Unemployment and families

The latest material added to the Australian Institute of Family Studies library database is displayed, up to a maximum of 30 items. Where available online, a link to the document is provided. Many items can be borrowed from the Institute's library via the Interlibrary loan system.

See more resources on Unemployment and families in the AIFS library catalogue

Mental health: draft report

Australia. Productivity Commission.
Canberra : Productivity Commission, 2019.
The Productivity Commission is now undertaking an inquiry into the role of improving mental health to support economic participation and enhancing productivity and economic growth. This draft report has been prepared for further public consultation and input. It presents the draft findings and recommendations of the inquiry to date, drawing upon the many submissions received so far. It finds that mental ill-health is widespread, with costs to the Australian economy of at least $43 to $51 billion per year, plus another $130 billion associated with diminished health and reduced life expectancy. The treatment of mental illness has been tacked on to a health system that has been largely designed around the characteristics of physical illness, but also many people who do seek treatment are not receiving the level of care they need. The report presents draft recommendations for reforming prevention and early intervention, addressing critical gaps in healthcare service availability and delivery, and assisting people with mental illness to get into work and enable early treatment of work-related mental illness. Chapters include: Draft recommendations and findings; The case for major reform; What mental ill-health and suicide are costing Australia; Re-orienting health services to consumers; Primary mental healthcare; Supported online treatment; Specialist community mental health services; Emergency and acute inpatient services; Physical and substance use comorbidities; Towards integrated care: linking consumers and services; Mental health workforce; Psychosocial support; Carers and families; Income and employment support; Housing and homelessness; Justice; Interventions in early childhood and school education; Youth economic participation; Mentally healthy workplaces; Social participation and inclusion; Suicide prevention; Federal roles and responsibilities; and Funding arrangements.

How Australia can invest in children and return more: a new look at the $15b cost of late action

Teager W, Fox S and Stafford N
Subiaco, W.A. : CoLab, Telethon Kids Institute, 2019.
This report highlights the issue of late intervention in Australia and the significant costs of not investing early enough in children and young people. It details how Australian governments spend $15.2b every year because children and young people experience serious but preventable issues that require crisis services, with the greatest costs in services for out-of home care, justice system costs related to youth crime, and welfare payments for unemployed young people. The key issues likely to drive future budget pressures are youth unemployment, youth hospitalisation for mental health issues, and out-of home care. The report then highlights the opportunities for earlier, targeted, and impactful preventative investment. Though it is neither possible nor desirable to eliminate all spending on late intervention, the number of children and young people reaching crisis or significant difficulties demonstrates that the system is not preventing issues from escalating, nor adequately responding when they first need help. Issues reviewed in this report include mental health, youth homelessness, physical health, family violence, justice, youth unemployment, youth crime, and child protection - areas where it is clear that, by providing effective support earlier, there is the opportunity to change pathways or outcomes for children and young people.

Relative income poverty rates and poverty alleviation via tax/benefit systems in 49 LIS countries, 1967-2016

Caminada K, Wang J, Goudswaard K and Wang C
Luxembourg : LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg, 2019.
Most welfare states design their tax/benefit system to combat income poverty, but some countries are more effective than others. This paper investigates country variations in the effectiveness of social transfers and income taxes in alleviating poverty, and also whether the redistributive power of different social programs have changed over time. Data is taken from the Luxembourg Income Study for 49 countries, with a detailed analysis for 2013 and a trend analysis for the period 1967-2016. It examines household market income poverty and disposable income poverty, the antipoverty effect of social transfers and income taxes, and the underlying social programs that drive the changes. The analysis finds considerable differences in the poverty reducing effect of social transfers and income taxes across countries. In general, as far as specific social programs are concerned, only three programs account for the bulk of total poverty reduction: old-age/disability/survivor scheme (81%), social programs for family and children (14%), and the unemployment scheme (9%).

How do welfare and tax settings affect children's involvement with child protective services?: research brief

Harrow C
Wellington N.Z. : Oranga Tamariki Ministry for Children, 2019.
This paper investigates whether there is a causal relationship between low income and child maltreatment and thus whether welfare reforms that lower or raise incomes can affect rates of abuse. It reviews New Zealand and overseas studies that employ experimental designs to control for confounding factors. Overall, the available evidence shows there is a causal association between low income and maltreatment outcomes, suggesting that welfare policies that decrease incomes are likely to contribute to negative outcomes for children. There is also evidence that increasing the incomes of at-risk populations is linked to a reduced incidence of child maltreatment. A number of studies found a significant relationship between low income and neglect, consistent with the wider literature, but the link with physical abuse or other types of abuse is less clear. The paper also considers some of the factors that can affect the impact of welfare and tax policies.

Parental joblessness and the moderating role of a university degree on the school-to-work transition in Australia and the United States.

Curry M, Mooi-Reci I and Wooden M
Social Science Research v. 81 Jul 2019: 61-76
This article investigates whether having unemployed parents effects young people's own transition into employment. It investigates the outcomes of nearly 3,000 young people from Australia and the United States, comparing time spent living in a household where no parent was employed and educational and labour market outcomes. The study finds that parental joblessness is associated with a slower transition to work for these young people, but that obtaining a university degree can counteract this negative association. The study also found that differences between the two countries, suggesting that policy factors such as welfare may play a role.

Life on Newstart Allowance : a new reality for low-income single mothers.

McKenzie H, McHugh C and McKay F
Journal of Family Studies v. 25 no. 1 2019: 18-33
In 2013, welfare support policies for single parents changed in Australia, with many low income mothers moving from a parenting payment to the Newstart Allowance - a payment for jobseekers with stricter conditions and less money. This article explores the financial impact of this policy change, drawing on interviews with 23 women who had been moved to the Newstart scheme.

Labor force status, transitions, and mothers' and fathers' parenting stress : direct and cross-spousal influences.

Craig L and Churchill B
Journal of Marriage and Family v. 1 no. 2 Apr 2019: 345-360
Juggling work and family is a source of stress for many, but how do changes between full-time work, part-time work, and being unemployed affect this stress? Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this article explores parenting stress, employment status, and changes in their or their partner's employment status. The findings indicate that parents find parenting stressful overall, having an unemployed partner is associated with lower stress for an employed parent - though not at first.

Welfare-to-work interventions and their effects on the mental and physical health of lone parents and their children (Review)

Gibson M, Thomson H, Banas K, Lutje V, McKee M, Martin S, Fenton C, Bambra C and Bond L
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews no. 2 2018: Article no. CD009820
This systematic review assesses the evidence on the impact of 'Welfare-to-work' interventions on the health of lone parents and their children. Lone parents in wealthy countries experience high levels of poverty and ill health, and opinion is divided on whether welfare to work initiatives would alleviate or exacerbate this situation. The article looks into what is known about the impact of such programs on parent or child physical or mental health, as well as economic outcomes such as employment, income, and welfare receipt. The review identified 12 random controlled trials from overseas. Overall, the review concludes that such interventions are unlikely to improve the health of lone parents and their children, and have only small impacts on economic outcomes.

Rapid evidence review: the impact of poverty on life course outcomes for children, and the likely effect of increasing the adequacy of welfare benefits

New Zealand. Ministry of Social Development, New Zealand. Welfare Expert Advisory Group
Wellington, N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2018.
This report summarises the evidence on the impact of childhood poverty and whether increasing welfare benefits is likely to improve their outcomes. It briefly reviews the evidence on the causal effects of being exposed to poverty in childhood on outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood, then considers the likely effect of increasing the adequacy of cash transfers on these outcomes. It also briefly reviews the evidence on the effects of exposure to poverty in adulthood on adult wellbeing. Though the evidence base on the causal impact of childhood poverty on life course outcomes is still limited, it does indicate that children and adolescents who experience poverty experience a range of worse outcomes and increases in family income from cash transfers can positively affect outcomes for both children and adults. This paper was prepared for the Welfare Expert Advisory Group, which has been established to review how the welfare system in New Zealand can be improved.

Obligations and sanctions rapid evidence review. Paper 8, Work obligations for sole parents and outcomes for children

New Zealand. Ministry of Social Development, New Zealand. Welfare Expert Advisory Group
Wellington, N.Z. : Ministry of Social Development, 2018.
This report summarises the evidence on whether work obligations for sole parents receiving welfare benefits impact upon children's outcomes. It outlines research from New Zealand and overseas on how New Zealand policy settings compare, the effects of work obligations for sole parents, and the generalisability of these findings to the New Zealand setting. Overall, the international evidence does not offer any firm guidance, with mixed findings on the effects of work obligations for sole parents on outcomes for children and unclear evidence on the impact of implementing overseas settings in New Zealand. This paper was prepared for the Welfare Expert Advisory Group, which has been established to review how the welfare system in New Zealand can be improved.

Experiences of parents and children living in poverty: a review of the qualitative literature

Quint J
New York : MDRC, 2018.
"While the scholarly literature on families experiencing poverty is sizable, relatively little attention has been paid to how children describe what it is like to be poor, their thoughts and feelings about their economic status, and the roles that they see benefit programs playing in their lives ... The purpose of this review is to summarize the qualitative literature as it applies to the key research questions listed in the next section. The review informs fieldwork for the 'Understanding Poverty: Childhood and Family Experiences' study, which will involve in-depth interviews with members of about 30 low-income families, including children ranging in age from 7 to 17 and their parents or other caregivers, across three sites. Primary Research Questions: This review summarizes the qualitative literature as it applies to the following key questions: 1. What are children's experiences and perceptions of poverty and benefit receipt? 2. What are parents' perceptions of poverty and benefit receipt, including interactions with public assistance offices and workers? 3. How do parents and children discuss their families' economic circumstances? ... A systematic approach was taken to review qualitative studies conducted in English speaking countries, mainly the United States and the United Kingdom, and published in scholarly journals or for academic audiences since 1990."--Overview.

Parental joblessness and the moderating role of a university degree on the school-to-work transition in Australia and the United States

Curry M, Mooi-Reci I and Wooden M
Indooroopilly, Qld : Life Course Centre, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, 2018.
Though there is evidence that children with an unemployed parent are more likely themselves to experience unemployment during adulthood, the underlying processes are unclear and little is known about what factors could potentially weaken this link. This paper investigates the potential role of tertiary education in countering this disadvantage. It analyses longitudinal data from Australia and the United States to examine the moderating role of obtaining a university degree on the relationship between parental joblessness - experienced during adolescence and young adulthood - and the young people's school-to-work transition - measured as the length of time until the first job after exiting education. Data is taken from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from the United States. The findings show that parental joblessness is associated with slower school-to-work transitions in both countries, but that obtaining a degree mitigates much of this negative relationship for Australian young people. As this is not also the case for American young people, the relationship between education, parental joblessness, and the school-to-work transition may well depend on other factors such as the welfare regime.

Parental joblessness and the moderating role of a university degree on the school-to-work transition in Australia and the United States

Curry M, Mooi-Reci I and Wooden M
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic & Social Research, University of Melbourne, 2018.
Though there is evidence that children with an unemployed parent are more likely themselves to experience unemployment during adulthood, the underlying processes are unclear and little is known about what factors could potentially weaken this link. This paper investigates the potential role of tertiary education in countering this disadvantage. It analyses longitudinal data from Australia and the United States to examine the moderating role of obtaining a university degree on the relationship between parental joblessness - experienced during adolescence and young adulthood - and the young people's school-to-work transition - measured as the length of time until the first job after exiting education. Data is taken from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from the United States. The findings show that parental joblessness is associated with slower school-to-work transitions in both countries, but that obtaining a degree mitigates much of this negative relationship for Australian young people. As this is not also the case for American young people, the relationship between education, parental joblessness, and the school-to-work transition may well depend on other factors such as the welfare regime.

Improving lives - helping workless families: indicators 2018

Great Britain. Dept. for Work and Pensions
London : Dept. for Work and Pensions, 2018.
In 'Improving lives - helping workless families', the British Government sets out proposals to improve outcomes for children who grow up in workless families. The policy was supported by a strong evidence base, published in an 'analysis and research pack' featuring the latest research and a set of nine indicators to track progress in tackling disadvantage. This new 2018 report updates the indicators with the latest data. The indicators cover the prevalence of parental conflict, entrenched worklessness, poor parental mental health, family breakdown, homelessness, problem debt, drug and alcohol dependency, children's educational attainment, and youth participation in education, employment, or training.

Child protection in South Australia

University of Adelaide. BetterStart Child Health and Development Research Group
Adelaide, S. Aust. : BetterStart Child Health and Development Research Group, University of Adelaide, 2017.
This paper provides information on the experiences and characteristics of children who are in contact with the child protection system in South Australia. Topics include reporting rates and trends, age of first contact, source of reports, maltreatment type, family disadvantage, and association with developmental vulnerability. Data are presented for children born from 1999 to 2013, with corresponding child protection, health and other data up until 2015, taken from linked administrative data from the SA Early Childhood Data Project. 10 key findings are presented, including: by age ten, 1 in 4 children born each year are expected to be the subject of at least one notification to the child protection system; patterns appear similar to those of other Australian states, with a notification level of about 25% and an out-of-home care level of about 2%; and children who have experienced out-of-home-care are almost 3 times more likely to be developmentally vulnerable than children with no child protection contacts and 3 times more likely to be performing poorly on Year 3 NAPLAN student assessments.

[Social Services Legislation Amendment Act 2017]

Alston P
Geneva, Switzerland : Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2017.
This letter, from the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights to the High Commissioner for Human Rights, highlights concerns over Australia's new Social Services Legislation Amendment Act 2017. It highlights the potential negative impact of this social service reform and related amendments on the human rights of persons living in poverty, particularly single parents and their children. It discusses recent benefit cuts affecting single parent households in Australia, the impact of the Welfare to Work initiative on single parents, the history of recent legislative reforms, drug testing and suspension of payments, cashless debit card trials, and the potential impact of the 2017 Act on waiting periods for youth allowance and parenting payments and family tax benefits. Access to social security is a human right but this letter reiterates concerns of the current and former the Special Rapporteur that the further cutting of social security payments will have significantly negative impacts on the human rights of tens of thousands of Australians, many of whom are currently living in poverty.

Improving lives - helping workless families: analysis and research pack

Great Britain. Dept. for Work and Pensions
London : Dept. for Work and Pensions, 2017.
In 'Improving lives - helping workless families', the British Government sets out proposals to improve outcomes for children who grow up in workless families. This document presents the strong evidence base that underpins that policy paper. It combines the latest research with new insights from survey and administrative data, and was created by leading academics, analysts, and policy-makers across government as well as local authorities and front-line workers. Part one focuses on children in workless families, setting out the evidence behind some of the issues associated with persistent worklessness, how these disadvantages are often connected with other factors, and how they impact on children's outcomes. Part two presents nine national indicators, with supporting measures, to track progress in tackling the disadvantages that affect families and children's outcomes. These include the prevalence of parental conflict, entrenched worklessness, poor parental mental health, family breakdown, homelessness, problem debt, drug and alcohol dependency, children's educational attainment, and youth participation in education, employment, or training.

Improving lives: helping workless families

Great Britain. Dept. for Work and Pensions
London : Dept. for Work and Pensions, 2017.
In this publication, the British Government sets out proposals to improve outcomes for children who grow up in workless families and face multiple disadvantages. It draws on new analysis on the stark difference in outcomes between children in workless families and those in lower-income working families, with workless families considerably more likely to experience problems with their relationships, have poor mental health, and be in problem debt. This Government will help these families by expanding the Troubled Families Programme, launching new local-level interventions to reduce parental conflict, and targeting at risk parents with complex issues or substance dependency through the welfare system. The first section sets out the case for change, based on the evidence on parental worklessness. The next section explains the steps for action, before concluding with a section on how progress will be monitored.

Economic predictors of child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

Doidge J, Higgins D, Delfabbro P, Edwards B, Vassallo S, Toumbourou J and Segal L
Children and Youth Services Review v. 72 Jan 2017: 14-25
The association between poverty and child maltreatment has long been known, but the mechanisms involved are little understood. This article investigates this association further, with estimates and retrospective reports using data from the Australian Temperament Project - a longitudinal study of 2443 children and their parents in Victoria, with the children now aged 23-24 years old. It compares the association of childhood economic factors - including parental education, occupation, and unemployment; type of housing; and retrospective perception of poverty - with retrospective reports of different types of child maltreatment. The article also estimates how much child maltreatment is theoretically preventable by addressing childhood economic disadvantage, and the implications for prevention efforts.

Lone parents, health, wellbeing and welfare to work : a systematic review of qualitative studies.

Campbell M, Thomson H, Fenton C and Gibson M
BMC Public Health v. 16 25 Feb 2016: Article 188
Lone parents on welfare experience poorer health and wellbeing than their peers. As this is possibly due to the high rates of poverty among this group, this article investigates whether 'welfare to work' and similar schemes can improve lone parents' health by raising their income. It reviews the literature on lone parents participation in welfare to work schemes from high income countries, and finds that participation produces a range of largely negative affects on health and wellbeing, due to conflict with child care responsibilities, stress from poorly paid and precarious work, increased stress and depression, and lack of control.

Living with unemployment and underemployment: poor, isolated and struggling to change

Crowe L
2016.
"People who suffer from mental health problems are over-represented amongst the unemployed when compared to those who are gainfully employed. The overarching goal of this project was to investigate the mechanisms through which unemployment and underemployment may impact mental health ... This thesis presents three studies centred on the links between mental health and employment status, and explores the role of mastery, financial hardship, and social support. The first study used longitudinal data from a community sample from the Canberra/Queanbeyan region. 2,389 participants initially aged in their early twenties were followed across eight years and three waves. Social support, financial hardship and mastery all emerged as important mediating variables in the relationship between unemployment and depression, compared to the employed ... By contrast, for the underemployed group, only financial hardship demonstrated a mediating effect on the association between underemployment and depression ? suggesting that even inadequate employment may provide a greater source of mastery and social support than no work at all. The second study also used longitudinal data to build upon these findings by using a nationally representative sample from three waves, as well as exploring the impact of duration of unemployment on mental health. The final study investigated whether mastery, social support and financial hardship was related to high depressive symptomatology within a sample of unemployed and under- employed individuals (n = 192). Furthermore, it explored how these factors may influence key factors related to reemployment, or indeed continued unemployment: job search intensity, job search expectations and intentions."--Author abstract.

Domestic violence and women's economic security: building Australia's capacity for prevention and redress : key findings and future directions

Cortis N and Bullen J
Alexandria, NSW : ANROWS, 2016.
This paper summarises key findings from a study into the impact of domestic violence on women's economic status and how the service system could be improved to promote women's economic security. The full findings are published in the ANROWS horizons report series. The full report draws on evidence from the Journeys Home longitudinal study and interviews with service providers to explore the impact of violence on women's economic status; the economic pathways of vulnerable women following domestic violence; financial stress; use of income support and welfare services; employment and job search; the efficacy and limitations of existing approaches, policies and programs to help promote economic security following violence; and ways to improve service systems' capacity to promote women's economic security.

Domestic violence and women's economic security: building Australia's capacity for prevention and redress : final report

Cortis N and Bullen J
Alexandria, NSW : ANROWS, 2016.
The ANROWS Landscapes paper 'Building effective policies and services to promote women's economic security following domestic violence' reviewed the literature on how economic abuse is a frequent tactic of violence, a major factors in women's decisions about leaving or staying in violent relationships, and a cause of long-term hardship. This report builds on that paper with new evidence from the Journeys Home longitudinal study of people with housing instability and interviews with service providers. It explores the impact of violence on women's economic status; the economic pathways of vulnerable women following domestic violence; financial stress; use of income support and welfare services; employment and job search; the efficacy and limitations of existing approaches, policies and programs to help promote economic security following violence; and ways to improve service systems' capacity to promote women's economic security.

Can immigrants insure against shocks as well as the native-born?

Asadul Islam, Stillman S and Worswick C
Bonn, Germany : IZA, 2016.
This paper compares how well native-born and immigrant households in Australia cope with unforeseen events. Using longitudinal data from the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia (HILDA) survey, it investigates the impact of job loss or health shocks on labour supply, income, and food expenditure in couple and single person households. The study found that job loss has only limited and brief impacts on single men, but large long-term consequences for single women - immigrant single women in particular. In contrast, health shocks appear to be largely smoothed over except for single immigrant men. The possible reasons why some groups cope better or worse with such events is also considered.

Estimating the fiscal costs of long-term jobless families in Australia.

Mohanty I, Tanton R, Vidyattama Y and Thurecht L
Australian Journal of Social Issues v. 51 no. 1 2016: 89-108
Despite substantial costs to society associated with the adverse consequences of joblessness, studies estimating actual costs are rare. This paper identifies the main costs to the Government of long-term jobless families in Australia. The costs were split into three groups: immediate support costs, immediate opportunity costs, and indirect/intergenerational costs. Using a microsimulation model, the paper estimates the fiscal costs, which include immediate support costs such as the welfare system, and the immediate opportunity costs such as potential revenue from the tax system. We estimate that welfare payments and lost taxation revenue from long-term joblessness cost the Government AU$5.55 billion per year.

Child poverty transitions: exploring the routes into and out of child poverty, 2009-2012

City University (London, England), National Centre for Social Research (Great Britain), Great Britain. Dept. for Work and Pensions
London : Dept. for Work and Pensions, 2015.
This research explores the patterns and pathways of how children move into and out of poverty in Great Britain. It uses data from the two-year period of 2009 to 2012 from the Understanding Society survey and the Millenium Cohort Study to investigate prevalence of child poverty and the association with household type, income change, gaining and leaving employment, labour market characteristics and occupations, household change, ethnicity, use of child care, and the birth of a child. The analysis shows that labour market events play a large role in describing both poverty entries and poverty exits: preventing families from becoming workless is a key protector from poverty, as is gaining or increasing work in helping families exit from poverty. Various household events - such as having a new baby and parental separation - were also independently associated with families entering into poverty.

Silent voices, invisible violence: welfare to work and the exploitation of single mothers who have experienced domestic violence

Winter M
2015.
"In the last decade the Australian social security system has been transformed by neoliberal ideals and policies that enforce compulsory participation in welfare-to-work programs in exchange for income support. Introduced in 2006, the Employment and Workplace Relations Legislation Amendment (Welfare to Work and Other Measures) Act 2005, specifically targeted single mothers on the premise of combating welfare dependency and other social problems, such as homelessness and even domestic violence. While Welfare to Work has been promoted as being a pathway from poverty to economic independence, there is little research that directly addresses how single mothers who have experienced domestic violence are affected by these reforms. Through adopting a feminist standpoint theory approach, the study reported on in this thesis examined how Welfare to Work impacts on the lives of single mothers who had experienced violence. The study involved an analysis of qualitative interviews with 23 single mothers, as well as interviews with eight women's emergency service workers and three welfare system workers. Drawing on feminist theories on systemic violence and citizenship, the study examined how Welfare to Work impacts on mothers' care responsibilities, labour skills and choices. The research found that single mothers were disadvantaged by institutions that failed to protect them by prioritising patriarchal rights. These institutions intersected with Welfare to Work and impacted on mothers' ability to comply with the compulsory job seeking requirements. In the welfare system, mistakes made by Centrelink placed further stressors on the single mothers. They were denied information on exemption processes and treated the same as childless income support recipients, which in turn, benefited employment services. Welfare to Work did not support single mothers who had experienced violence to find sustainable employment ..."--Author abstract.

Childhood homelessness and adult employment: the role of education, incarceration, and welfare receipt

Cobb-Clark D and Zhu A
Indooroopilly, Qld : Life Course Centre, Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, 2015.
This paper investigates how the timing of homelessness - whether in childhood or first experienced at a later age - affects adult employment outcomes. It uses data from the Journeys Home Project, which follows about 1,700 disadvantaged Australians experiencing homelessness or housing insecurity over a three-year period. The study found that those experiencing homelessness for the first time as children are less likely to be employed than those who were never homeless as a child. For women, this relationship is largely explained by the lower educational attainment and higher welfare and pension receipt of those experiencing childhood homelessness. For men, higher rates of high-school incompletion and incarceration explain some of this link between childhood homelessness and unemployment.

Childhood homelessness and adult employment: the role of education, incarceration, and welfare receipt

Cobb-Clark D and Zhu A
Parkville, Vic. : Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, 2015.
This paper explores the long-term consequences of experiencing homelessness during childhood, useing data from the Journeys Home Project, which follows about 1,700 disadvantaged Australians experiencing homelessness or housing insecurity over a three-year period. The primary goal is to assess the importance of the potential pathways linking childhood homelessness to adult employment, comparing those experiencing homelessness for the first time as children to those who were never homeless as a child. For women, this relationship is largely explained by the lower educational attainment and higher welfare and pension receipt of those experiencing childhood homelessness. For men, higher rates of high-school incompletion and incarceration explain some of this link between childhood homelessness and unemployment.

Measuring poverty and inequality from highly aggregated small-area data : the changing fortunes of Latrobe Valley households.

Wright J, Valenzuela M and Chotikapanich D
Economic Record v. 91 no. 294 Sep 2015: 367-385
Using census data, we analyse inequality and poverty levels for the coal-rich region of Latrobe Valley between 1986 and 2006, a period incorporating industry restructuring, recession and subsequent growth. To enable the analysis using limited information, we propose a method for using grouped data to obtain income distributions for small areas. Unit record data are used to validate the methodology. We find that welfare in the region deteriorated between 1986 and 1996, in line with national and regional trends. However, between 1996 and 2006, when the national economy grew strongly and many regions started to prosper again, welfare in the Valley continued to deteriorate. (Journal article)
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