Determinants of Australian mothers’ employment
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While the lower rates of employment of lone mothers as compared with couple mothers has been well documented, the reasons for the employment gap are less well understood. This paper uses data from the 1996 Australian Census to analyse the factors which explain the employment gap.
The analysis reveals that the determinants of the probability of employment are generally similar for lone and couple mothers, although there are several important differences. In general, factors that are typically associated with lower rates of employment, and could be considered a barrier to employment, have a larger negative effect upon the probability of employment of lone mother than couple mothers. Importantly, it is found that the presence of children have a similar impact on the employment of lone and couple mothers.
The analysis also reveals that around one-third of the employment gap is due to differences in the characteristics of the lone and couple mothers. This gap is explained by differences in a number of characteristics. Of particular interest is that only a small amount of the employment gap explained by differences in educational attainment. The remaining two-thirds of the employment gap is caused by variables impacting on the employment rates of lone and couple mothers differently.
Authors and Acknowledgements
For comments on this paper, the authors are indebted to Robert Gregory, Lou Will, Ann Sanson, David Stanton and Peter Whiteford.
Gray, M., Qu, L., de Vaus, D., & Millward, C. (2002). Determinants of Australian mothers’ employment: An analysis of lone and couple mothers (Research Paper No. 26). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
The major focus is the explanation of differences in the post- separation histories in paid employment of a sample of women with dependent children
This paper investigates the lower employment rates of single mothers by comparing their employment transition rates with those of partnered mothers
Uses data from 1986 and 1996 Australian Censuses to explore possible reasons for differences in the labour market trends of lone and couple mothers
Commissioned by the Australian Department of Social Security