Appendix E

Table E1: The characteristics of the eight Commonwealth initiatives selected for further review
Commonwealth department as at August and October 2013 Name of PBI Year(s) implemented Focus of initiative/"theme of disadvantage" Target population(s) Target location(s) Policy objective, targeting Theory of change/program rationale
DHS/DHS Centrelink Place Based Services (PBS) initiative 2008 (maximum duration of 3 years) Across the 6 local "action research" projects, foci included: Employment; Participation; Health; Mental health; Income; Housing; Immigrant communities; Child/Youth development; and Skills development Focused on various marginalised groups across the projects, including youth, single parents, unemployed men, people experiencing domestic/family violence, young people leaving state care and/or people with unmet mental health needs, disengaged Indigenous urban homeless people, young refugee job seekers, and young carers. The six projects that received funding as part of the PBS initiative were located in specific areas throughout Australia, including Peachey Belt (SA), Logan City Council (QLD), Darwin (NT), Broadmeadows (Vic.) and Fairfield (NSW), and Cooma (NSW). 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Ulimately, across the six projects, the rationale was to determine the extent to which local approaches, which identified issues pertinent to "place" and marginalised groups, could improve social inclusion outcomes for participants. A further objective was to test Centrelink's ability to use collaborative/locally-based approaches to improve the capability of the service delivery system.
DoHA/DoH Support for Day to Day Living in the Community (D2DL): A Structured Activity Program 2007-2009 Mental health; Participation; Quality of life People who: experience a severe and persistent mental illness that limits their ability to function in the community; experience isolation in the community due to lack of social support; and had a level of disability that restricted their capacity to obtain employment in the labour market in the foreseeable future. Operates through non-government organisations at 60 sites around Australia (all states and territories). Full list of sites at: <www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/mental-d2dl> 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both To increase access to recovery-oriented services for people experiencing severe and persistent mental illness and isolation, in order to assist these individuals in developing new or relearning old skills, developing social networks, participating in community activities, accomplishing personal goals, developing confidence, and ultimately, improving their quality of life
FaHCSIA/DSS Communities for Children (CfC) June/August 2006 - ongoing Child development; Family wellbeing Children 0-12 years, and for some services, adolescents up to 18 years of age Stage 1: 45 disadvantaged community sites around Australia, targeting children aged 0-5 years and their families; Stage 2 (CFC+): a further eight sites across Australia and extension of target age group to include children aged 0-12 years and their families 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Provides family focused and child centred services that focus on prevention and early intervention approaches in order to improve family functioning, safety and child development outcomes for children and their families in disadvantaged communities throughout Australia.
FaHCSIA/DSS in partnership with the Queensland Government and Cape York Regional Organisations Cape York Welfare Reform Trial (CYWR) July 2008 - ongoing Indigenous communities Indigenous residents of four Cape York, QLD, communities Four Cape York communities of Aurukun, Coen, Hope Vale and Mossman Gorge 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both Develops reformed incentives and appropriate enabling supports at the community level, targeting four "capability streams" - Social responsibility (including Familiy reponsibilities), Economic opportunity, Education and Housing - in order to rebuild social norms and restore Indigenous authority, identity, motivation and capability.
FaHCSIA/PM&C Groote Eylandt and Bickerton Island Regional Partnership Agreement (RPA) Nov 2009 to June 2014 Indigenous communities The RPA was implemented in Anindilyakawa region, due to the development challenges faced by the Indigenous communities of Groote Eylandt and Bickerton Island, including high socio-economic disadvantage, low literacy levels, poor health and a backlog of infrastructure needs. Children in this region have also demonstrated high levels of developmental vulnerability. The RPA covers the Anindilyakwa region, which is located on the western side of the Gulf of Carpentaria in the Northern Territory and comprises Groote Eylandt and Bickerton Island. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both To achieve sustainable improvements for people living in the Anindilyakwa region, in regards to aspects such as community health and safety, educational outcomes, youth sport/recreation, economic develop­ment/particip­ation, and housing and development, in order to improve their living conditions and general quality of life.
FaHCSIA/PM&C Petrol Sniffing Strategy 2005 - ongoing Indigenous communities People residing in predominantly Indigenous areas in NT, WA, SA and Queensland with high petrol sniffing rates. The PSS has focused on reducing the incidence and impact of petrol sniffing in remote Australia in the designated "PSS zones" of:
  • The remote cross-border region in central Australia, covering the Ngaanyatjarra Lands in Western Australia (WA), The Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands in South Australia (SA) and the communities of Docker River, Imanpa, Mutitjulu and Apatula in the Northern Territory (NT);
  • The expanded Central Australian region, incorporating the Alice Springs township and communities to the west and north of Alice Springs in the NT;
  • Doomadgee and Mornington Island in the Southern Gulf area of Queensland (QLD); and
  • The WA East Kimberley region.
5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both To reduce the incidence of petrol sniffing in the "PSS Zones" by addressing the complex mix of interrelated causes and contextual factors contributing to this activity, in order to reduce the impacts of petrol sniffing on individuals and communities in these areas
FaHCSIA/PM&C Pornography Awareness Program 2007-2009, continued in 2012 Indigenous Communities For reasons of cultural appropriateness, and in keeping with secondary objectives identified through consultation, the pornography awareness workshops were predominantly developed for use with male audiences (with the workshop adapted for the small number involving women), and held in varous locations across the NT. The workshops were open to all members of the community and surrounding communities who were regarded within their community as being men (typically above 14 years of age). The residents of the following NT (and surrounding communities) were targeted: Nguiu, Tennant Creek, Wadeye, Katherine, Elliott, Borroloola, Kalkarindji, Maningrida, Angurugu, Nhulunbuy, Ngukurr, Gunbalanya, Ti Tree, Papunya, Alice Springs, Ntaria and Darwin. Additional workshops were also held at Darwin Prison and the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both To deliver a pornography awareness campaign strategy involving workshops, flipcharts and facilitated discussions in numerous Indigenous communities, in order to raise awareness and knowledge of the Australian classification system and parents' responsibilities to protect children from exposure to pornography. The workshops also sought to empower participants to enact these responsibilities through information and awareness, and share strategies regarding effective ways to manage/prevent children's exposure to media contact and pornographic material.
FaHCSIA/PM&C National Partnership Agreement on Remote Indigenous Housing (NPARIH) 2008-2018 Indigenous Communities Indigenous Australians who reside in remote, predominantly Indigenous communities and commonly experience issues such as significant overcrowding, homelessness, poor housing conditions and severe housing shortages. NPARIH funding has been provided to the states and the Northern Territory in order to deliver new houses and rebuild/refurbish existing houses in remote Indigenous communities around Australia. Employment-related accommodation will also be provided in regional areas to enable Indigenous people from remote communities to access training, education, employment and support services. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both To improve housing conditions for Indigenous Australians - or specifically, to reduce significant overcrowding, homelessness, poor housing conditions and the severe housing shortage in remote Indigenous communities - in order to ultimately achieve improvements in Indigenous health, education and employment and "close the gap" in life outcomes between Indigenous and other Australians.
DEEWR/Department of Employment Building Australia's Future Workforce (BAFW) package - Better Futures, Local Solution (BFLS)/place-based stream 2011-2014 Employment; Skills Development; Participation; Community Strengthening People experiencing high levels of disadvantage Ten disadvantaged Local Government Areas (LGAs) across Australia, including: Bankstown, NSW, Shellharbour, NSW, Wyong, NSW, Hume, VIC, Greater Shepparton, VIC, Logan, QLD, Rockhampton, QLD, Playford, SA, Kwinana, WA and Burnie, TAS. 5. Focus on place and person simultaneously to impact both To positively impact people living in areas of entrenched disadvantaged across four distinct areas: (1) supporting children's wellbeing (via parenting support, supporting early childhood learning and supporting children's education); (2) improving social inclusion (though supporting social connectedness, improving access to support services and decreasing financial stress); (3) supporting participation (through childcare support, as well as workshops, interviews and participation plans); and (4) providing tailored support (via the co-location of support services and enhanced delivery of employment services support).

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