Transition to adulthood

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Transition to adulthood in the AIFS library catalogue.

School truancy and welfare receipt dynamics in early adulthood: a longitudinal study

Collingwood P, Mazerolle L and Cardwell S
Indooroopilly, Qld. : Life Course Centre, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, 2019.
"School truancy can lead to a range of negative life outcomes, including criminal behaviour, poor mental health and poor employment outcomes. Other potential life outcomes for truants such as welfare receipt and reliance are not well understood in the truancy literature. This article investigates whether truancy is associated with the receipt of government-paid cash transfers during young peoples' transition from adolescence to early adulthood. Using data from a longitudinal household panel survey [the HILDA Survey], our study follows 787 high school-attending young people aged 15-21 years, until they are aged 19-25 years. It uses two truancy measures - any truanting and problem truanting - alongside other variables in mixed-effects logistic regression models. This study finds that, over and above the effects of other variables, and compared to non-truants, 'any truanting' in adolescence increases the odds of receiving cash transfers over time by 4.5 times, while 'problem truanting' increases the odds by 4.8 times. Compared to non-truants, being a truant increases one's odds of being on an elevated trajectory of cash transfers by 4 to 5 times - depending on one's truanting frequency - but truants' and non-truants' cash transfer trajectories follow the same rate of change over time. This study demonstrates that high school truancy increases one's odds of receiving government assistance in the years following their truancy, deepening our understanding of the relationship between truancy and later life disadvantage."

Telling a new coming-of-age story: mapping the gaps between expert and public understandings of transition age youth

Pineau M
Washington, DC : FrameWorks Institute, 2019.
This paper is part of a suite of resources to help experts and advocates communicate about the needs and issues of young people ageing out of the foster care system. The American public do have ways of thinking about the foster care system and adolescence. And, when asked about coming of age in the foster care system, they draws on these ways of thinking to understand what this might means. This report explores these ways of thinking, and uses the findings to produce a strategy for reframing the issue of transition age youth and what society must do to support them. It summarises findings from interviews with the public and experts and considers the cultural models that underlie how Americans understand and reason about adolescence and foster care. The first and most important finding from this research is that the very concept of transition age youth is missing in the public conscience: Americans don't recognize transition age youth as a discrete population with specific challenges and lack established ways of thinking about this group.

Majority of Americans say parents are doing too much for their young adult children: young men are taking longer to reach financial independence, as young women have gained ground

Barroso A, Parker K and Fry R
Washington, D.C. : Pew Research Center, 2019.
This report looks into community views of the parenting and independence of young adults in America. It draws on a social trends panel survey of 9,834 adults, and highlights findings regarding when young adults should be financially independent and the provision and obligation of financial help or emotional support from parents, with comparisons by gender, age group, and parenting status. Contextual information is also provided from the Current Population Survey on trends in young men's and young women's tertiary education, employment, leaving home and family formation. The findings underscore the extent to which many young adults are financially reliant on their parents. Some 45% of adults ages 18 to 29 say they have received financial help from their parents in the past year, and according to parents of young adults, those shares may be even higher. However, the majority of respondents said that parents are doing too much for their young adult children, in particular through financial help, though also through child care provision, letting them live with them, and otherwise attempting to solve their problems.

Connecting to opportunity: lessons on adapting interventions for young people experiencing homelessness or systems involvement

Treskon L, Wasserman K and Ho V
New York : MDRC, 2019.
This paper highlights lessons from an American initiative to reduce inequities in the life chances of young people experiencing homelessness or systems involvement. The Learn and Earn to Achieve Potential (LEAP) initiative, launched by the Annie E. Casey Foundation in 2015, aims to improve educational and employment outcomes by building educational and work-related skills and connecting young people to postsecondary and career pathways that improve their long-term earning potential. Two programs were designed and funded: Jobs for America's Graduates, which targets young people who have not completed high school, and Back on Track, which helps young people transition to postsecondary education and persist through their crucial first year of school. During the first three years of this initiative, LEAP grantees enrolled nearly 2,800 young people in their programs. The paper discusses implementation, recruitment and candidate identification, engagement and program completion, participant experiences and outcomes, systems change issues, and cost effectiveness. Key lessons are identified for program design, engagement, cross-agency collaboration and partnering, and program flexibility.

Getting to work?: insights about the transition from education to employment from the Life Chances Study, Stage 11

Bowman D, Allan M and Levin I
Fitzroy, Vic. : Research & Policy Centre, Brotherhood of St. Laurence, 2019.
This paper explores the impact of advantage and disadvantage on young people's transition from education to employment. It highlights findings from interviews with 37 young people aged 25, who had been taking part in the Life Chances longitudinal study from Victoria. The interviews were conducted in 2015, and looked into the young people's education and employment pathways, their current circumstances and life chances, the role that work and education played in their lives at age 25, and their aspirations and plans. While almost all of these young people understood post-secondary education to be a prerequisite for getting a good job, their experiences and expectations were shaped by their socioeconomic circumstances. Their responses to the competitive labour market also reflected their differing levels of social knowledge, networks, economic resources and opportunities.

Ready or not: equipping young people for the future working world

Psellos R, Welland L, Davis L and Lunday L
Sydney : EY and ReachOut Australia, 2019.
This report explores how the changing working world is impacting upon young people's mental health and wellbeing. It looks into employment trends, from globalisation to the gig economy and considers how well schools are preparing young people for the future of work - and how young people are feeling about their futures. It presents recommendations for government, employers and educational institutes and features quotes and case studies of young people, their career and education decisions, and new ways of working. The report draws upon a range of sources including the international literature, government policy reviews, surveys with 14-25-year-olds and their parents, and interviews with key informants and future-thinkers. The report finds that young people are excited and optimistic, but also scared about their personal futures. It is vital that we reconceive the way we think and plan for both work and life and that young people are equipped with the skills, experience and resilience to face challenges and uncertainties not encountered by previous generations.

The Young Australian Loneliness Survey: understanding loneliness in adolescence and young adulthood

Lim M, Eres R and Peck C
Carlton South : VicHealth, 2019.
This survey was commissioned to investigate the prevalence and severity of loneliness among young people in Victoria, as well as the relationship between loneliness and social isolation risk to mental health outcomes and the factors that may contribute to severity. The survey was conducted with 650 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old and 870 young adults aged 18 to 25 years old. Loneliness is a subjective feeling of social isolation and has been associated with poorer health outcomes. One in four young people reported problematic levels of loneliness, and were at increased risk of experiencing higher depression and social anxiety. Overall, social isolation risk, mental health symptom severity, affect, and emotion regulation all significantly predicted loneliness in these young people. The young adults reported significantly more loneliness than the adolescents, possibly as they were more likely to have embarked on major life transitions such as leaving school and less likely to live with family.

Young Australians and the housing aspirations gap

Parkinson S, Rowley S, Stone W, James A, Spinney A and Reynolds M
Melbourne : Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2019.
This study investigates the housing aspirations of young adults, the challenges they face, and what housing policy solutions are needed to assist young adults to meet their short and longer term housing aspirations. In particular it examines the needs of low income young adults and differences in 'emerging adulthood' (18-24 years) and 'early adulthood' (25-34 years). The findings highlight the challenges of balancing living arrangements and education or employment, the growing necessity of living with others, experiences of housing insecurity and homelessness, and the ongoing but often unattainable dream of owning one's own home. This study draws on Census data and data from Australian Housing Aspirations (AHA) survey, supplemented with focus groups and interviews, and is part of a broader project on housing aspirations and constraints for lower income Australians.

Family formation and labour market performance of young adults

Vera-Toscano E
The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey : selected findings from Waves 1 to 17 : the 14th Annual Statistical Report of the HILDA Survey. Melbourne, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2019: 112-125
This chapter looks at trends in how young adults leave home, get a job, and form a family. It compares how the lives of young adults have changed from 2001 to 2017, using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, for people aged 18 to 29 years of age. It provides information on: proportion of young adults living in the parental home by age and gender, returning back home, leaving home and relationship status, leaving home and employment or education participation, household types of young adults who have moved out of their parental home, young adults' family roles outside the parental home, marital status and dependent children of young adults by number of years living outside the parental home, proportion of young adults living in the parental home who are full-time students, labour force status and employment tenure by gender, proportion and years in casual employment, and trends in hourly wages. The share of young adults living with their parents has increased significantly since 2001, led largely by young women remaining at home longer - likely due to factors such as changes in the labour market and housing market and increased participation in post-secondary education. Accordingly, young adults are thus taking more time before entering into the family roles that have long defined adulthood.

School-to-work pathways

Ranasinghe R, Chew E, Knight G and Siekmann G
Adelaide, S. Aust. : NCVER, 2019.
This study explores young people's transition from school to work and identifies common transition pathways. It follows 3,186 young people over ten years, from age 16 in 2006 to age 25 in 2016, using data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY). The study found that though the majority of the young people followed relatively straightforward pathways of higher-education-to-work or early entry to full-time work, a quarter of the young people experienced varied and complex transitions including frequent switching between university and vocational education, episodes of part-time work, and repeatedly disengaging from the labour market. Five pathways were identified, influenced by whether the young person studied a vocational subject at school, individual school achievement, and socioeconomic issues - with studying a vocational subject at school shown to be a significant positive factor in all non-academic pathways. An interactive data visualisation of the pathways has also been published.

Parental joblessness and the moderating role of a university degree on the school-to-work transition in Australia and the United States.

Curry M, Mooi-Reci I and Wooden M
Social Science Research v. 81 Jul 2019: 61-76
This article investigates whether having unemployed parents effects young people's own transition into employment. It investigates the outcomes of nearly 3,000 young people from Australia and the United States, comparing time spent living in a household where no parent was employed and educational and labour market outcomes. The study finds that parental joblessness is associated with a slower transition to work for these young people, but that obtaining a university degree can counteract this negative association. The study also found that differences between the two countries, suggesting that policy factors such as welfare may play a role.

Young people living with their parents

Australian Institute of Family Studies
Southbank, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2019.
This webpage provides charts and statistics on the number of young people living with their parents in early adulthood. Drawing on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, it looks at trends in young people living with their parents from 1981-2016, gender and age group differences, regional differences, and differences by ethnicity. Young people are increasingly choosing to stay at home and live with their parents: in 2016, 43% of 20-24 year olds were still living with their parents, compared to 36% of young people in 1981.

Working through it: a Youth Survey report on economically disadvantaged young people

Mission Australia
Sydney, NSW : Mission Australia, 2019.
Each year, Mission Australia conducts a national survey to learn more about the views and perspectives of young people on a broad range of issues, with 28,286 young people aged 15-19 years old taking part in the 2018 survey. This report compares their responses using one measure of economic disadvantage: whether the young people's parents were jobless or not. The analysis identifies key differences across several areas, including participation in education, part-time work, and sport, family support to leave work and obtain work, issues of personal concern, who they turn to for support, and feelings of optimism and control over their lives. The findings provide insights into how economic disadvantage affects lives beyond material deprivation. The report concludes with recommendations for policy and service planning.

Gender gaps: findings from the Youth Survey 2018

Mission Australia
Sydney, NSW : Mission Australia, 2019.
Each year, Mission Australia conducts a national survey to learn more about the views and perspectives of young people on a broad range of issues. This report looks into the gender differences between responses in the 2018 survey, which involved a total of 28,286 young people aged 15-19 years old. The analysis identifies key differences across several areas, including mental health, wellbeing, and confidence; housing; safety and trust; and participation and inclusion. A particular issue is personal safety, with high numbers of young women feeling unsafe walking alone after dark in their communities or when considering moving out of home. The report concludes with recommendations for policy and service planning, including addressing gender equality and the barriers to participating in further education and community and sporting activities.

Adolescent care-orientation and positive development in young adulthood.

Hutchinson D, Youssef G, Buhagiar A, Teague S, Macdonald J, Letcher P, Greenwood C, McIntosh J, Toumbourou J, Hallam B, Skouteris H, Sanson A and Olsson C
Journal of Adolescent Health v. 64 no. 1 Jan 2019: 63-69
This article investigates whether care-oriented behaviour in adolescence - such as volunteering, school captaincy, or conservation work - is associated with positive development into adulthood. Using data from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), it examines the trajectory of positive development from the early to late twenties, patterns of positive development, and the extent to which adolescent care-orientation predicts these trajectories. Data is recorded at age 15-16, 19-20, 23-24, and 27-28 years of age. The findings suggest that individuals generally have the same trajectory of positive development over time once the baseline level is established, and that involvement in care-oriented behaviour in adolescence predicts baseline levels. These findings highlight how adolescence is an ideal time to promote care-oriented behaviours to improve later positive development.

Alcohol and parenthood: an integrative analysis of the effects of transition to parenthood in three Australasian cohorts.

Borschmann R, Becker D, Spry E, Youssef G, Olsson C, Hutchinson D, Silins E, Boden J, Moreno-Betancur M, Najman J, Degenhardt L, Mattick R, Romaniuk H, Horwood L and Patton G
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 13 Feb 2019: Advance online publication
Research has found that young people consume alcohol in increasing amounts through the teenage years and early twenties before decreasing in the late twenties and early thirties. One theory is that the transition to parenthood is responsible for this decline. This article tests this theory, comparing alcohol consumption and parenting status using data from three longitudinal studies: the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) from New Zealand, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS). The findings show that, for most women in their twenties and thirties, parenting an infant was associated with reduced alcohol consumption. However, this reduction changed after 12 months with drinking levels returning close to pre-parenthood levels after five years. There was little change among men. Overall, the transition to parenthood has no sustained impact on parental alcohol consumption.

Family sharing: a minimum income standard for people in their 20s living with parents

Hill K and Hirsch D
Loughborough, U.K. : Centre for Research in Social Policy, Loughborough University, 2019.
"A rising proportion of young adults [in Great Britain] are living with their parents well into their 20s. This accounts for almost two thirds of singles in their 20s, with the greatest increase in the last decade among those aged 25-29 where over half now live with their parents. This report aims to fill a gap in the analysis and understanding of household living standards by considering how such living arrangements affect household costs, and hence the minimum that people require for an acceptable living standard. It does so as an extension of the Minimum Income Standards research, based on what members of the public in particular types of household consider are the essential goods and services that such a household requires in order to meet material needs and participate in society ... In deliberating over how these savings might end up being shared between a young single adult and their parents, [focus group participants] concluded that you cannot generalise - because the amount that the young adult contributes to household costs is affected both by the financial circumstances and the attitudes and feelings of those involved."--Executive summary.

Cognitive and educational outcomes of maltreated and non-maltreated youth : a birth cohort study.

Mills R, Kisely S, Alati R, Strathearn L and Najman J
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry v. 53 no. 3 Mar 2019: 248-255
There is only limited research available on the impact of child maltreatment on later cognitive, academic, and employment outcomes in adulthood. This article helps address this gap with findings for 21 year old young adults in the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). It compares notified or substantiated abuse or neglect in childhood, reduced verbal intelligence, failure to complete high school education, and lack of engagement in either formal study or employment. The findings highlight the ongoing adverse impacts of child maltreatment in later life.

Young adults in the parental home, 2007 & 2018

Payne K
Bowling Green, OH : National Center for Family & Marriage Research, Bowling Green State University, 2019
This fact sheet looks at trends in young people staying at home over the last decade in America. Data is taken from the Current Population Survey from 2007 and 2018, and presented in the form of charts. Not all young adults who co-reside with a parent are single, some are cohabiting or married and living with either their own or their partner's parents. In 2018, 33% of young adults aged 18-34 were living in a parent's home, up from 29% in 2007.

No exit: social reproduction in an era of rising income inequality

Flynn L and Schwartz H
Luxembourg : LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, 2018.
This paper looks into the social reproduction of inequality, comparing how young people in different nations manage their living arrangements. The findings highlight groups of young people distinguished by access to parental support, pooling income across generations, living with parents, or purchasing independence through precarious renting. It also compares home ownership in 25 to 34 year-olds in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010, in four select welfare regimes. Some data is included for Australia. Rising income inequality is mediated through housing markets in different countries to produce three new inequalities: unequal access to housing, unequal access to launch and form families and unequal access to stable and adequate pensions. Many people now face difficulty transitioning into what had been the socially accepted next stage of life: parenthood and independence for the young, and for the old entry into retirement or retirement at the same standard of living.

The young adults: life chances at age 24 - Life Chances Study Wave 11

Allan M and Bowman D
Fitzroy, Vic. : Brotherhood of St. Laurence, 2018.
This paper highlights some of the factors that shape young people's opportunities for work and study. It draws on preliminary findings from Wave 11 of the Life Chances Study, a longitudinal study from Victoria on the influences of social, economic and environmental factors on children's lives. The study participants are now 24 years old, and many reported not having satisfactory employment - particularly young men from low-income families. The findings also highlight the struggle of balancing study, work, and family, and how extended education did not guarantee a job. Parents continue to play a big role in these young people's lives: parents continued to be a vital source of financial support, especially for those from high-income families, whereas young people from low-income families were more likely to be providing financial support to their parents.

The marketisation of education in Australia : does investment in private schooling improve post-school outcomes?

Chesters J
Australian Journal of Social Issues v. 53 no. 2 Jun 2018: 139-157
This article investigates whether private school students fare better in employment, occupation, and income. Using data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth, it compares type of school attended and economic outcomes at age 24. It finds that type of school attended was not associated with academic achievement or employment status, occupation, or earnings in young adulthood. The findings will help inform the debate about school funding and selection.

Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence : an integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts.

Silins E, Horwood L, Najman J, Patton G, Toumbourou J, Olsson C, Hutchinson D, Degenhardt L, Fergusson D, Becker D, Boden J, Borschmann R, Plotnikova M, Youssef G, Tait R, Clare P, Hall W and Mattick R
Addiction v. 113 no. 10 Oct 2018: 1811-1825
This article adds to the evidence on the association of adolescent alcohol use and adverse consequences later in adulthood. It investigates the association between different patterns of drinking - frequent, heavy episodic, and problem drinking - and negative outcomes relating to substance use, antisocial behaviour, sexual risk-taking, accidents, socio-economic functioning, mental health, and partner relationships. Data is taken for young people aged from 13 to 30 years of age from four longitudinal studies: the Australian Temperament Project, the Christchurch Health and Development Study from New Zealand, the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. The findings indicate that frequency of drinking plays more of a role than binge drinking does for adverse outcomes, but that this association between drinking and most outcomes was largely due to shared risk factors for adolescent alcohol use and poor psychosocial functioning.

The role of trusted adults in young people's social and economic lives.

Meltzer A, Muir K and Craig L
Youth and Society v. 55 no. 5 2016: 575-592
This article explores the role of adults other than parents during young people's transition to adulthood. Such adults include aunts and uncles, parents of peers, family friends, coaches, and people in paid roles such as teachers and youth workers. The article draws on interviews with 70 young people aged from 12 to 20 who were taking part in the longitudinal study 'We Can't Afford Not to: Supporting Young People Within Their Families and Communities From Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood'. The article explores the place of trusted adults in young people's lives, their support and encouragement, characteristics, role modelling, engagement, and practical support. The article also looks at how the role of these trusted adults varies for disengaged, at risk young people. The findings provide insights into the relationships and supports available to young people.

Too valuable to lose: assessing the value of small community service organisations

Arashiro Z and Pagan A
Fitzroy, Vic. : Brotherhood of St Laurence, 2018.
In the new competitive funding environment in the human services sector, many community service organisations are struggling to balance these new priorities with their socially-driven mission and purpose and demonstrate their value in terms of 'value for money. This paper highlights the 'value add' of smaller community service organisations, with case studies of four non-profit providers who support young people's transition to work. The case studies are of: YouthWorX NT, in Darwin, Joblink Midwest in Geraldton, Western Australia, Gen-Z Employment, at the Gold Coast, Queensland, and the Schools Industry Partnership, in Sydney, New South Wales. While the value in government-funded services has been predominantly measured in economic terms, the paper aims to capture less tangible variables that constitute value to individuals, local communities, and 'public value'.

Identity resolution within early adulthood and the persistent influences of socio-structural factors.

Mcmillan N
TASA Conference 2018 - precarity, rights and resistance : conference proceedings - 19-22 November 2018 - Deakin University. Hawthorn, Vic. : The Australian Sociological Association, 2018. 9780648221012: 33-41
This paper looks at differences in the degree of certainty young people have about their future adult identities, in terms of the kinds of relationships and friends they want, the occupation they want, their values, and the kind of person they want to be. It analyses data for 2,148 young people aged 19/20 years old, participating in the 'Social Futures and Life Pathways of Young People in Queensland' longitudinal study. The paper analyses their levels of identity resolution, comparing differences by gender, country of birth, family socio-economic status, regional location, education level, and importance of religion in their life.

Equity in education: breaking down barriers to social mobility

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Paris : OECD Publishing, 2018.
"In times of growing economic inequality, improving equity in education becomes more urgent. While some countries and economies that participate in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) have managed to build education systems where socio-economic status makes less of a difference to students' learning and well-being, every country can do more. [This report] shows that high performance and more positive attitudes towards schooling among disadvantaged 15-year-old students are strong predictors of success in higher education and work later on. The report examines how equity in education has evolved over several cycles of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It identifies the policies and practices that can help disadvantaged students succeed academically and feel more engaged at school. Using longitudinal data from five countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Switzerland, and the United States), the report also describes the links between a student's performance near the end of compulsory education and upward social mobility ? i.e. attaining a higher level of education or working in a higher-status job than one's parents."

A longitudinal analysis of residential mobility from 1991-2017: understanding generational patterns and inter-relationships

Cook J and Cuervo H
Parkville, Vic. : Youth Research Centre, University of Melbourne, 2018.
This paper explores residential mobility over time, drawing on longitudinal data from the Life Patterns study. As well as considering the characteristics and experiences of people who moved in and between rural, regional, and urban areas, it also examines people who have remained in the same areas for much of their lives. The Life Patterns study is following two generations of young Australians. This paper focuses on the 'Gen X' cohort, people who left secondary school in 1991 and who are now 43-44 years old. Some comparisons are also made with the 'Gen Y' cohort, who left school in 2006 and are now aged 29-30, in regard to inter-generational differences in aspirations and relocation patterns. The study finds that while financial factors shaped the life chances and residential mobility of these participants, their preferences and choices were also shaped by more emotional considerations such as intergenerational support, experiences of belonging, and identification with place.

The new work reality

Foundation for Young Australians
Melbourne, Vic. : Foundation for Young Australians, 2018.
Education is seen as key to achieving a full-time job, but this report highlights that this may no longer be the case. Though nearly 60% of young Australians aged 25 hold a post-school qualification, 50% of them are unable to secure more than 35 hours of work per week. Drawing on data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth (LSAY), this report investigates the skills and attributes that accelerate the transition to full-time work in this new era, and the barriers that young people face.

Indigenous youth employment and the school-to-work transition

Venn D
Canberra, ACT : Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, 2018.
This paper investigates the labour market situation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia aged 15-29 years old. It draws on data from the 2016 Census, the 2014-15 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS), and the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to compare employment among Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth, and labour market outcomes by age, gender, and remoteness. The characteristics of post-school jobs are also examined, including hours of work, job security, and skill level. The data show that Indigenous youth are less likely to be employed or studying than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and are also more likely to work in part-time, casual and unskilled jobs than non-Indigenous youth. While the differences in working hours and skilled employment between Indigenous and non-Indigenous teenagers are small, by their late 20s the gap in job quality is much larger.
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