The nature and impact of caring for family members with a disability in Australia

Research Report No. 16 – June 2008

You are in an archived section of the AIFS website. Archived publications may be of interest for historical reasons. Because of their age, they may not reflect current research data or AIFS' current research methodologies.

References

  • Access Economics. (2005). The economic value of informal care: Report by Access Economics Pty Limited for Carers Australia. Canberra: Carers Australia.
  • Andrews, G., Hall, W., Teesson, M., & Henderson, S. (1999). The mental health of Australians. Canberra: Mental Health Branch, Commonwealth Department of Aged Care.
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2003). [Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers data]. Unpublished raw data.
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2003. (Cat. No. 4430.0). Canberra: Author.
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Carers in Australia: Assisting frail older people and people with a disability. Canberra: Author.
  • Ball, A. E., Russell, E. M., Seymour, D. G., Primrose, W. R., & Garratt, A. M. (2000). Problems in using health survey questionnaires in older patients with physical disabilities: Can proxies be used to complete the sf-36? Gerontology, 47, 334-340.
  • Barrera, M. J. (1981). Social support in the adjustment of pregnant adolescents. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.), Social networks and social support (pp. 69-96). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Beach, S. R., Schulz, R., Williamson, G. M., Miller, L. S., Weiner, M. F., & Lance, C. E. (2005). Risk factors for potentially harmful informal caregiver behavior. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53, 255-261.
  • Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ciervo, C. A., & Kabat, M. (1997). Use of the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories for primary care with medical outpatients. Assessment, 4, 211-219.
  • Berwick, D. M., Murphy, J. M., Goldman, P. A., Ware, J. E., Barsky, A. J., & Weinstein, M. C. (1991). Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Medical Care, 29, 169-176.
  • Bittman, M., Fisher, K., Hill, P., & Thomson., C. (2005). The time cost of adult care. Electronic International Journal for Time Use Research, 2(1): 54-66.
  • Bittman, M., Hill, T., & Thomson, C. (2007). The impact of caring on informal carers' employment, income and earnings: A longitudinal approach. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(2), 255-277.
  • Bull, M. A. (1998). Losses in families affected by dementia: Coping strategies and service issues. Journal of Family Studies, 4(2), 187-199.
  • Burton, L. C., Zdaniuk, B., Schulz, R., Jackson, S., & Hirsch, C. (2003). Transitions in spousal caregiving. The Gerontologist, 43(2), 230-241.
  • Cannuscio, C. C., Jones, C., Kawachi, I., Colditz, G. A., Berkman, L., & Rimm, E. (2002). Reverberations of family illness: A longitudinal assessment of informal caregiving and mental health status in the nurses' health study. American Journal of Public Health, 92(8), 1305-1311.
  • Cochrane, J., Goering, P. N., & Rogers, J. M. (1997). The mental health of informal caregivers in Ontario: An epidemiological survey. American Journal of Public Health, 87(12), 2002-2007.
  • Cohen, P. N., & Petrescu-Prahova, M. (2006). Gendered living arrangements among children with disabilities. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 630-638.
  • Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396.
  • Conner, K. R., Conwell, Y., & Duberstein, P. R. (2001). The validity of proxy-based data in suicide research: A study of patients 50 years of age and older who attempted suicide. II: Life events, social support and suicidal behavior. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104, 452-457.
  • Corman, H., & Kaestner, R. (1992). The effects of child health on marital status and family structure. Demography, 29(3), 389-408.
  • Cummins, R. A. (2001). The subjective well-being of people caring for a family member with a severe disability at home: A review. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 26(1), 83-100.
  • Cummins, R. A., Hughes, J., Tomyn, A., Gibson, A., Woerner, J., & Lai, L. (2007). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index Survey: 17.1. The wellbeing of Australians: Carer health and wellbeing. Melbourne: Deakin University, Carers Australia and Australian Unity.
  • Cuskelly, M., & Gunn, P. (2003). Sibling relationships of children with Down syndrome: Perspectives of mothers, fathers, and siblings. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 108, 234-244.
  • Cuskelly, M., & Hayes, A. (2004). Disability: Characteristics, contexts and consequences. In J. M. Bowes & A. Hayes (Eds.), Children, families, and communities: Contexts and consequences (3rd ed., pp. 21-39). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  • Dautzenberg, M., Diederiks, J., Philipsen, H., Stevens, F., Tan, F., & Vernooij-Dassen, M. (2000). The competing demands of paid work and parent care. Research on Aging, 22, 165-87.
  • Deimling, G. T., Smerglia, V. L., & Schaefer, M. L., (2001). The impact of family environment and decision-making satisfaction on caregiver depression. Journal of Aging and Health, 13(1), 47-71.
  • Department of Family and Community Services. (2000). Annual report 1999-2000. Canberra: Author.
  • Department of Family and Community Services. (2001). Annual report 2000-01. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2001
  • Department of Family and Community Services. (2002). Annual report 2001-02. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2002
  • Department of Family and Community Services. (2003). Annual report 2002-03. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2003
  • Department of Family and Community Services. (2004). Annual report 2003-04. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2004/index.htm
  • Department of Family and Community Services. (2005). Annual report 2004-2005. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2005
  • Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. (2006). Annual report 2005-2006. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2006
  • Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. (2007). Annual report 2006-2007. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/annualreport/2007
  • de Vaus, D. (2004). Diversity and change in Australian families: Statistical profiles. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  • Edwards B., & Clarke V. (2004). The psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis on families: The influence of family functioning and patients' illness characteristics on depression and anxiety. Psycho-oncology, 13(8), 562-576.
  • Edwards, B., & Clarke, V. (2005). The validity of the family relationships index as a screening tool for psychological risk in families of cancer patients. Psycho-oncology, 14(7), 546-554.
  • Ekwall, A. K., Sivberg, B., & Hallberg, I. R. (2005). Loneliness as a predictor of quality of life among older caregivers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(1), 23-32.
  • Ellis, B. H., Bannister, W. M., Cox, J. K., Fowler, B. M., Shannon, E. D., Drachman, D., et al. (2003). Utilization of the propensity score method: An exploratory comparison of proxy-completed to self-completed responses in the Medicare Health Outcomes survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 47-59.
  • Epstein, N. B., Bishop, D., Ryan, C., Miller, I., & Keitner, G. (1993). The McMaster model: View of healthy family functioning. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Normal family processes (pp. 138-160). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Essex, E. L., & Hong, J. (2005). Older caregiving parents: Division of household labor, marital satisfaction, and caregiver burden. Family Relations, 54(3), 448-460.
  • Gath, A., & Gumley, D. (1986). Family background of children with Down's syndrome and of children with a similar degree of mental retardation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 161-171.
  • Glezer, H., & Wolcott, I. (2000). Conflicting commitments: Working mothers and fathers in Australia. In L. Haas, P. Hwang, & G. Russell (Eds.), Organizational change and gender equity (pp. 43-56). London: Sage.
  • Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (1991). A user's guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
  • Goode, K. T., Haley, W. E., Roth, D. L., & Ford, G. R. (1998). Predicting longitudinal changes in caregiver physical and mental health: A stress process model. Health Psychology, 17(2), 190-198.
  • Graeffe, D. R., & Lichter, D. T. (1999). Life course transitions of American children: Parental cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood. Demography, 36(2), 205-217.
  • Gray, M., & Hughes, J. (2005). Caring for children and adults: Differential access to family-friendly work arrangements. Family Matters, 70, 18-25.
  • Hales, C. (2007). Crisis or commotion: An objective look at evidence on caregiving in families. Family Matters, 76, 18-23.
  • Hamilton, M. (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278-296.
  • Hawley, D., & De Haan, L. (1996). Towards a definition of family resilience: Integrating individual and family perspectives. Family Process, 35, 283-298.
  • Heady, B., Warren, D., & Harding, G. (2006). Families, incomes and jobs: A statistical report of the HILDA Survey. Melbourne: Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
  • Henz, U. (2004). The effects of informal care on paid-work participation in Great Britain: A lifecourse perspective. Ageing & Society, 24(60), 851-880.
  • Higgins, D. J., Bailey, S. R., & Pearce, J. C. (2005). Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 9(2), 125-137.
  • Highet, N. J., McNair, B. G., Davenport, T. A., & Hickie, I. B. (2004). How much more can we lose? Care and family perspectives on living with a person with depression. Medical Journal of Australia, 181(7), S6-S9.
  • Hilton, B. A. (1994). Family communication patterns in coping with early breast cancer. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 16(4), 366-391.
  • Hirst, M. (2003). Caring-related inequalities in psychological distress in Britain during the 1990s. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 25(4), 336-343.
  • Hirst, M. (2005). Carer distress: A prospective, population-based study. Social Science Medicine, 61(3), 697-708.
  • Hughes, J. (2007). Caring for carers: The financial strain of caring. Family Matters, 76, 32-33.
  • Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 21-37.
  • International Wellbeing Group. (2006). Personal Wellbeing Index (4th ed.). Melbourne: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, Deakin University. Retrieved 4 March 2008, from http://www.deakin.edu.au/research/acqol/instruments/wellbeing_index.htm
  • Jenkinson, C., & McGee, H. (1998) Measuring health status: A brief but critical introduction. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press.
  • Jenson, J., & Jacobzone, S. (2000). Care allowances for the frail elderly and their impact on women care-givers (OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Paper No. 41). Paris: OECD.
  • Jokinen, N. S., & Brown, R. I. (2005). Family quality of life from the perspective of older parents. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(10), 789-793.
  • Judd, N. (2004). The Naomi Judd interview. Today's Carer Magazine.
  • Kemper, K. J., & Babonis, T. R. (1992). Screening for maternal depression in pediatric clinics. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146, 876-878.
  • Kim, D., Subramanian, S. V., & Kawachi, I. (2006). Bonding versus bridging social capital and their associations with self rated health: A multilevel analysis of 40 us communities. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 116-122.
  • Kissane, D. W., & Bloch, S. (2002). Family focused grief therapy. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Kissane, D. W., Bloch, S., Burns, W. I., McKenzie, D. P., & Posterino, M. (1994). Psychological morbidity in the families of patients with cancer. Psycho-oncology, 3, 47-56.
  • Kissane, D. W., McKenzie, M., McKenzie, D. P., Forbes, A., O'Neill, I., & Bloch, S. (2003). Psychosocial morbidity associated with patterns of family functioning in palliative care: Baseline data from the Family Focused Grief Therapy controlled trial. Palliative Medicine, 17(6), 527-537.
  • Kruijshaar, M. E., Barendregt, J., Vos, T., de Graaf, R., Spijker, J., & Andrews, G. (2005). Lifetime prevalence estimates of major depression: An indirect estimation method and a quantification of recall bias. European Journal of Epidemiology, 20, 103-111.
  • Lanzi, R. G., Pascoe, J. M., Keltner, B., & Ramey, S. L. (1999). Correlates of maternal depressive symptoms in a national head start program sample. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 801-807.
  • Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
  • Lee, C., & Gramotnev, H. (2007). Transitions into and out of caregiving: Health and social characteristics of mid-age Australian women. Psychology and Health, 22, 193-209.
  • Lin, N., Dean, A., & Ensel, W. (1986). Social support, life events and depression. Sydney: Academic press.
  • Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335-343.
  • Magliano, L., Fiorillo, A., Malangone, C., De Rosa, C., Maj, M., & National Mental Health Project Working Group. (2006). Social network in long-term diseases: A comparative study in relatives of persons with schizophrenia and physical illnesses versus a sample from the general population. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 1392-1402.
  • Marks, N. F., Lambert, J. D., & Choi, H. (2002). Transitions to caregiving, gender, and psychological well-being: A prospective US national study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3), 657-667.
  • Martin, J. M., & Cole, D. A. (1993). Adaptability and cohesion of dyadic relationships in families with developmentally disabled children. Journal of Family Psychology, 7(2), 186-196.
  • Mathews, R. (2005). The resilient child. InPsych: The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd, 27(2), 20-22.
  • McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Profile of mood states: Revised. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
  • McPherson, C. J., & Addington-Hall, J. M. (2003). Judging the quality of care at the end of life: Can proxies provide reliable information? Social Science and Medicine, 56, 95-109.
  • Mitrani, V. B., Lewis , J. E., Feaster, D. J., Czaja, S. J., Eisdorfer, C., Schulz, R., & Szapocznik, J. (2006). The role of family functioning in the stress process of dementia caregivers: A structural family framework. The Gerontologist, 46(1), 97-105.
  • Montes, G., & Halterman, J. (2007). Psychological functioning and coping among mothers of children with autism: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 119(5), e1040-e1046.
  • Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1986). Family Environment Scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Murphy, B. (2000). Role reversal, role conflict and role relinquishment: The impacts for women of caring for an ageing parent. Healthsharing Women, 10(4), 6-9.
  • National Community Services Data Committee. (2006). National community services data dictionary. Version 4 (Cat. no. HWI 91). Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
  • NATSEM. (2004). Who's going to care? Informal care and an ageing population. Report prepared for Carers Australia. Canberra: National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, University of Canberra.
  • Neal, M. B., Ingersoll-Dayton, B., & Starrels, M. E. (1997). Gender and relationship differences in caregiving patterns and consequences among employed carers. Gerontologist, 37(6), 804-816.
  • Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst, R. J., & Tobin, S. S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134-143.
  • Olson, D. H. (1993). Circumplex model of marital and family systems: Assessing family functioning. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Normal family processes (pp. 104-137). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Olson, D. H., Sprenkle, D. H., & Russell, C. S. (1979). Circumplex model of marital and family systems: I. Cohesion and adaptability dimensions, family types, and clinical applications. Family Process, 18(1), 3-28.
  • Olson, D. H., & Tiesel., J. W. (1991). FACES II update: Linear scoring and interpretation. St Paul, MN: Family Social Science.
  • Ozone, S., Saeki, T., Inoue, S., Mantani, T., Okamura, H., & Yamawaki, S. (2005). Family functioning and psychological distress among Japanese breast cancer patients and families. Support Care Cancer, 13, 1044-1050.
  • Pakenham, K. I. (1998). Couple coping and adjustment to multiple sclerosis in care receiver-carer dyads. Family Relations, 47(3), 269-277.
  • Patten, S. B. (2003). Recall bias and major depression lifetime prevalence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 290-296.
  • Pavalko, E., & Artis, J. (1997). Women's caregiving and paid work: Causal relationships in later midlife. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 52b, s170-179.
  • Pearlin, L., Lieberman, M., Menaghan, E., Menaghan, E., & Mullan, J. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337-356.
  • Penrod, J. D., Kane, R. A., Kane, R. L., & Finch, M. D. (1995). Who cares? The size, scope, and composition of the caregiver support system. The Gerontologist, 35(4), 489-497.
  • Perlesz, A., Kinsella, G., & Crowe, S. (2000). Psychological distress and family satisfaction following traumatic brain injury: Injured individuals and their primary, secondary and tertiary carers. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15(3), 909-929.
  • Pierre, U., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Korner-Bitensky, N., Gayton, D., & Hanley, J. (1998). Proxy use of the Canadian sf-36 in rating the health status of the disabled elderly. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51(11), 983-990.
  • Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2003). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 250-267.
  • Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2004). Associations of caregiver stressors and uplifts with subjective well-being and depressive mood: A meta-analytic comparison. Aging and Mental Health, 8(5), 438-449.
  • Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2006). Gender differences in caregiver stressors, social resources, and health: An updated meta-analysis. Journal of Gerontology: B. Psychological Science and Social Science, 61(1), P33-45.
  • Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2007). Correlates of physical health of informal caregivers: A meta-analysis. Journal of Gerontology: B. Psychological Science and Social Science, 62B(2), 126-137.
  • Pressman, L. J., Loo, S. K., Carpenter, E. M., Asarnow, J. R., Lynn, D., McCracken, J. T., et al. (2006). Relationship of family environment and parental psychiatric diagnosis to impairment in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(3), 346-354.
  • Pruchno, R. A., & Patrick, J. H. (1999). Mothers and fathers of adults with chronic disabilities: Caregiving appraisals and well-being. Research on Aging, 21, 682-713.
  • Pruchno, R. A., Patrick, J. H., & Burant, C. J. (1996). Aging women and their children with chronic disabilities: Perceptions of sibling involvement and effects on well-being. Family Relations, 45(3), 318-326.
  • Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.
  • Reichman, N. E., Corman, H., & Noonan, K. (2004). Effects of child health on parents' relationship status. Demography, 41(3), 569-584.
  • Risdal, D., & Singer, G. H. S. (2004). Marital adjustment in parents of children with disabilities: A historical review and meta-analysis. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29(2), 95-103.
  • Robins, G., Pattison, P., Kalish, Y., & Lusher, D. (2007). An introduction to exponential random (p*) graph models for social networks. Social Networks, 29, 173-191.
  • Roth, D. L., Mittelman, M. S., Clay, O. J., Madan, A., & Haley, W. E. (2005). Changes in social support as mediators of the impact of a psychosocial intervention for spouse caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Psychology and Aging, 2005(4), 634-644.
  • Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological wellbeing revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719-727.
  • Saunders, P. (2006). The costs of disability and the incidence of poverty (Social Policy Research Centre Discussion Paper No. 147). Sydney: Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
  • Savage, S., & Bailey, S. (2004). The impact of caring on caregivers' mental health: A review of the literature. Australian Health Review, 27(1), 111-117.
  • Sawyer, M. G., Arney, F. M., Baghurst, P. A., Clark, J. J., Graetz, B. W., Kosky, R. J., et al. (2000). The mental health of young people in Australia: Child and adolescent component of the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Canberra: Mental Health and Special Programs Branch, Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care.
  • Schofield, H., Bloch, S., Herrman, H., Murphy, B., Nankervis, J., & Singh, B. (Eds.). (1998). Family caregivers: Disability, illness and ageing. Melbourne: Allen and Unwin in association with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
  • Schulz, R., & Beach, S. R. (1999). Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: The Caregiver Health Effects Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(23), 2215-2219.
  • Social Security Act 1991 (Cth). Retrieved 7 February 2008, from http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ssa1991186
  • Spicer, I. (2007). Disability and family carers. Family Matters, 76, 30-31.
  • Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R. & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Spiess, C. K., & Schneider, U. (2002). Midlife caregiving and employment: An analysis of adjustments in work hours and informal care for female employees in Europe (Policy Implications for Europe ENEPRI Working Paper No. 9). Brussels: European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes.
  • Todorov, A., & Kirchner, C. (2000). Bias in proxies' reports of disability: Data from the national health interview survey on disability. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1248-1253.
  • Tolhurst, P. (2001). Supporting carers for older Australians. Work & Family, 26, pp. 3-4.
  • Treasury. (2007). Intergenerational report 2007: Circulated by The Honourable Peter Costello, MP, Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Australia. Canberra: Author. Retrieved 22 February 2008, from http://www.treasury.gov.au/igr/IGR2007.asp
  • Urbano, R. C., & Hodapp, R. M. (2007). Divorce in families of children with Down syndrome: A population-based study. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112(4), 261-274.
  • Vitaliano, P. P., Scanlan, J. M., Zhang, J., Savage, M. V., Hirsch, I. B., & Siegler, I. C. (2002). A path model of chronic stress, the metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 418-435.
  • Vitaliano, P. P., Zhang, J., & Scanlan, J. M. (2003). Is caregiving hazardous to one's physical health? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(6), 946-972.
  • Wade, S. L., Carey, J., & Wolfe, C. R. (2006). An online family intervention to reduce parental distress following pediatric brain injury. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 445-454.
  • Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Gandek, B. (2002). SF-36 health survey: Manual and interpretation guide. Lincoln, RI: QualityMetric Incorporated.
  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A. & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070.
  • Williams, E. (1996). Forfeiting their futures ... To care: A report on younger carers' contribution and needs. ACT: Carers Association of Australia.
  • Witt, W. P., Riley, A. W., & Coiro, M. J. (2003). Childhood functional status, family stressors, and psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children with disabilities in the United States. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 687-695.