Appendix D

Table D1: The characteristics of 25 international initiatives identified for further review
Country Name of PBI Year implemented Host organisation or department Focus of initiative/"theme of dis­advan­tage" Target population(s) Target location(s) Policy objective, targeting Theory of change/program rationale
Note: List of policy classification groups (Griggs et al., 2008): 1.Focus on place to impact place; 2.Focus on place to impact person; 3.Focus on person to impact place: 4.Focus on person to impact person; 5.Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both.
United States Moving to Opportunity (MTO) Fair Housing Demonstration 1990s US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Poverty Very low-income families with children who lived in public housing or Section 8 project-based housing located in US central city neighborhoods with high concentrations of poverty Extremely poor neighbourhoods of New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston and Baltimore 2. Focus on place to impact person Offers low-income families the chance to move to private-market housing in lower-poverty neighbourhoods in order to improve families' employment, income, education, and social wellbeing outcomes.
United States Promise Neighbourhoods (federal expansion of Harlem Children's Zone model) 2010 US Department of Education (DOE) Education; Child development Children and youth in disadvantaged neighbourhoods Communities with high levels of poverty and crime and low levels of student academic achievement. Started in 2011 throughout 21 urban and rural communities in the US, including one Indian reservation. Expanded by 16 new communities throughout the US in 2011 and added a further 11 new communities in 2012, by which time Promise Neighborhoods was active in 20 US states and the District of Columbia. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Develops a continuum of cradle-through-college-and-career services, including access to great schools and strong systems of family and community support, for children and youth growing up in disadvantaged neighbourhoods ("Promise Neighborhoods") in order to improve the educational and developmental outcomes of children and youth and assist their successful transition to college and a career.
United States Partnership for Sustainable Communities 2009 HUD, DOT and EPA in partnership Livability; Sustainability; Economic development; Community strengthening Residents in target communities Since 2009 the Partnership has provided grants and technical assistance to more than 700 communities in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Supports improved efficiency and reliability of transportation choices and variety and affordability of housing in order to strengthen neighbourhoods, improve economic competitiveness and achieve sustainable communities (e.g., where people can live closer to jobs, have easier access to public transport, and housing a convenient distance from workplaces, schools, parks, stores and amenities). Follows six "livability principles".
United States Hope VI 1992 US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Housing; Immigrant communities; Urban regeneration Low-income families residing in public housing, predominantly ethnic minority residents and communities (African- American and Hispanic) Between 1992 and 2004, 63,100 "severely distressed" (defined physically, economically and socially) units had been demolished and another 20,000 units were slated for redevelopment. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Large-scale demolition, revitalisation and redesign of public housing projects, resulting in mixed-income housing, combined with the provision of housing vouchers, community services and supportive services (including literacy training, job training, day care and youth activities) in order to fundamentally transform public housing and to promote resident self-sufficiency (Popkin et al., 2004).
United States Early Head Start Program (prev. Head Start Program, 1965) 1994 US Department of Health and Human Services Child development; Family wellbeing Low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers up to age 3 Programs run in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the US territories. 4. Focus on person to impact person Provides programs that promote child and family development, community building and staff development to low-income families with infants and toddlers up to age 3 in order to improve prenatal outcomes for pregnant women, enhance development of very young children and improve family functioning.
England Sure Start Local Programs (SSLPs) 1999 Department for Children, Schools and Families; Department for Work and Pensions Child development; Family wellbeing; Health; Education; All children under 5 years of age and their families within prescribed low socio-economic areas; however, the national program now covers all children up to the age of 16 (Malin & Morrow, 2008) Small, low socio-economic areas across England, defined as disadvantaged by socio-demographic features, disorder indicators, child health and development indicators and information about the level of service activity (Barnes, 2007). Areas tended to have populations of just under 13,000 people, including about 800 children aged 0-4 years. 60 areas initially in 1999, then by mid-2004 there were 524 areas, claiming to reach over 400,000 children (estimated to be approx. 1/3 of children aged 0-4 living in poverty in England) (Malin & Morrow, 2008). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Provides early and sustained support to children aged under 5 years, including improved access to services that support parents - family support, health services and early education - in order to improve social and emotional development, improve health, improve children's ability to learn, strengthen families and communities and ultimately transform the life chances of young children.
England Aimhigher 2004 Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) Education Primarily: 13-19 year old learners from under-represented groups. These groups are defined as: children and young people from neighbourhoods with lower than average HE participation; people from lower socio-economic groups; people living in areas of relative deprivation, including deprived rural and coastal areas; people whose family have no previous experience of HE; young people in care; minority ethnic groups or subgroups that are under-represented in HE generally or in certain types of institutions (e.g., women in engineering); and people with disabilities (McCaig, Stevens & Bowers-Brown, 2006) During the 2008-11 phase there were a final total of 42 partnerships working throughout England to deliver the program, a proportion of which focused on low-SES groups and areas of relative deprivation. In the 2009-10 academic year, Aimhigher partnerships worked with 2,700 schools, 108 higher education institutions, 368 further education colleges and 114 local authorities. 2. Focus on place to impact person Creates partnerships between schools, further and higher education providers and local authorities, health bodies, children's services and other local providers and trainers, in order to increase participation in higher education among learners from under-represented groups, as well as: raise awareness, aspirations, motivation and attainment; strengthen progression routes into higher education via vocational courses; and offer information, advice and guidance to potential students, their teachers and their families.
England Education Action Zones 1998 Department for Education and Skills (DfES) Education; Social exclusion School students in deprived areas 25 EAZs in 1998-99, with a further 47 added a year later. Therefore a total of 72 EAZs were approved across England following two national competitive bidding processes, each with a life of between 3 and 5 years. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Clusters around 20 schools (typically three secondary and associated/"feeder" primary schools) together with business, local education authorities, public bodies, and voluntary and community organisations to implement programs in order to modernise education and raise educational standards in areas of social deprivation, improve teaching and learning, support families and pupils, and reduce social exclusion (Reid & Brain, 2003).
England, Scotland and Wales Employment Zones (EZs) 2000 Department for Work and Pensions Employment Initial target was long-term unemployed; that is, long-term claimants of Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) aged 25 and over. This was extended subsequently to young people (aged 18-24) claiming JSA, lone parents claiming Income Support and some groups deemed appropriate for "early entry" into EZs (The Policy Research Institute, Leeds Metropolitan University, 2006, p. 1). "Participation in the zone is mandatory for people who are eligible (either 12 or 18 months unemployed)" (McGregor et al., 2003, p. 8). 15 EZs introduced in 2000, in local areas with high levels of long-term unemployment. "Each zone typically covers a sizeable area (e.g., Glasgow and London boroughs such as Southwark and Newham)" (McGregor et al., 2003, p. 8). In 2004, six of the largest EZs (Birmingham, Brent & Haringey, Glasgow, Liverpool & Sefton, Southwark and Tower Hamlets & Newham) were converted into Multiple Provider Employment Zones (MPEZs) with up to three providers delivering EZ services; rationale was to test the impact of competition between providers. 2. Focus on place to impact person Offers customised jobsearch assistance - including personalised support, training advice and aftercare - to both employees and employers in Employment Zones in order to help long-term unemployed people find work.
England, Scotland and Wales Action Team for Jobs (ATFJ) 2000 Department for Work and Pensions Employment Any unemployed person living in the Action Team area; also targets "customer groups that have, in some cases, been reluctant in the past to access mainstream Jobcentre Plus services" (Casebourne & Davis, 2006, p. 1). Aim to work in small areas with particular problems of labour market disadvantage. "Action Teams cover specific wards within local authorities that are characterised by low employment rates, high claimant counts and high proportions of minority ethnic groups" (McGregor et al., 2003, p. 8). Action Teams were set up away from Jobcentre Plus premises (due to these being intimidating to some of the target groups) and also established sessional and mobile outreach in the local community. There were Action Teams operating in 64 areas throughout England as at a 2006 review by Department for Work and Pensions, comprising 40 Jobcentre Plus Action Teams and 24 Private Sector Led (PSL) Action Teams. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Provides a voluntary, adviser-led service in small areas facing problems of labour market disadvantage in order to address barriers to employment and increase employment rates among disadvantaged groups.
England Excellence in Cities (EiC) 1999 Department for Education and Skills (DfES) Education; Social exclusion Initial focus on students receiving a secondary education, the initiative was extended into primary schools in some EiC areas, into small groups of schools affected by pockets of deprivation (through Excellence Clusters) and into post-16 provision (through Excellence Challenge). In contrast to EAZs, no competitive bidding process: DfES identified eligible LEAs. 25 Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and 438 secondary schools were involved in phase 1; a further 2 phases saw 33 LEAs and over 600 secondary schools (Office for Standard in Education, 2003). "The Government identified the areas to be included and the strategies that should be employed, and the only condition was that there should be an approved delivery plan" (Kendall et al., 2005, p. 2). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Funds personal and academic support programs, including learning mentors for targeted pupils, provides learning support units and provides for gifted and talented pupils, in order to tackle underachievement in all the secondary schools in each EiC area and "break the spiral of poor attendance, poor behaviour and high exclusion rates among the most disaffected and vulnerable pupils" (OFSTED, 2003).
England Children's Fund 2000 Department for Children, Schools and Families Child development; Social exclusion; Family wellbeing; Community strengthening 5-13 year olds; however, evidence indicates that services were used both by children aged 4 and by young people of 14 and 15. Peak ages for use were 9-12 years (Edwards, Barnes, Plewis, Morris et al., 2006) Funding in the early stages of the initiative was allocated on the basis of levels of deprivation and need in each of England's 150 local authorities (need and deprivation was regionally and centrally assessed) (Edwards, Barnes, Plewis, Morris, et al., 2006). "Whilst geographical targeting was the most common means of implementing Children's Fund provision, most partnerships recognised the limitations of such an approach and targeting by social group was often substituted for area targeting … Partnerships also sought to target those vulnerable children and families who do not live in the most deprived communities, typically supported by other area-based, preventative initiatives. A sole reliance on rigid area boundaries was seen to lead to inappropriate postcode lotteries determining access to services" (Hughes & Fielding, 2006, p. 36). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Provides additional resources to engage and support voluntary and community organisations to work together in order to help children overcome poverty and disadvantage.
England City Challenge 2008-11 Department for Children, Schools and Families Education Primary schools in three areas: Black County, Greater Manchester and London City Challenge was "underpinned by a belief that the educational problems facing urban areas should be addressed at area level, and that local authorities and schools needed to work together to do this. Thus it aimed to improve educational provision and school performance across broad geographical areas" (Hutchings et al., 2012, p. 3). Launched in 2008 in three areas - Black County, Greater Manchester and London - building on the learnings from other school-focused ABIs including Excellence in Cities (EiC), Education Action Zones (EAZs) and London Challenge (2003-08), which had focused on secondary schools). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Worked with LAs, parents and pupils to develop links between schools and higher education, strengthened system leadership through an area-wide strategy led by school leaders for school leaders, provided benchmark data for schools, and developed a specific range of interventions in and bespoke packages of support to primary schools in order to improve educational outcomes for young people and break the associated cycle of disadvantage and underachievement in three areas in England: the Black County, Greater Manchester and London (Hutchings et al., 2012).
England, Wales On Track 1999-2008 Home Office for England and Wales Crime; (then, over time, Child development; Social inclusion; Family wellbeing) Children aged 4-12 and their families A multi-component initiative operating in 24 high-crime, high-deprivation areas of England and Wales. The programme "was conceived as a time-limited demonstration program designed to test out new approaches to work with at-risk communities" (Ghate et al., 2008, p. 1) and after 9 years was wound up entirely in 2008 and merged with the Children's Fund. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Developed multi-agency partnerships to deliver suites of services including home-school partnerships, parenting support, home visiting, family therapy, pre-school services and specialist practitioner services (e.g., speech therapists) in order to "reduce the propensity for youth crime and antisocial behaviours in high-risk populations, drawing on a public health, ecological model of prevention" (Ghate et al., 2008, p. 1).
England Early Excellence Centre (EEC) Pilot Programme 1997 (??) Child development; Family wellbeing; Health Young children and their families 29 EECs were designated under the pilot program between 1997 and 1999. The EECs were "distributed across a range of socio-economic and geographical contexts within England" and were largely based in or built around, school settings (Bertram et al., 2004, pp. 8, 14-15). (Beyond the pilot, the expansion of the program reached its target of 100 EECs throughout England by 2004.) 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Develops a network of children's centres that offer a range of services to children, families and the local community (including high quality and integrated early education and childcare; family support, involvement and learning; adult education; health services; practitioner training; and dissemination of good practice) in order to give all young children access to high quality early years education.
England Health Action Zones (HAZs) 1997 Department of Health Health Local residents of 26 HAZs across England 11 HAZs in 1998; 15 more HAZs from 1999; therefore 26 HAZs in total, located in diverse areas of England, and following 7 principles. No specific focus on deprived/disadvantaged locations (Bauld et al., 2005). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Brings together all those contributing to local population health; identifies and addresses the public health needs of the local area by developing and implementing locally agreed strategies; increases the effectiveness, efficiency and responsiveness of services; and develops partnerships to create synergies between the work of different agencies in order to improve the health of local people (Bauld et al., 2005, p. 428).
England Neighbourhood Nurseries Initiative (NNI) 2000 Department for Education and Skills (DfES) Child development; Poverty; Employment Children aged 0-4 years and their parents in disadvantaged neighbourhoods throughout England NNI's disadvantaged neighbourhoods location was defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation. Local authorities and Early Years Development and Childcare Partnerships (EYDCPs) eligible for NNI funding could also make a case for the location in areas outside their wards if it could be demonstrated that there "were equivalent levels of deprivation, or in 'pockets' of deprivation serving disadvantaged families living in more affluent areas" (Smith, in NNI Research Team et al., 2007, p. 13). The program achieved the creation of 45,000 new childcare places for 0-4 year-olds in disadvantaged areas throughout England, offering full daycare, in August 2004. 2. Focus on place to impact person Provides high quality child care services in disadvantaged areas in order to tackle child poverty, thereby allowing poor parents to return to employment (Smith, in NNI Research Team et al., 2007).
England National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal (NSNR) 2001 Department for Communities and Local Government Urban regeneration Residents of England's most deprived neighbourhoods England's most deprived neighbourhoods, originally allocated across 88 local authority districts, as identified by the Index of Multiple Deprivation. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Provides a strategic and joined-up approach to the complex problems posed by neighbourhood renewal, through enhanced and focused mainstream service delivery, real community involvement in planning for and delivering the improvement of areas and better local, regional and national coordination, in order to reduce worklessness and crime, and improve health, skills, housing and physical environment, liveability, and ultimately tackle deprivation at neighbourhood level (AMION Consulting, 2010).
England New Deal for Communities (NDC) 1999 Department for Communities and Local Government Urban regeneration Residents of deprived neighbourhoods throughout England NDC partnerships in 39 deprived neighbourhoods, including 10 in London and the others located throughout England, with each neighbourhood accommodating about 9,900 people and culminating in 6,900 projects or interventions developed locally across the initiative. "Neighbourhoods were concentrated in the bottom deciles on Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) scores: 28 in the most deprived decile, 10 in the second, and one in the third most deprived" (Batty et al., 2010, p. 11). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Implements local regeneration schemes in deprived neighbourhoods in England in order to transform "three place-related outcomes: crime, community, and housing and the physical environment, and three people-related outcomes: education, health and worklessness" (Batty et al., 2010, p. 5).
Scotland Scottish New Community Schools 1999 Scottish Executive Education; Child development: Social inclusion Children and youth and their families throughout Scotland Phase 1 (April 1999) saw 37 projects undertaken within 30 local authorities; further 8 projects added in Phase 2 (October 2000); Phase 3 (from 2002) saw roll out to all schools across Scotland. The initial, pilot programs focused on schools in areas of greatest disadvantage. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Expands and integrates the range of services offered to young people in disadvantaged areas in order to raise attainment and promote social inclusion. Specifically, five goals, to: modernise schools and promote social inclusion; increase attainment of young people facing underachievement; implement early intervention to address barriers to learning and maximise potential; meet the needs of every child through focused service delivery; and raise parental expectations and participation in their children's education.
Scotland Social Inclusion Partnerships (SIPs) (formerly Priority Partnership Areas, Regeneration Programme Areas) PPAs + RPAs in 1996; then SIPs from 1999 Scottish Executive Social inclusion; Participation; Community strengthening; Child development Area-based SIPs focused on residents of deprived locations. Theme-based SIPs focused on particular disadvantaged groups of people, such as young people or minority ethnic communities. 21 PPAs (council area-wide partnerships) and RPAs (deprived areas or clusters/"archipelagos" of deprivation) in existence as at April 1999 became SIPs and applications for new SIPs were invited "based on a newly produced Scottish wide index of deprivation" (of which 13 new partnerships were added) as well as on "theme based approaches to tackling deprivation" (e.g., "working with disadvantaged communities of interest, like young people or minority ethnic communities, which were not necessarily concentrated in the most deprived areas in Scotland"), of which 14 were added (ODS Consulting, 2006, p. 5). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Promotes opportunities, tackles barriers to inclusion, promotes inclusion among children and young people and builds strong communities in order to effect progress in a wide range of areas, including population, housing, crime, employment and training, education, health and community engagement and to prevent social exclusion.
Canada New Deal for Cities and Communities (NDCC) 2004 Ministry of Children and Youth Services Sustainability; Urban regeneration All residents of provinces and territories in Canada (no specific target group) Per capita allocation of funding for projects throughout provinces and territories in Canada 1. Focus on place to impact place Promotes Federal, provincial, territorial and municipal governments working together with other stakeholders to fund the development and maintenance of environmentally sustainable infrastructure projects in order to improve communities. "Environmentally sustainable infrastructures" include public transit and water and wastewater systems, rehabilitation of roads and bridges, solid waste management, community energy systems and capacity building.
European Union (EU) URBAN I and URBAN II Community Initiative (CI) 1994-99 (URBAN I) and 2000-06 (URBAN II) European Commission Urban regeneration; Social exclusion; Sustainability Residents of disadvantaged inner-city districts URBAN I: 118 programs targeting the most disadvantaged inner-city districts throughout big cities in the then 15 member-states of the EU: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Finland and Sweden. URBAN II: TBC 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Supports a range of place- and people-based initiatives, including the launch of new economic activities, social and health provision, vocational training ("labour-market actions") and renovation of obsolete infrastructure and environmental improvements in order to address the economic, social and environmental disadvantage faced by neighbourhoods across the EU. Upgrades the quality of these urban environments and improves the living conditions of citizens in these areas and promotes sustainable urban development. "An innovative answer to social and spatial exclusion in big European cities" (Halpern 2005, p. 699); a response to "socio-spatial polarisation" (Carpenter, 2006, p. 2145).
NZ Community Link 2007 Ministry of Social Development (MSD) Participation; Income; Employment; Community strengthening Income support recipients and disadvantaged job seekers Community Link model was rolled out nationally with priority placed on areas of high social deprivation. As at end of 2010 there were around 50 Community Link centres; at present there are 140 centres in operation throughout New Zealand. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Provides an integrated service delivery approach providing a variety of social services and agencies centrally located in one place, ranging from simple financial assistance through to advocacy, support, education and counselling services, in order to connect income support recipients and disadvantaged job seekers with community and public sector organisations. *Community Link informed AU pilots at four Centrelink Customer Service Centres, which appears to have evolved into the LCTW program.
Denmark Kvarterloft ("integrated urban regeneration") 1997-2007 Urban Committee of the Danish Government Housing; Immigrant communities; Social exclusion; Urban regeneration; Sustainability Residents of public housing estates, including immigrant communities; and residents of older, deprived areas within large cities in Denmark (e.g., Copenhagen) 12 urban areas in Denmark participated in an extensive urban regeneration experiment. Phase 1 (1997-2001) involved 7 ABIs in 5 local authorities; Phase 2 (2001-07) involved 5 new ABIs in 5 different local authorities. "Two typical types of problem-areas may be identified. One is large non-profit housing estates often built in the period 1960-80. Immigrants from non-Western counties often make up a high percentage of the inhabitants in these areas. The other type of area is the older part of bigger cities especially in Copenhagen with low housing standards, traffic problems and with industrial sites that can be used for new functions" (Jensen & Munk, 2007, p. 9). 2. Focus on place to impact person Expands democracy and resident/tenant participation, combines economic, cultural, recreational and social policy approaches and promotes the "social integration" of immigrant communities in order to "lift" deprived urban areas, improve residential areas and to provide models for future urban policy. "The projects concern the area and not individual residents or properties." (Jensen & Munk, 2007, p. 9).

Return to Commonwealth Place-Based Service Delivery Initiatives - Appendix D

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