Family-related life events

Insights from two Australian longitudinal studies
Research Report No. 22 – December 2012

Appendix B. Supplementary tables, HILDA analyses

Tables B1 and B2 in this appendix show the results of multivariate analyses of socio-demographic characteristics and experience of life events. Logistic regression modelling is applied to the life events for men and women separately. The characteristics were measured in Wave 9 and life events were reported in Wave 10 for their occurrence in the last 12 months (approximately between Waves 9 and 10). Box 1 (in Section 3) explains how to interpret the result of logistic regression model. Note that some socio-demographic characteristics were omitted from the multivariate analysis for some life events examined due to either small numbers, their pertinence to a specific events or other considerations. For example, the number of single people who had step-children in the households is small and this variable is omitted when examining characteristics that were linked with single men and women under 55 years who had formed a live-in relationship. Still for this event, personal income was used instead of equivalised household income in the multivariate analysis because personal income is likely more important than household level income for couple formation.

Table B1a: Odds ratios of logistic regression of life events and socio-demographic characteristics, men (part 1)
  Formed a live-in relationship (single < 65) Separated from spouse or long-term partner (partnered < 65) Pregnancy or birth/adoption of new child (men, < 55) Serious personal injury/illness Serious injury/illness to family member Death of spouse or child Death of close relative/family member
Age (ref. = 25–34)
< 25 1.01   0.81   0.91   0.97   1.31   1.51   0.87  
35–44 0.45 ** 1.42   0.40 *** 1.42   1.32   0.65   0.92  
45–54 0.22 *** 1.34   0.04 *** 1.26   1.44 * 2.78   1.59

**

55–64 0.19 *** 0.49       2.06 *** 1.05   0.45   1.34  
65–74             2.61 *** 1.02   2.50   0.96  
75+             3.11 *** 1.47   11.92 * 0.85  
Education (ref. = degree +)
Other qualification 1.35   0.83   1.06   1.04   0.91   0.88   1.04  
None 0.85   1.25   0.81   1.04   0.77 * 1.33   0.98  
Employment status (ref. = full-time)
Part-time 0.88   0.80   0.91   1.26   1.12   2.20   0.83  
Not employed 0.50 * 0.78   0.76   1.14   1.07   1.76   1.16  
Country of birth (ref. = Australia)
English-speaking 1.13   1.25   1.33   0.91   0.99   1.71   0.73  
Non–English speaking 1.64   1.25   1.39   0.58 ** 0.82   1.49   0.75  
Region (ref. = major city)
Inner region 1.79 ** 0.87   1.00   0.87   0.89   0.18 * 0.86  
Outer/remote region 1.06   0.70   1.49 * 0.86   1.05   0.60   0.88  
Advantage/disadvantage
SEIFA index 0.94   0.86 ** 0.99   0.99   1.01   0.89   0.98  
Main source of household income (ref. = wage/salaries)
Government payment 0.88   2.17   1.56   0.79   1.13   0.43   0.98  
Other 1.01   1.21   1.02   0.89   0.97   0.97   0.73

*

Family background
Lived with sole parent at age 14 1.11   1.51   1.09   1.09   0.99   0.82   1.07  
Equivalised household income (ref. = low)
Medium     1.12   0.80   0.74 * 1.07   1.20   0.92  
High     1.14   0.87   0.72 * 0.93   0.73   0.84  
Age of youngest child in household (ref. = none)
0–4 0.45   1.40       0.62 * 0.69 * 2.94   1.04  
5–11 0.22 ** 2.42 *     0.77   0.78       1.24  
12–17 0.27 *** 0.47       0.93   0.85   0.26   0.94  
18+ 0.28 * 1.14       0.46   0.44 * 1.19   0.94  
Step-children
Having step-children in household     0.78   0.67                  
Relationship status (ref. = married)
Cohabiting     3.92 *** 0.55 *** 0.75   0.90   0.59   0.95  
Single         0.06 *** 1.14   0.76 * 0.55   0.93  
Personal income (ref. = low)
Medium 1.46                          
High 2.51 **                        
Number of children had (ref. = none)
One         1.69 **                
Two         0.53 **                
Three or more         0.30 ***                
Constant 0.16 *** 0.02 *** 0.64   0.10 *** 0.14 *** 0.01 *** 0.15

***

No. of respondents 1,869 2,810 3,604 5,150 5,142 4,539 5,147

Note: Life events experienced in the last 12 months were reported in Wave 10 (2010) and characteristics were based on information in Wave 9. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001. Categories in brackets are reference categories. SEIFA index refers to SEIFA advantage/disadvantage index in deciles, with higher deciles indicating greater advantage. Equivalised annual gross household income: low = $34,000 or less, medium = $34,001–57,999, high = $58,000 or more. Personal annual gross income: low = $20,000 or less, medium = $20,001–49,999, high = $50,000 or more.

Source: HILDA 2009 & 2010

Table B1b: Odds ratios of logistic regression of life events and socio-demographic characteristics, men (part 2)
  Death of a close friend Victim of physical violence Self or a family member detained in jail Retired from the workforce (45+) Fired or made redundant (< 65) Major worsening in finances Changed residence
Age (ref. = 25–34)
< 25 1.12   1.09   0.65       0.98   0.26 *** 1.08  
35–44 1.15   0.89   0.91       0.98   1.51   0.72 *
45–54 1.86 ** 0.94   1.06       1.51   1.87 * 0.44 ***
55–64 1.98 *** 0.55   0.36   5.52 *** 1.01   0.87   0.37 ***
65–74 2.45 *** 0.19 * 0.27 * 7.37 ***     0.42   0.19 ***
75+ 3.88 *** 0.14   0.07 * 7.19 ***     0.44   0.18 ***
Education (ref. = degree +)
Other qualification 1.17   1.05   4.71 * 0.63   1.05   0.84   0.77 *
None 1.19   0.91   6.41 * 0.67   0.75   1.23   0.84  
Employment status (ref. = full-time)
Part-time 1.14   0.96   0.63   1.19   1.23   1.16   0.97  
Not employed 1.33 * 1.29   1.99   0.77   1.42   1.48   0.92  
Country of birth (ref. = Australia)
English-speaking 0.84   1.16   1.25   0.89   1.23   1.07   1.26  
Non–English speaking 0.81   1.12   1.39   1.46   1.07   0.78   0.64 *
Region (ref. = major city)
Inner region 1.21   1.59   0.80   1.25   0.94   1.05   1.18  
Outer/remote region 1.29   1.19   0.47   1.09   0.78   0.64   1.40 *
Advantage/disadvantage
SEIFA index 0.99   1.04   0.89 * 0.96   0.95   1.01   1.01  
Main source of household income (ref. = wage/salaries)
Government payment 1.16   1.89   2.73 * 0.72   0.19 *** 0.79   1.20  
Other 1.11   1.06   1.50   0.50 * 0.49 * 1.40   0.95  
Family background
Lived with sole parent at age 14 0.93   1.40   1.05   1.25   1.77 *** 1.34   1.14  
Equivalised household income (ref. = low)
Medium 1.03   0.62   0.98   0.67   0.97   0.64   0.95  
High 0.85   0.61   1.10   0.52 * 0.90   0.58 * 1.29  
Age of youngest child in household (ref. = none)
0–4 0.65 * 0.53   0.93       1.21   1.31   0.88  
5–11 0.79   1.30   1.17       0.61   0.64   0.67 *
12–17 0.68 * 1.80   0.83       0.86   0.59   0.55 ***
18+ 0.53   0.49   0.61       0.48   2.13   0.87  
Relationship status (ref. = married)
Cohabiting 0.93   4.07 *** 1.67   1.04   1.76 ** 1.40   1.14  
Single 0.97   3.16 ** 1.84   1.36   1.71 * 2.00 ** 1.22  
Housing tenure (Owning/purchasing)
Rent                         3.98 ***
Public                         1.52  
Other                         2.66 ***
Constant 0.08 *** 0.01 *** 0.00 *** 0.03 *** 0.05 *** 0.03 *** 0.17 ***
No. of respondents 5,155 5,142 5,156 3,570 4,367 5,144 5,146

Note: Life events experienced in the last 12 months were reported in Wave 10 (2010) and characteristics were based on information in Wave 9. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001. Categories in brackets are reference categories. SEIFA index refers to SEIFA advantage/disadvantage index in deciles, with higher deciles indicating greater advantage. Equivalised annual gross household income: low = $34,000 or less, medium = $34,001–57,999, high = $58,000 or more. Personal annual gross income: low = $20,000 or less, medium = $20,001–49,999, high = $50,000 or more.

Source: HILDA 2009 & 2010

Table B2a: Odds ratios of logistic regression of life event and socio-demographic characteristics, women (part 1)
  Formed a live-in relation-ship (single < 65) Separated from spouse or long-term partner (partnered < 65) Pregnancy or birth/adoption of new child (women< 45) Serious personal injury/illness Serious injury/illness to family member Death of spouse or child Death of close relative/family member
Age (ref. = 25–34)
< 25 1.27   1.37   0.65 * 0.80   1.03   0.33   0.70 *
35–44 0.41 ** 0.84   0.26 *** 1.08   1.55 ** 1.38   0.94  
45–54 0.15 *** 0.72       1.65 * 1.78 *** 0.94   1.07  
55–64 0.18 *** 0.10 **     1.70 * 1.71 *** 1.14   0.90  
65–74             1.32   1.29   1.76   0.52 **
75+             1.86 * 1.24   3.40   0.81  
Education (ref. = degree +)
Other qualification 0.94   0.79   0.99   0.98   0.84   1.00   1.25  
None 0.87   1.37   0.92   0.89   0.89   1.13   1.06  
Employment (ref. = full-time)
Part-time 0.64   0.60   1.02   0.96   1.08   2.16   1.24  
Not employed 0.54 * 1.28   1.28   1.30   1.15   5.34 * 1.02  
Country of birth (ref. = Australia)
English-speaking 1.35   1.87   0.95   0.94   0.90   0.50   0.71 *
Non–English speaking 1.25   0.67   1.09   0.81   0.68 ** 1.46   1.11  
Region (ref. = major city)
Inner region 1.33   0.67   0.87   0.79   1.01   1.33   1.21  
Outer/remote region 1.11   0.62   1.25   1.06   1.16   1.33   1.14  
Advantage/disadvantage
SEIFA index 0.94   0.88 ** 1.01   0.99   1.01   1.03   1.00  
Main source of household income (ref. = wage/salaries)
Government payment 1.15   1.04   1.72 * 1.49 * 1.09   2.02   1.28  
Other 0.94   1.16   0.84   1.03   1.06   1.77   0.91  
Family background
Lived with sole parent at age 14 0.78   2.00 ** 1.15   1.20   1.12   1.25   1.03  
Equivalised household income (ref. = low)
Medium     0.85   0.86   1.19   1.00   0.66   1.00  
High     0.44 * 0.87   0.84   0.88   0.60   1.00  
Age of youngest child household (ref. = none)
0–4 1.11   0.95       0.90   0.79   1.13   0.82  
5–11 0.50 * 1.92       0.88   0.88   0.59   1.04  
12–17 0.48 ** 0.50       0.75   0.91   1.61   0.96  
18+ 0.54   0.68       0.98   0.88   1.00   1.22  
Step-children
Having step-children in household     0.90   1.04                  
Relationship status (ref. = married)
Cohabiting     2.92 *** 0.63 ** 1.01   0.94   1.99   0.92  
Single         0.11 *** 1.36 ** 0.77 ** 1.00   0.83  
Personal income (ref. = low)
Medium 1.46                          
High 2.51 **                        
Number of children ever had (ref. = none)
One         2.15 **                
Two         0.66 **                
Three or more         0.37 ***                
Constant 0.25 ** 0.06 *** 0.51 * 0.06 *** 0.17 *** 0.00 *** 0.13 ***
No. of respondents 2,018 3,099 2,951 5,817 5,803 5,612 5,815

Note: Life events experienced in the last 12 months were reported in Wave 10 (2010) and characteristics were based on information in Wave 9. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001. Categories in brackets are reference categories. SEIFA index refers to SEIFA advantage/disadvantage index in deciles, with higher deciles indicating greater advantage. Equivalised annual gross household income: low = $34,000 or less, medium = $34,001–57,999, high = $58,000 or more. Personal annual gross income: low = $20,000 or less, medium = $20,001–49,999, high = $50,000 or more.

Source: HILDA 2009 & 2010

Table B2b: Odds ratios of logistic regression of life events and socio-demographic characteristics, women (part 2)
  Death of a close friend Victim of physical violence Self or a family member detained in jail Retired from the workforce (45+) Fired or made redundant (< 65) Major worsening in finances Changed residence
Age (ref. = 25–34)
< 25 2.21 *** 0.60   0.83       2.22 * 0.60   1.29 *
35–44 1.94 ** 0.77   0.83       1.12   1.48   0.62 ***
45–54 2.95 *** 0.62   1.04       1.30   2.07 * 0.42 ***
55–64 3.99 *** 0.25 * 0.40   2.64 *** 0.57   1.97 * 0.34 ***
65–74 6.15 *** 0.16 ** 0.17 ** 2.51 **     0.69   0.21 ***
75+ 8.38 *** 0.05 ** 0.05 ** 2.71 **     0.39   0.12 ***
Education (ref. = degree +)
Other qualification 1.27   2.56 * 1.41   0.86   2.38 ** 0.87   0.89  
None 1.15   2.72 * 1.76   0.94   2.00 * 0.63 * 0.88  
Employment (ref. = full-time)
Part-time 0.88   1.06   0.59   3.55 *** 0.83   1.28   0.93  
Not employed 0.85   1.12   1.24   2.18 * 0.43 ** 1.86 ** 1.02  
Country of birth (ref. = Australia)
English-speaking 0.75 * 1.51   1.60   1.54   1.97 * 1.45   1.19  
Non–English speaking 1.01   0.70   0.52   1.53   1.35   1.08   0.78  
Region (ref. = major city)
Inner region 1.18   0.93   1.49   1.50   0.89   1.07   1.09  
Outer/remote region 1.38 * 0.63   1.13   1.52   0.54   1.19   1.40 **
Advantage/disadvantage
SEIFA index 0.99   0.93   0.94   0.95   0.94   0.98   1.01  
Main source of household income (ref. = wages/salaries)
Government payment 1.48 * 1.78   1.66   0.55   0.72   0.73   1.09  
Other 1.49 ** 1.38   1.25   0.75   1.17   0.91   1.18  
Family background
Lived with sole parent at age 14 0.95   1.68 * 1.25   1.16   1.21   1.49 * 1.05  
Equivalised household income (ref. = low)
Medium 0.95   1.06   0.55   1.33   0.61 * 0.72   0.98  
High 1.10   0.67   0.80   1.04   0.47 ** 0.48 ** 1.06  
Age of youngest child (ref. = none)
0–4 1.32   0.48   0.85   1.43   0.60   0.75   0.99  
5–11 1.01   1.04   0.65   1.16   0.40 * 1.42   0.80  
12–17 1.11   0.57   0.62       0.70   1.17   0.51 ***
18+ 0.64   1.46   1.55       1.28   3.23 *** 0.80  
Relationship status (ref. = married)
Cohabiting 1.25   3.96 *** 1.55       1.08   1.75 * 1.14  
Single 1.01   3.17 ** 1.09       1.49   1.56 * 1.40 **
Housing tenure (ref. = owning/purchasing)
Rent                         4.00 ***
Public                         1.26  
Other                         2.99 ***
Constant 0.03 *** 0.01 *** 0.02 *** 0.01 *** 0.03 *** 0.02 *** 0.16 ***
No. of respondents 5,820 5,814 5,823 3,389 4,876 5,816 5,817

Note: Life events experienced in the last 12 months were reported in Wave 10 (2010) and characteristics were based on information in Wave 9. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001. Categories in brackets are reference categories. SEIFA index refers to SEIFA advantage/disadvantage index in deciles, with higher deciles indicating greater advantage. Equivalised annual gross household income: low = $34,000 or less, medium = $34,001–57,999, high = $58,000 or more. Personal annual gross income: low = $20,000 or less, medium = $20,001–49,999, high = $50,000 or more.

Source: HILDA 2009 & 2010