Elder abuse

Key issues and emerging evidence
CFCA Paper No. 51 – June 2019


Family Law Act 1975 (Cth)

Acierno, R., Hernandez, M. A., Amstadter, A. B., Resnick, H. S., Steve, K., Muzzy, W., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2010). Prevalence and correlates of emotional, physical, sexual and financial abuse and potential neglect in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 292-297.

Acierno, R., Hernandez-Tejada, M. A., Anetzberger, G. J., Loew, D., & Muzzy, W. (2017). The National Elder Mistreatment Study: An 8-year longitudinal study of outcomes. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 29(4), 254-269. doi:10.1080/08946566.2017.1365031

Advocare Incorporated. (2016). National elder abuse: Annual report 2015-2016. Perth: Advocare Incorporated. Retrieved from www.advocare.org.au/uploaded/files/client_added/NEA%20Annual%20Report%202015-2016(1).pdf

Anand, J., Begley, E., O'Brien, M., Taylor, B., & Killick, C. (2013). Conceptualising elder abuse across local and global contexts: Implications for policy and professional practice on the island of Ireland. Journal of Adult Protection, 15(6), 280-289. doi:10.1108/JAP-03-2013-0011

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2016a). Ageing population, 2016. Canberra: ABS. Retrieved from www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0~2016~Main%20Features~Ageing%20Population~14

ABS. (2016b). Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2015. Canberra: ABS. Retrieved from www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4430.0

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). (2017a). Australia's welfare 2017 (Cat. No. AUS 214). Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-welfare/australias-welfare-2017/contents/table-of-contents

AIHW. (2017b). Older Australia at a glance (Cat. No. AGE 87). Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from www.aihw.gov.au/reports/older-people/older-australia-at-a-glance/contents/summary

AIHW. (2018). Closing the Gap targets: 2017 analysis of progress and key drivers of change (Cat. No. IHW 193). Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/closing-the-gap-targets-2017-analysis-of-progress/contents/summary

AIHW. (2019). Insights into vulnerabilities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 50 and over: 2019 - In brief. (Cat. No. IHW 207). Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/vulnerabilities-aboriginal-torres-strait-50-over/contents/table-of-contents

Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC). (2017). Elder abuse - a national legal response: Final report. Sydney: ALRC.

Bagshaw, D., Wendt, S., Zannettino, L., & Adams, V. (2013). Financial abuse of older people by family members: Views and experiences of older Australians and their family members. Australian Social Work, 66(1), 86-103.

Baker, P. R., Francis, D. P., Hairi, N. N., Othman, S., & Choo, W. Y. (2016). Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010321.pub2

Biggs, S., & Haapala, I. (2013). Elder mistreatment, ageism, and human rights. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(8), 1299-1306. doi:10.1017/S1041610212002372

Burnes, D., Pillemer, K., Caccamise, P. L., Mason, A., Henderson, C. R., Jr., Berman, J. et al. (2015). Prevalence of and risk factors for elder abuse and neglect in the community: A population-based study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(9), 1906-1912. doi:10.1111/jgs.13601

Burnes, D., Pillemer, K., & Lachs, M. S. (2017). Elder abuse severity: A critical but understudied dimension of victimization for clinicians and researchers. Gerontologist, 57(4), 745-756. doi:10.1093/geront/gnv688

Castle, N., Ferguson-Rome, J. C., & Teresi, J. A. (2015). Elder abuse in residential long-term care: An update to the 2003 national research council report. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 34(4), 407-443. doi:10.1177/0733464813492583

Chesterman, J. (2016). Taking control: Putting older people at the centre of elder abuse response strategies. Australian Social Work, 69(1), 115-124.

Chesterman, J., & Bedson, L. (2017). Are national elder abuse prevalence studies inclusive of the experiences of people with cognitive impairment? Findings and recommendations for future research. Melbourne: Office of the Public Advocate.

Clare, M., Clare, B., Blunde, B. B., & Clare, J. (2014). Conceptualising elder abuse: Does this label fit? Communities, Children and Families Australia, 8(1), 37-48.

Council of Attorneys-General. (2019). National Plan to Respond to the Abuse of Older Australians (Elder Abuse) 2019-2023. Canberra: Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved from www.ag.gov.au/elderabuse

Day, A., Boni, N., Evert, H., & Knight, T. (2017). An assessment of interventions that target risk factors for elder abuse. Health & Social Care in the Community, 25(5), 1532-1541.

Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). With respect to age - 2009. Melbourne: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from www2.health.vic.gov.au/about/publications/policiesandguidelines/with-respect-to-age-2009

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2019). Closing the gap: Report 2019. Canberra: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved from ctgreport.pmc.gov.au

Dong, X. (2015). Elder abuse: Systematic review and implications for practice. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(6), 1214-1238. doi:10.1111/jgs.13454

Dong, X., Chen, R., Chang, E. S., & Simon, M. (2013). Elder abuse and psychological well-being: A systematic review and implications for research and policy. A mini review. Gerontology, 59(2), 132-142. doi:10.1159/000341652

Dow, B., & Joosten, M. (2012). Understanding elder abuse: A social rights perspective. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(6), 853-855. doi:10.1017/S1041610211002584

Fang, B., & Yan, E. (2018). Abuse of older persons with dementia: A review of the literature. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 19(2), 127-147. doi:10.1177/1524838016650185

Hall, J. E., Karch, D. L., & Crosby, A. E. (2016). Elder abuse surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended core data elements for use in elder abuse surveillance, Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Hamby, S., Smith, A., Mitchell, K., & Turner, H. (2016). Poly-victimization and resilience portfolios: Trends in violence research that can enhance the understanding and prevention of elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 28(4/5), 217-234.

Harbison, J., Coughlan, S., Beaulieu, M., Karabanow, J., VanderPlaat, M., Wildeman, S., & Wexler, E. (2012). Understanding 'elder abuse and neglect': A critique of assumptions underpinning responses to the mistreatment and neglect of older people. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 24(2), 88-103. doi:10.1080/08946566.2011.644086

Heisler, C. J. (2017). Moving forward: Recommendations for advancing late-life polyvictimization practice, policy, and research. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 29(5), 351-363. doi:10.1080/08946566.2017.1388013

Hill, T., & Katz, I. (2019). Insights into abuse of older people: Analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics datasets. (SPRC Report 3/19). Sydney: Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW Sydney. doi.org/10.26190/5c7494f7499b9

Hirst, S. P., Penney, T., McNeill, S., Boscart, V. M., Podnieks, E., & Sinha, S. K. (2016). Best-practice guideline on the prevention of abuse and neglect of older adults. Canadian Journal on Aging, 35(2), 242-260. doi:10.1017/S0714980816000209

Jackson, S. L. (2016a). All elder abuse perpetrators are not alike: The heterogeneity of elder abuse perpetrators and implications for intervention. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(3), 265-285. doi:10.1177/0306624X14554063

Jackson, S. L. (2016b). The shifting conceptualization of elder abuse in the United States: From social services, to criminal justice, and beyond. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(1), 1-8. doi:10.1017/S1041610215001271

Jackson, S. L., & Hafemeister, T. L. (2016). Theory-based models enhancing the understanding of four types of elder maltreatment. International Review of Victimology, 22(3), 289-320. doi:10.1177/0269758016630887

Jervis, L. L., Hamby, S., Beach, S. R., Williams, M. L., Maholmes, V., & Castille, D. M. (2016). Elder mistreatment in underserved populations: Opportunities and challenges to developing a contemporary program of research. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 28(4/5), 301-319. doi:10.1080/08946566.2016.1245644

Johannesen, M., & LoGiudice, D. (2013). Elder abuse: A systematic review of risk factors in community-dwelling elders. Age and Ageing, 42(3), 292-298.

Joosten, M., Dow, B., & Blakey, J. (2015). Profile of elder abuse in Victoria: Analysis of data about people seeking help from Seniors Rights Victoria. Summary report. Melbourne: Seniors Rights Victoria. Retrieved from seniorsrights.org.au/wp- content/uploads/2014/03/Summary-Report_Profile-of-Elder-Abuse-in-Victoria_Final.pdf

Joosten, M., Vrantsidis, F., & Dow, B. (2017). Understanding elder abuse: A scoping study. Melbourne: Melbourne Social Equity Institute. Retrieved from socialequity.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/2449659/Elder-Abuse-A-Scoping-Study-MSEI-and-NARI.pdf

Kaspiew, R., Carson, R., & Rhoades, H. (2016). Elder abuse: Understanding issues, frameworks and responses. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved from aifs.gov.au/publications/elder-abuse

Killick, C., Taylor, B. J., Begley, E., Carter Anand, J., & O'Brien, M. (2015). Older people's conceptualization of abuse: A systematic review. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 100-120.

Labrum, T. (2017). Factors related to abuse of older persons by relatives with psychiatric disorders. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 68, 126-134. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2016.09.007

Lacey, W. (2014). Neglectful to the point of cruelty? Elder abuse and the rights of older persons in Australia. Sydney Law Review, 36(1), 131-161.

Lacey, W., Middleton, H., Bryant, L., & Garnham, B. (2017). Prevalence of elder abuse in South Australia: Final report. Current data collection practices of key agencies. Adelaide: Analysis and Policy Observatory. Retrieved from apo.org.au/node/101301

McDonald, L., Beaulieu, M., Harbison, J., Hirst, S., Lowenstein, A., Podnieks, E., & Wahl, J. (2012). Institutional abuse of older adults: What we know, what we need to know. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 24(2), 138-160. doi:10.1080/08946566.2011.646512

McDonald, L., & Thomas, C. (2013). Elder abuse through a life course lens. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(8), 1235-1243. doi:10.1017/S104161021300015X

Miskovski, K. (2014). Preventing financial abuse of people with dementia. North Ryde, NSW: Alzeimer's Australia NSW. Retrieved from www.dementia.org.au/sites/default/files/20140618-NSW-Pub-DiscussionPaperFinancialAbuse.pdf

Moir, E., Blundell, B., Clare, J., & Clare, M. (2017). Best practices for estimating elder abuse prevalence in Australia: Moving towards the dynamic concept of 'adults at risk' and away from arbitrary age cut-offs. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 29(2), 181-190.

Moore, C., & Browne, C. (2017). Emerging innovations, best practices, and evidence-based practices in elder abuse and neglect: A review of recent developments in the field. Journal of Family Violence, 32(4), 383-397. doi:10.1007/s10896-016-9812-4

Mysyuk, Y., Westendorp, R. G. J., & Lindenberg, J. (2013). Added value of elder abuse definitions: A review. Ageing Research Reviews, 12(1), 50-57.

National Ageing Research Institute & La Trobe University. (2013). 'What older people want?': Outcomes from a consultation with older consumers about their priorities for research in ageing. Parkville: National Ageing Research Institute. Retrieved from www.nari.net.au/files/aaa_consultation_report_14_jan_2014.pdf

Norris, D., Fancey, P., Power, E., & Ross, P. (2013). The critical-ecological framework: Advancing knowledge, practice, and policy on older adult abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 25(1), 40-55. doi:10.1080/08946566.2012.712852

NSW Elder Abuse Helpline and Resource Unit. (2015). Submission to the Parliamentary Inquiry into Elder Abuse in New South Wales (Submission No. 33). Sydney: Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved from www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/committees/inquiries/Pages/inquiry-submission-details.aspx?pk=%2053721

Office of the Public Advocate. (2005). Mistreatment of Older People in Aboriginal Communities Project: An investigation into elder abuse in Aboriginal communities. Perth: Office of the Public Advocate. Retrieved from www.publicadvocate.wa.gov.au/_files/Mistreatment_older_aboriginal.pdf

Office of the Public Advocate. (2006). Care and respect: Project to research elder abuse in culturally and linguistically diverse communities. Perth: Office of the Public Advocate. Retrieved from www.publicadvocate.wa.gov.au/_files/Report_on_Elder_Abuse_in_CALD_communities.pdf

Office of the Public Advocate (Qld). (2017). Legal frameworks for the use of restrictive practices in residential aged care: An Australian and international comparative analysis. Brisbane: Office of the Public Advocate.

Ostaszkiewicz, J. (2017). A conceptual model of the risk of elder abuse posed by incontinence and care dependence. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 13(2). doi:10.1111/opn.12182

Pillemer, K., Burnes, D., Riffin, C., & Lachs, M. S. (2016). Elder abuse: Global situation, risk factors, and prevention strategies. Gerontologist, 56, S194-S205. doi:10.1093/geront/gnw004

Productivity Commission. (2013). An ageing Australia: Preparing for the future. Canberra: Productivity Commission. Retrieved from www.pc.gov.au/research/completed/ageing-australia/ageing-australia.pdf

Qu, L., Carson, R., Kaspiew, R., Weston, R., Commerford, J., Dean, A. et al. (2017). Elder abuse prevalence scoping study: A report to the Australian Government Attorney-General's Department. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Ramsey-Klawsnik, H., & Heisler., C. (2014). Polyvictimization in later life. Victimization of the Elderly and Disabled, 17(1).

Roberto, K. A. (2016). The complexities of elder abuse. American Psychologist, 71(4), 302-311. doi:10.1037/a0040259

Rzeszut, S. M. (2017). The need for a stronger definition: Recognizing abandonment as a form of elder abuse across the United States. Family Court Review, 55(3), 444-457. doi:10.1111/fcre.12295

SA Health. (2014). Strategy to Safeguard the Rights of Older South Australians 2014-2021. Adelaide: Government of South Australia. Retrieved from www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/about+us/publications+and+resources/plans/strategy+to+safeguard+the+rights+of+older+south+australians+2014-2021

Schiamberg, L. B., & Gans, D. (1999). An ecological framework for contextual risk factors in elder abuse by adult children. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 11(1), 79-103.

Spike, C. (2015). The EAPU helpline: Results of an investigation of five years of call data. Report for the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics Asia & Oceania Regional Congress 2015. Chermside Central, Qld: UnitingCare.

State of Victoria. (2016). Royal Commission into Family Violence: Summary and recommendations. Melbourne: Royal Commission into Family Violence. Retrieved from www.rcfv.com.au/Report-Recommendations

Taylor, B. J., Killick, C., O'Brien, M., Begley, E., & Carter-Anand, J. (2014). Older people's conceptualization of elder abuse and neglect. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 26(3), 223-243. doi:10.1080/08946566.2013.795881

Teresi, J. A., Burnes, D., Skowron, E. A., Dutton, M. A., Mosqueda, L., Lachs, M. S., & Pillemer, K. (2016). State of the science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 28(4-5), 263-300. doi:10.1080/08946566.2016.1240053

von Heydrich, L., Schiamberg, L. B., & Chee, G. (2012). Social-relational risk factors for predicting elder physical abuse: An ecological bi-focal perspective. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75(1), 71-94.

Weston, R., & Qu, L. (2016). Attitudes towards intergenerational support. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved from aifs.gov.au/publications/attitudes-towards-intergenerational-support

Wijeratne, C., & Reutens, S. (2016). When an elder is the abuser. Medical Journal of Australia, 2015(6), 246-247.e241.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). A global response to elder abuse and neglect: Building primary health care capacity to deal with the problem worldwide. Geneva: WHO.

WHO. (2018). Elder abuse. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/elder-abuse

Yon, Y., Mikton, C. R., Gassoumis, Z. D., & Wilber, K. H. (2017). Elder abuse prevalence in community settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Global Health, 5(2), e147-e156.

Yon, Y., Ramiro-Gonzalez, M., Mikton, C. R., Huber, M., & Sethi, D. (2018). The prevalence of elder abuse in institutional settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cky093