Access to early childhood education in Australia

Research Report No. 24 – April 2013

Appendix C: Supplementary tables

Table C1: Children's participation in early childhood education, in year prior to full-time schooling by state/territory, NSPCCC, 2009
  NSW (%) Vic. (%) Qld (%) SA (%) WA (%) Tas. (%) NT (%) ACT (%) Aus. (%)
Preschool only 38.8 52.5 24.2 46.8 60.5 56.7 48.4 54.0 42.3
Preschool plus LDC 3.7 9.9 6.3 19.8 10.4 22.5 20.6 19.1 8.1
LDC                  
without preschool program 7.6 5.5 12.9 0.6 5.3 1.8 1.5 3.2 7.3
with preschool program 34.8 16.8 34.0 6.5 3.6 4.6 7.2 12.7 24.4
Not in ECE 15.1 15.4 22.6 26.3 20.2 14.4 22.2 11.1 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total in standalone preschool 42.5 62.4 30.5 66.5 70.9 79.2 69.0 73.0 50.4
Gov./public preschool 14.0 41.6 6.8 54.8 49.5 61.6 62.4 55.6 27.1
Other (community, private or other) preschool 28.6 20.7 23.7 11.7 21.4 17.6 6.6 17.5 23.3
Total in LDC 46.1 32.2 53.2 26.9 19.3 28.9 29.3 34.9 39.8
Sample size ( N) 471 330 276 148 166 72 111 63 1,637

Note: Based on NSPCCC reference children. Percentages may not total exactly 100.0% due to rounding.

Source: NSPCCC

Table C2: Children's participation in early childhood education, in year prior to full-time schooling by state/territory, LSAC, 2008
  NSW (%) Vic. (%) Qld (%) SA (%) WA (%) Tas. (%) NT (%) ACT (%) Aus. (%)
Preschool only 44.9 67.1 30.3 66.1 76.2 87.0 75.4 72.1 54.8
Preschool and LDC 2.8 12.9 4.1 21.7 20.7 13.0 24.6 19.8 9.6
LDC 42.1 18.8 46.5 11.9 2.7 - - 8.1 28.5
Not in ECE 10.2 1.3 19.0 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total in standalone preschool 47.7 79.9 34.4 87.8 96.9 100.0 100.0 91.9 64.4
Not school setting 38.1 70.5 29.4 63.0 16.0 1.9 14.5 42.9 45.2
In school 9.7 9.4 5.1 24.8 81.0 98.1 85.5 48.9 19.2
Total in LDC 45.0 31.7 50.7 33.6 23.5 13.0 24.6 27.9 38.1
Sample size ( N) 835 891 634 215 267 83 34 46 3,005

Note: Percentages may not total exactly 100.0% due to rounding.

Source: LSAC (2008).

Table C3: Children's participation in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by state/territory, AEDI, 2009
  NSW (%) Vic. (%) Qld (%) SA (%) WA (%) Tas. (%) NT (%) ACT (%) Aus. (%)
Preschool only 50.3 72.9 25.9 68.6 65.0 67.4 64.3 66.0 54.4
Preschool and LDC 6.1 9.8 7.6 19.5 18.5 23.0 16.0 19.7 10.2
LDC only 32.0 11.4 49.6 6.0 4.7 3.4 8.2 8.8 24.7
Not in ECE 11.6 5.9 16.9 5.9 11.8 6.2 11.5 5.5 10.8
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 80,277 56,713 47,034 14,851 25,291 5,306 2,796 3,983 236,251

Note: Percentages may not total exactly 100.0% due to rounding.

Source: AEDI (2009)

Table C4: Multivariate analyses of children in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, NSPCCC and LSAC, excluding parental employment and education
  NSPCCC ( OR) LSAC ( OR)
Eastern states (NSW, Vic., Qld) (ref. = All others) 1.02 0.04***
Locational factors
Remoteness (ref. = Major cities) 1.00 1.00
Inner regional areas 0.77 0.88
Outer regional areas 0.61* 0.54**
Remote or very remote areas 0.53** 0.34*
Socio-economic status of region (ref. = Most disadvantaged, bottom 20%) n.a. 1.00
Middle advantage, middle 60%   1.33
Most advantaged, top 20%   1.66
Socio-economic status of families
Family income (ref. = Higher incomes, top 20%) 1.00 1.00
Lower incomes, bottom 20% 0.56* 0.31***
Middle incomes, middle 60% 0.83 0.55
Single parent (ref. = Couple parent) 1.64* 1.32
Indigenous child 0.93 0.20***
Non-English speaking background 0.77 0.62
Special health care needs   1.32
Age at survey (months) 0.94*** 1.05
Constant 425.78*** 37.25
Sample size 1,631 2,936

Note: In these analyses, enrolment in any preschool or LDC was counted as being in ECE. See Appendix E for further information about the variables listed. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001.

Source: AEDI (2009); NSPCCC (2009); LSAC (2008)

Table C5: Remoteness and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, NSPCCC and LSAC
  Major cities (%) Inner regional areas (%) Outer regional areas (%) Remote or very remote areas (%) Australia (%)
NSPCCC a
In ECE
Preschool only 40.5 45.2 44.6 52.6 42.3
Preschool and LDC 7.9 7.6 9.6 11.3 8.1
LDC 35.6 27.7 21.9 9.5 31.7
Not in ECE 16.0 19.4 23.8 26.6 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 665 377 291 304 1,637
LSAC b
In ECE
Preschool only 54.3 54.8 56.6 60.6 54.8
Preschool and LDC 9.4 8.7 11.5 9.2 9.6
LDC 30.0 29.9 20.6 18.1 28.4
Not in ECE 6.2 6.6 11.3 12.1 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 1,835 630 460 75 3,005

Note: Refer to Appendix B for important notes regarding these estimates. a Chi-square (6) = 61.9, p = .000 (excludes those with no ECE). b Chi-square (6) = 16.3, p = .012 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: NSPCCC (2009); LSAC (2008)

Table C6: Socio-economic status of region and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, LSAC
  Most disadvantaged (bottom 20%) (%) Middle advantage (middle 60%) (%) Most advantaged (top 20%) (%) Australia (%)
In ECE        
Preschool only 53.7 54.0 60.5 54.8
Preschool and LDC 6.8 11.1 7.9 9.6
LDC 27.5 28.9 28.2 28.5
Not in ECE 12.0 6.0 3.4 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 658 1,885 462 3,005

Note: Refer to Appendix B for important notes regarding these estimates. This is based on the SEIFA Index of Disadvantage from the 2006 Census, matched to SLAs. Chi-square (4) = 7.01, p = .14 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: LSAC (2008)

Table C7: Family income and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, NSPCCC
  Lower incomes (bottom 20%) (%) Middle incomes (middle 60%) (%) Higher incomes (top 20%) (%) Australia (%)
In ECE
Preschool only 45.7 42.8 38.6 42.3
Preschool and LDC 4.2 11.5 9.1 8.1
LDC 26.7 31.4 40.7 31.7
Not in ECE 23.4 14.3 11.6 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 262 562 193 1,637

Note: Chi-square (6) = 24.2, p = .000

Source: NSPCCC (2009)

Table C8: Primary carer employment and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, NSPCCC
  Primary carer not employed (%) Primary carer employed part-time (%) Primary carer employed full-time (%) Australia (%)
In ECE
Preschool only 49.0 36.9 34.5 42.3
Preschool and LDC 5.0 11.4 10.1 8.1
LDC 21.7 38.3 46.6 31.7
Not in ECE 24.3 13.4 8.8 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 764 613 258 1,637

Note: Chi-square (4) = 70.8, p = .000 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: NSPCCC (2009)

Table C9: Single/couple parents and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, LSAC and NSPCCC
  Single parent (%) Couple parent (%) Australia (%)
LSAC a
In ECE
Preschool only 39.9 57.4 54.8
Preschool and LDC 10.6 9.5 9.6
LDC 39.7 26.5 28.5
Not in ECE 9.8 6.7 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 347 2,658 3,005
NSPCCC b
In ECE
Preschool only 35.2 43.2 42.3
Preschool and LDC 8.4 8.1 8.1
LDC 38.6 30.8 31.7
Not in ECE 17.8 17.9 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 198 1,438 1,636

Note: a Chi-square (2) = 56.5, p = .000 (excludes those with no ECE). b Chi-square (2) = 7.1, p = .03 (excludes those with no ECE)

Source: LSAC (2008); NSPCCC (2009)

Table C10: Primary carer education and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, LSAC and NSPCCC
  Incomplete secondary education (%) Secondary education or diploma/certificate (%) Bachelors degree or higher (%) Australia (%)
LSAC a
In ECE
Preschool only 43.5 41.8 42.0 42.3
Preschool and LDC 4.6 8.6 8.9 8.1
LDC 28.4 31.5 33.2 31.7
Not in ECE 23.4 18.1 15.8 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 269 732 612 1,637
NSPCCC b
In ECE
Preschool only 53.1 52.9 59.0 54.8
Preschool and LDC 9.4 8.9 11.1 9.6
LDC 24.5 30.6 26.9 28.5
Not in ECE 12.9 7.6 3.0 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 389 1,711 905 3,005

Notes: a Chi-square (4) = 6.1, p = .19 (excludes those with no ECE). b Chi-square (4) = 7.4, p = .12 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: LSAC (2008), NSPCCC (2009)

Table C11: Indigenous status and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, AEDI, NSPCCC and LSAC
  Not Indigenous (%) Indigenous (%) Australia (%)
AEDI a
Type of ECE
Preschool only 54.8 45.3 54.4
Preschool and LDC 10.1 11.9 10.2
LDC 34.9 33.6 24.7
Not in ECE 10.3 21.0 10.8
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 226,058 10,226 236,284
NSPCCC b
Type of ECE
Preschool only 42.4 38.6 42.3
Preschool and LDC 8.1 7.8 8.1
LDC 31.9 22.9 31.7
Not in ECE 17.6 30.6 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 1,564 72 1,637
LSAC c
Type of ECE
Preschool only 55.9 33.4 54.8
Preschool and LDC 9.8 6.7 9.6
LDC 28.2 33.6 28.4
Not in ECE 6.1 26.2 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 2,905 100 3,005

Notes: a Chi-square (2) = 119, p = .000 (excludes those with no ECE). b Chi-square (2) = 3.5, p = .17 (excludes those with no ECE). c Chi-square (2) = 10.6, p = .005 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: AEDI (2009); NSPCCC (2009); LSAC (2008)

Table C12: NESB status and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, AEDI, NSPCCC and LSAC
  English-speaking (%) Non-English speaking (%) Australia (%)
AEDI a
Type of ECE
Preschool only 55.4 47.4 54.4
Preschool and LDC 10.4 8.7 10.2
LDC 24.6 24.9 24.7
Not in ECE 9.6 19.0 10.8
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 207,435 28,849 236,284
NSPCCC b
Type of ECE
Preschool only 42.6 38.2 42.3
Preschool and LDC 8.4 5.4 8.1
LDC 31.2 35.8 31.7
Not in ECE 17.8 20.5 17.9
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 1,535 97 1,637
LSAC c
Type of ECE
Preschool only 55.6 51.0 54.8
Preschool and LDC 10.4 4.7 9.6
LDC 27.5 33.9 28.4
Not in ECE 6.5 10.4 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 2,728 212 3,005

Notes: a Chi-square (2) = 130, p = .000 (excludes those with no ECE). b Chi-square (2) = 2.4, p = .30 (excludes those with no ECE). c Chi-square (2) = 8.68, p = .01 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: AEDI (2009); NSPCCC (2009); LSAC (2008)

Table C13: Special health needs status and percentage of children participating in early childhood education in year prior to full-time schooling, by type of ECE, AEDI and LSAC
  No special health care needs (%) Has special health care needs (%) Australia (%)
AEDI a
In ECE
Preschool only 55.2 52.5 54.8
Preschool and LDC 9.7 9.1 9.6
LDC 27.7 33.0 28.4
Not in ECE 7.4 5.4 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
LSAC b
In ECE
Preschool only 55.2 52.5 54.8
Preschool and LDC 9.7 9.1 9.6
LDC 27.7 33.0 28.4
Not in ECE 7.4 5.4 7.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Sample size 2,561 444 3,005

Notes: a Chi-square (2) = 101, p = .000 (excludes those with no ECE). b Chi-square (2) = 3.45, p = .18 (excludes those with no ECE).

Source: AEDI (2009); LSAC (2008)