report presents the views of children and young people in Tasmania on wellbeing and what they need for good or improved wellbeing. It was commissioned by the Tasmanian Government to help inform their development of a child and youth wellbeing strategy. Workshops and activities were held with almost 500 people, including 408 children and young people and 90 parents of preschool aged children. The report discusses the methodology, what was learned, and what will happen next. Seven key themes were identified, which are discussed in more detail. A picture book called 'When I wake up I smile', has also been produced, and features the art and views of younger children.

Perspectives on mental health and wellbeing from interviews and focus groups

100 Families WA (Project)
Perth, WA : 100 Families WA, 2021.
100 Families WA is a three-year research project that aims to identify what works to address entrenched disadvantage in families in Western Australia. This paper presents insights from focus groups conducted with some of the participants in 2020. It highlights the high levels of mental distress and adverse life experiences among these people and how it impacts their journey through entrenched disadvantage. The participants also discussed how they understood wellbeing and quality of life, and the important role of social relationships.

The blame game: the perspectives of South Australian children and young people on the causes and impacts of education exclusion and why we need to stop blaming children for system failure

South Australia. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Commissioner for Children and Young People, 2020.
This report explores children and young people's experiences of suspension, exclusion and expulsion from schools in South Australia. Their stories highlight how these school behaviour management strategies have a negative impact on families' wellbeing and attitudes to learning and fail to take into account issues of disability or disadvantage. It also looks at the major causes of exclusion, to identify how it can be reduced and avoided altogether. The report draws on interviews with children and young people, parents, and advocates.

Australian Youth Safety Survey: 2020 technical report

Higginson A and Morgan M
Brisbane : QUT Centre for Justice, 2020.
This report presents findings from the Australian Youth Safety Survey, a survey of 3,147 young people aged 14 to 25 on identity, diversity, and safety. Participants were asked about their experiences of victimisation, including assault, hate speech, hate violence, cyberbulling, and parental violence and maltreatment, their own offending and contact with police, alcohol and drug use, gangs, wellbeing, sense of safety, trust of police, and attitudes towards immigrants. The survey found that only 3 out of 5 participants had mostly been happy in the last 6 months, nearly 1 in 4 could not easily get emotional support and care from their parents, more than 1 in 4 had been the victim of crime in the last year, and 2 in 5 had been the victim of hate speech, violence, or bullying. Many young people, particularly young women and those from marginalised identities, said that they don't feel safe in the community.

Health disparities between sexual minority and different-sex-attracted adolescents : quantifying the intervening role of social support and school belonging.

Perales F and Campbell A
LGBT Health v. 7 no. 3 Apr 2020: 146-154
This article adds to the research into the significantly worse health of sexual minority youth. It examines whether social support from parents and friends and school belonging play a mediating role, using data for young people aged 14-15 in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The study found that sexual minority adolescents experienced poorer health-related quality of life, socio-emotional functioning, and life satisfaction - as well as higher rates of depression - than their heterosexual peers, as well as significantly lower levels of social support and school belonging. It was estimated that social support and school belonging were responsible for 49%-70% of the association between sexual minority status and health, with school belonging playing the strongest mediating role.

Care leavers, ambiguous loss and early parenting : explaining high rates of pregnancy and parenting amongst young people transitioning from out-of-home care.

Purtell J, Mendes P and Saunders B
Children Australia v. 45 no. 4 Dec 2020: 241-248
This article explores the high prevalence of pregnancy among care leavers. It discusses the literature on the association between the transition from care and early parenting, with reference to Boss's 2010 Ambiguous Loss theory, which contends that young people with experiences of child protection involvement and placement in out-of-home care may experience enduring feelings of loss associated with removal from their family, as well as from any placement instability. Sections in the article include: Prevalence of care leaver early parenting; Care leavers, removal from family and Ambiguous Loss theory; Reconnecting with family: choice or necessity?; Disenfranchised loss and grief; Relationships with family and social and community connections; The social exclusion of bureaucratic care; Pathways to care leavers' early parenting; The 'emotional void': wanted pregnancies and school as a preventative factor; Protective interventions: surveillance bias or support?; Poverty and protective interventions; Child removal and repeat pregnancies; Parenting support and 'turning lives around'; Extended care; Blaming the victim: exploitation and coercion; and Sex education and pregnancy prevention.

The lived experience of COVID-19: housing and household resilience

Horne R, Willand N, Dorignon L and Middha B
Melbourne : Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2020.
COVID-19 has affected existing inequalities in housing and exacerbated vulnerabilities. This report investigates the complex interrelated impacts that COVID-19 is having on households with a range of vulnerabilities. The study took advantage of existing research work, by conducting follow-up interviews with participants from two earlier projects in Victoria. The study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on employment and income loss, housing finances and coping strategies, working or learning from home, changes in eating patterns or grocery shopping, managing energy bills and comfort, family and social relationships, maintaining privacy and achieving intimacy, digital spaces and interactions, healthcare and exercise, social support, and emotional wellbeing and coping with emotional stressors. The findings highlight how COVID-19 has exacerbated vulnerabilities such as poor housing quality and location, housing affordability, energy poverty, and a range of social, mental and physical health conditions. Social isolation was exacerbated in particular, especially for people with weak pre-existing ties and limited digital capability. Digital literacy, inclusion and confidence - together with concerns about online security - reveal uneven capabilities and access to support to achieve social connectedness online.

Private lives 3: the health and wellbeing of LGBTIQ people in Australia

Hill A, Bourne A, McNair R, Carman M and Lyons A
Melbourne : Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society, 2020.
This report presents the findings of the third national survey of the health and wellbeing of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender Australians. The survey was conducted with 6,835 adults, regarding their demographic characteristics, households and relationships, housing and homelessness, discrimination and harassment and feelings of acceptance, general health and wellbeing, mental health and wellbeing, experience of health services, alcohol and other drug use, intimate partner and family violence, community connection, disability or long-term health condition, multicultural background, and geographic location. The findings highlight that while not all LGBTIQ people experience challenges in their lives, many do, including disproportionate experiences of mental ill-health, suicidal thoughts and attempts, harassment and abuse, homelessness, alcohol and drug use, and intimate partner and family violence. The report concludes with recommendations to help address these through policy and program development, service development and improvements to data collection.

Mental health: inquiry report

Australia. Productivity Commission.
Canberra : Productivity Commission, 2020.
This report looks at the role of improving mental health to support economic participation and enhancing productivity and economic growth. It presents the findings and recommendations of an inquiry by the Productivity Commission, and sets out a plan for a person-centred mental health system, with actions to address the gaps and barriers in the current mental health system. It discusses the prevalence and costs of mental ill-health in Australia, early intervention and the social and emotional wellbeing of children, mentally healthy workplaces, social inclusion and stigma reduction, suicide prevention, person-centred gateways to mental healthcare, supported online treatment, crisis and emergency services, physical and substance use comorbidities, integrated care, workforce planning and development, psychosocial support, supports for families and carers, income and employment support, housing and homelessness, interactions with the justice system, governance arrangements, funding and commissioning, and monitoring and evaluation.

National Stigma Report Card: report on findings from the Our Turn to Speak Survey - understanding the impact of stigma and discrimination on people living with complex mental health issues

Groot C, Rehm I, Andrews C, Hobern B, Morgan R, Green H, Sweeney L and Blanchard M
Melbourne : Anne Deveson Research Centre, SANE Australia, 2020.
This report looks into the experience of stigma and discrimination among people living with complex mental health issues, including its impact on different areas of life and withdrawal from and expectations from life opportunities. It presents the findings from the first 'Our Turn to Speak' survey, which was conducted with 1,912 adults between October 2019 and April 2020. Stigma is reviewed overall and in the domains of relationships with friends and family, employment, health and social services, mass media, education and training, financial and insurance services, cultural and religious communities, sports and community groups, legal and justice system, and public space. This report is accompanied by a separate paper that makes recommendations for action as well as an interactive website of the data.

General Social Survey: summary results, Australia, 2019.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Canberra, ACT : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020.
This website provides new data on the social characteristics, wellbeing and social experiences of people in Australia. It presents statistics from the 2019 General Social Survey, which was conducted with approximately 3,500 households from across Australia. Key topics include: life satisfaction; personal stressors; involvement in social, community support, and civic and political groups; family and community support; cultural tolerance and discrimination; trust; financial stress; and voluntary work. It also looks at populations of interest, including people with a mental health condition, long term health condition, or disability, migrants, people who have experienced homelessness, and people with different sexual orientations. Findings include: just over two-thirds of respondents had face to face contact with family or friends living outside their household at least once a week; nearly one in five were unable to raise $2,000 within a week for something important; one in six had experienced some form of discrimination in the past year; and just over one in ten had been without a permanent place to live at some time in their lives. Comparisons are also made with findings from previous surveys.

Poipoia te kakano kia puawai: family structure, change and the wellbeing of tamariki Maori

Kukutai T, Prickett K, Atatoa-Carr P and Rata A
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2020.
This report examines family structure and change for Maori children, and the potential impacts for early childhood development and wellbeing. Though there is growing evidence that family structure has an impact on children's health and wellbeing and the intergenerational transmission of inequity, these effects vary by socio-economic context and across ethnic and racial groups. This report uses data from the New Zealand Longitudinal Census and the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study. It finds that though most Maori children live in a stable two-parent family, they are more likely to spend some time in a sole parent household than other children, and diverse family trajectories are linked to poorer cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes. However, they are not the main driver: the most important predictors are mothers' education and age, material hardship, and neighbourhood deprivation. The study also finds that cultural connectedness promotes socio-emotional development: as diverse family trajectories are associated with higher levels of cultural connectedness among Maori children, it serves a protective role.

How's life? 2020: measuring well-being

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2020.
This is the fifth in a series of biannual reports measuring and comparing well-being across OECD and partner countries. It examines quality of life and living conditions, using an updated set of over 80 indicators in the areas of: income and wealth, jobs and earnings, housing conditions, health status, work-life balance, education and skills, social connections, civic engagement and governance, environmental quality, personal security, and subjective well-being. Generally, OECD countries that do better on average also feature greater equality between population groups and fewer people living in deprivation. Since 2010, the OECD average improved for household disposable income, the employment rate, the gender wage gap, long working hours, housing overcrowding, longevity, life satisfaction, exposure to air pollution, and sense of safety. However, there has been no progress in reducing income inequality and improving housing affordability when looking at the OECD average.

No space in my brain to learn: young carers and their engagement with education : an analysis of applications to the Carers Australia Bursary Program 2017-2018

Moore T, Bourke-Taylor H, Greenland N, McDougall S, Bromfield L, Robinson L and Brown T
Canberra, A.C.T. : Carers Australia, 2019.
Providing care to a family member can take a toll on young people's lives, including on their ability to attend, belong and achieve well at school. To assist carers aged 12-25 years to continue or return to study, the Australian Government established a national Young Carers Bursary Program to help with financial support. The program is administered by Carers Australia and has supported over 1,600 young carers since 2015. This study was commissioned to learn more about the characteristics and lived experiences of young people applying for the scheme, including the barriers that restricted their attendance, achievement and participation, and differences between young people with lower and higher levels of school engagement. The findings highlight how caring responsibilities can affect young people's ability to attend, concentrate and socialise at school, and that these young people have few supports at home or at school and can face additional hardships such as financial stress and social isolation.

The experience of financial hardship in Australia : causes, impacts and coping strategies.

Bourova E, Ramsay I and Ali P
Journal of Consumer Policy v. 42 o. 2 2019: 189-221
This article explores people's experiences of financial hardship. It presents findings from a survey of 1,101 adults on the causes of their hardship, the impact on their lives, the coping strategies they employed to get by financially, and use of services. It also considers differences among those who were single or in relationships, those with mental health issues, and by sources of income. The findings highlight how financial hardship can happen to almost anyone, and how it can impact negatively upon a wide range of aspects including health, relationships, and social inclusion, as well as the ability to afford necessities. The findings are discussed with reference to the broader international literature on financial hardship.

Leave no one behind: what children and young people have said about living in poverty

South Australia. Office of the Commissioner for Children and Young People
Adelaide, S. Aust. : Commissioner for Children and Young People, 2019.
This report aims provides insight into how children and young people in South Australia understand poverty and makes recommendations to help address its ill effects. It discusses findings from several engagement projects with children and young people undertaken over the last 2 years, regarding the causes, impacts and responses to poverty, the impact of poverty on children and young people and what can be done to eradicate poverty, as well as focus groups with young people with personal experiences of poverty.

Our better selves: appreciating and re-imagining our work to create change : state of the family report 2019

Manderson R and Toner G
Ainslie, ACT : Anglicare Australia, 2019.
This nineteenth State of the Family report explores the work of 'Our Better Selves', an Anglicare Australia project about how their work can help Australia become a society where everyone is seen as unique and valuable and where mutual care and compassion are central to identity. Furthermore, the project asked how can human services within the Anglicare Network express the values and practices of such a society by putting the interests and the experiences of the most marginalised and silenced at its heart and use this to change communities. Five separate teams from across the Anglicare Australia Network were partners in the project: a mental health community centre in Brisbane; a post-release drug and alcohol service in Newcastle; a youth homelessness to housing scheme in Adelaide; a housing support service in Alice Springs; and a child and parent centre in Mandurah. They conducted inquiries into their services, exploring what works best for the people they serve, drawing further on the strengths of everyone involved, and building on the connections their work creates.

Social wellbeing in primary schools

Cahill H, Shlezinger K, Dadvand B, Farrelly A, Romei K and Kern P
Parkville, Vic. : Youth Research Centre, University of Melbourne, 2019.
The report presents information on the social wellbeing of primary school students in Victoria, including the impact of a social and emotional learning program - the Resilience, Rights and Respectful Relationships program - on their wellbeing and peer relationships. 877 students from grades 4-6 completed a survey on their social wellbeing and peer relations, and focus groups were held with program participants - 179 students in 2017 and 84 students in 2018. Topics include: psychological wellbeing, sense of belonging at school, connectedness to peers, loneliness, bullying, inclusion, body image, sexism and gender relations, and the impact of the program on capacity to manage emotions and to resolve conflicts, positive relationships between genders, and peer support and help-seeking skills. Overall, the students reported relatively high levels of wellbeing, and most students were engaged with their learning and felt connected to their schools, teachers and peers. Boys were more likely than girls to experience and perpetrate violence, and girls were more likely to report being lonely and experience exclusion and complexity in resolving friendship problems. This project is part of a larger 3-year study with 40 primary and secondary schools.

Mental health: draft report

Australia. Productivity Commission.
Canberra : Productivity Commission, 2019.
The Productivity Commission is now undertaking an inquiry into the role of improving mental health to support economic participation and enhancing productivity and economic growth. This draft report has been prepared for further public consultation and input. It presents the draft findings and recommendations of the inquiry to date, drawing upon the many submissions received so far. It finds that mental ill-health is widespread, with costs to the Australian economy of at least $43 to $51 billion per year, plus another $130 billion associated with diminished health and reduced life expectancy. The treatment of mental illness has been tacked on to a health system that has been largely designed around the characteristics of physical illness, but also many people who do seek treatment are not receiving the level of care they need. The report presents draft recommendations for reforming prevention and early intervention, addressing critical gaps in healthcare service availability and delivery, and assisting people with mental illness to get into work and enable early treatment of work-related mental illness. Chapters include: Draft recommendations and findings; The case for major reform; What mental ill-health and suicide are costing Australia; Re-orienting health services to consumers; Primary mental healthcare; Supported online treatment; Specialist community mental health services; Emergency and acute inpatient services; Physical and substance use comorbidities; Towards integrated care: linking consumers and services; Mental health workforce; Psychosocial support; Carers and families; Income and employment support; Housing and homelessness; Justice; Interventions in early childhood and school education; Youth economic participation; Mentally healthy workplaces; Social participation and inclusion; Suicide prevention; Federal roles and responsibilities; and Funding arrangements.

Where does Canada stand?: the Canadian Index of Child and Youth Well-being : 2019 baseline report

Toronto, ON : UNICEF Canada, 2019.
"Canada's wealth has been steadily rising, but our overall level of child and youth well-being hasn't budged in more than a decade. Why? The Canadian Index of Child and Youth Well-being measures levels, inequalities and trends in the state of children and youth. It's a big 'selfie' of Canada, a snapshot that looks at many aspects of childhood to help Canadians understand what growing up is like for kids, focus efforts and accelerate progress where it is most needed. The Index brings together a wide range of data into one framework to encourage a comprehensive and balanced view of how kids in Canada are faring. We are tracking 125 indicators across nine dimensions of the lives of children and youth, from birth to age 18, using the most recent, population-level, statistical data. This report is a profile of children and youth that provides a baseline from which future reports will track progress. It complements the UNICEF Report Cards that look at life for kids in the world's rich countries ... Many of the indicators, about 60 per cent, are based on how children and youth report their own well-being ... About one third of the indicators measure Canada's achievement of the SDG [Sustainable Development Goals] targets for children."

The influences of social connectedness on behaviour in young children: a longitudinal investigation using GUiNZ data

Jose P, Stuart J, Pryor J and Ja N
Wellington N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2019.
This report investigates the relationship between family/whanau vulnerability and preschool children's behavioural and developmental outcomes, and whether social connectedness might act as a protective factor for vulnerable children. Data is taken from the Growing up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) longitudinal study. It found that higher levels of vulnerability in the antenatal period - including maternal education, maternal depression, household overcrowding, household income, household deprivation, and financial stress - were found to predict higher levels of externalising and internalising behaviour, higher levels of illness and developmental problems, and lower levels of prosocial behaviour in children at 4 and half years of age. Children raised in families that had experienced relationship transitions also reported higher externalising and internalising behaviour, and lower prosocial behaviour. Although neither family connectedness nor community connectedness appeared to reduce the impact of risk factors on externalising or internalising behaviour, family connectedness did enhance prosocial behaviour under conditions of low vulnerability. The report also investigated temporal pathways, comparing vulnerability in pregnancy, 9 months, 2 years, and 4.5 years of age. Over time, family connectedness was shown to predict reduced family stress and increased perceived support, both of which, in turn, predicted better behavioural outcomes. Overall, the findings indicate that social connectedness could be a useful protective factor.
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