The role of emerging communication technologies in experiences of sexual violence

A new legal frontier?
Research Report No. 23 – February 2013

References

  • Albury, K., Crawford. K., & Byron, P. (2012). Submission to the Law Reform Committee, Parliament of Victoria in response to its Inquiry into Sexting. Melbourne: Parliament of Victoria.
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). 2005 Personal Safety Survey Australia. Canberra: ABS.
  • Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2007). Media and communications in Australian families: Report of the Media and Society Research Project. Canberra: ACMA.
  • Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2009). Click and connect: Young Australians' use of online social media (Quantitative Research Report). Canberra: ACMA.
  • Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2011). Teens: How do I deal with … sexting. (Cyber[smart:] website). Canberra: ACMA. Retrieved from <www.cybersmart.gov.au/teens/how do I deal with/sexting.aspx>.
  • Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2012). Schools: Cyber issues. Sexting. (Cyber[smart:] website). Canberra: ACMA. Retrieved from <www.cybersmart.gov.au/Home/Schools/Cyber%20issues/Sexting.aspx>.
  • Bassett, E. H., & O'Riordan, K. (2002). Ethics of Internet research: Contesting the human subjects research model. Ethics and Information Technology, 4(3), 233-247.
  • Beaulieu, A., & Estalella, A. (2011). Rethinking research ethics for mediated settings. Information, Communication & Society, 15(1), 23-42. doi: 10.1080/1369118x.2010.535838
  • Berg, B. (1995). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (2nd Ed.). London: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Boyd, C. (2011). The impacts of sexual assault on women (ACSSA Resource Sheet). Melbourne: Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault, Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  • Boyd, D. (2007). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning, 119-142. doi: 10.1162/dmal.9780262524834.119
  • Bradford, J. (2006). On sexual violence. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, 527-532.
  • Bryman, A. (2004). Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Campbell, R., Sefl, T., Wasco, S. M., & Ahrens, C. E. (2004). Doing community research without a community: Creating safe space for rape survivors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3), 253-261. doi: 10.1023/b:ajcp.0000027010.74708.38
  • Campbell, R., Wasco, S. M., Ahrens, C. E., Sefl, T., & Barnes, H. E. (2001). Preventing the "second rape": Rape survivors' experiences with community service providers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(12), 1239.
  • Carmody, M., (2009). Sex and ethics: Young people and ethical sex. Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Choo, K. -K. R. (2009). Online child grooming: A literature review on the misuse of social networking sites for grooming children for sexual offences (AIC Reports: Research and Public Policy Series, No. 103). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
  • Clark, H., & Quadara, A. (2010). Insights to sexual assault perpetration: Giving voice to victim/survivors' knowledge (Research Report No. 18). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  • Connolly, C. (2009). Social networking sites. Hot Topics: Legal Issues in Plain Language, 70, 10-12.
  • Convery, I., & Cox, D. (2012). A review of research ethics in Internet-based research. Practitioner Research in Higher Education, 6(1), 50-57.
  • Couts, R., & Selby, H. (2009). Safe and unsafe use of mobile phone evidence. Paper presented at Public Defenders Criminal Law Conference. Retrieved from <www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/pdo/ll_pdo.nsf/pages/PDO_safeunsafeusemobilephoneevidence>.
  • Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Crimes Against Children Research Centre. (2007). Second Youth Internet Safety Survey (YISS-2). New Hampshire: University of New Hampshire.
  • Eynon, R., Schroeder, R., & Fry, J. (2009). New techniques in online research: Challenges for research ethics. Twenty-First Century Society, 4(2), 187-199. doi: 10.1080/17450140903000308
  • European Network and Information Security Agency. (2011). Cyber-bullying and online grooming: Helping to protect kids against the risks. Heraklion, Greece: ENISA.
  • Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., & Wolak, J. (2000). Online victimization: A report on the nation's youth. Alexandria, VA: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.
  • Flood, M. (2007). Exposure to pornography among youth in Australia. Journal of Sociology, 43(1), 45-60. doi: 10.1177/1440783307073934
  • Flood, M. (forthcoming). 'Young men using pornography', cited in Crabbe, M., and Corlett, D., Eroticising inequality, (2010), Issue 3, DVRCV Quarterly.
  • Flood, M., & Hamilton, C. (2003). Young people and pornography in Australia: Evidence on the extent of exposure and likely effects (Discussion Paper 52). Bruce, ACT: The Australia Institute.
  • Forde, P., & Patterson, A. (1998). Paedophile Internet activity (Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No 97). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
  • Gillespe, A. (2008). Child exploitation and communication technologies. Dorset, UK: Russell House Publishing.
  • Hanson, R., Kievit, L., Saunders, B., Smith, D., Kilpatrick, D., & Resnick, H. (2003). Correlates of adolescent reports of sexual assault: Findings from the national survey of adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 8(4), 261-272.
  • Harvey, A., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Butchart, A. (2007). Primary prevention of intimate partner violence and sexual violence: Background paper for WHO expert meeting May 2-3, 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Violence and Injury Prevention and Disability.
  • Hinchcliffe, V., & Gavin, H. (2009). Social and virtual networks: Evaluating synchronous online interviewing using instant messenger. The Qualitative Report, 14(2), 318-340.
  • Hird, M. (2000). An empirical study of adolescent dating aggression in the UK. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 69-78.
  • Hird, M., & Jackson, S. (2001). Where "angels" and "wussess" fear to tread: Sexual coercion in adolescent dating relationships. Journal of Sociology, 37(1), 27-43.
  • Holzer, P., & Bromfield, L. (2007). Australian legal definitions: When is a child in need of protection? (Resource Sheet No. 12). Melbourne: National Child Protection Clearing House, Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  • Jackson, S., Cram, F., & Seymour, F. (2000). Violence and sexual coercion in high school students' dating relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 15(1), 23-36.
  • Joint Select Committee on Cyber-Safety. (2011, July). High-wire act: Cyber-safety and the young. Interim report. Canberra: Parliament of Australia.
  • Jones, L. M., Mitchell, K., & Fiinkelhor, D. (2012). Trends in youth Internet victimization: Findings from three youth Internet safety surveys 2000-2010. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 179-186.
  • Karpf, D. (2012). Social science research methods in Internet time. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 639-661. doi: 10.1080/1369118x.2012.665468
  • Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(3), 241-251. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005
  • Lenhart, A, Purcell, K, Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media and mobile Internet use among teens and young adults. Washington, DC: Pew Research Centre.
  • Liamputtong, P., & Ezzy, D. (2005). Qualitative research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Livingstone, S., & Bober, M. (2005). UK children go online: Final report of key project findings. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Livingstone, S., & Brake, D. R. (2010). On the rapid rise of social networking sites: New findings and policy implications. Children & Society, 24(1), 75-83.
  • Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the Internet: The perspective of European children. Full findings and policy implications from the EU Kids Online survey of 9-16 year olds and their parents in 25 countries. London: London School of Economics and Political Science, EU Kids Online.
  • Loader, B. D., & Dutton, W. H. (2012). A decade in Internet time. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 609-615. doi: 10.1080/1369118x.2012.677053
  • Lordan, T., Fiinkelhor, D., Ybarra, M., Lenhart, A., & Boyd, D. (2007). Just the facts about online youth victimization: Researchers present the facts and debunk myths [Transcript]. Washington, DC: Advisory Committee to the Congressional Internet Caucus. Retrieved from <www.netcaucus.org/events/2007/youth/transcript.shtml>.
  • Mallan, K. (2009). Look at me! Look at me! Self-representation and self exposure through online networks. Digital Culture and Education, 1(1), 51-66.
  • Martin, P. Y., & Powell, R. M. (1994). Accounting for the "second assault": Legal organizations' framing of rape victims. Law & Social Inquiry, 19(4), 853-890. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.1994.tb00942.x
  • McGrath, D. & Casey, J. (2002). Forensic psychiatry and the Internet. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 30(1), 82-94.
  • Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L. M., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129(1), 13-20.
  • Morahan-Martin, J. (2000). Women and the Internet: Promise and perils. CyberPsychology & Behaviour, 3(5), 683-691.
  • Morrow, V., & Richards, M. (1996). The ethics of social research with children: An overview. Children & Society, 10(2), 90-105. doi: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.1996.tb00461.x
  • Mouzos, J., & Makkai, T. (2004). Women's experiences of male violence: Findings from the Australian component of the International Violence Against Women Survey (IVAWS) (Research and Public Policy Series No. 56). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
  • National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (2008). Sex and tech: Results from a survey of teens and young adults. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and CosmoGirl.com.
  • National Children's and Youth Law Centre. (2012). Inquiry Into Sexting: Submission to the Law Reform Committee Parliament of Victoria. Melbourne: Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved from <www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/article/946>.
  • National Crime Prevention. (2001). Young people and domestic violence: National research on young people's attitudes and experiences of domestic violence (Fact sheet). Canberra: Attorney-General's Department.
  • National Health and Medical Research Council. (2007). National statement on ethical conduct in research involving humans (PDF 652 KB). Canberra: AusInfo. Retrieved from <www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/e35.pdf>.
  • NSW Department of Community Services. (2008). DoCS research ethics guidance: For conducting research involving services, clients or information about clients of the NSW Department of Community Services. Ashfield, NSW: NSW DoCS. Retrieved from <www.community.nsw.gov.au/DOCSWR/_assets/main/documents/RESEARCH_ETHICS.PDF>.
  • Nutley, S., Walter, I., & Davies, H. T. O. (2003). From knowing to doing. Evaluation, 9(2), 125-148. doi: 10.1177/1356389003009002002
  • Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. (2012). Your privacy rights FAQs: Social networking. Canberra: OAIC. Retrieved from <www.privacy.gov.au/faq/individuals#social_networking>.
  • Powell, A. (2010). "Safe sext"?: Young people, technology and sexual violence. DVRCV Quarterly, Winter, 1-5.
  • Presser, L. (2005) Negotiating power and narrative in research: Implications for feminist methodology. Signs, 30(4), 2068-2090.
  • Price-Robertson, R. Bromfield, L., & Vassallo, S. (2010). Prevalence matters: Estimating the extent of child maltreatment in Australia. Developing Practice: The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal, 26, 12-20.
  • Quadara, A. (2008). Responding to young people disclosing sexual assault: A resource for schools (ACSSA Wrap No. 6). Melbourne: Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault.
  • Rennie, R. (2006, 25 October). Coonan warns of Internet's underbelly. The Age. Retrieved from <www.theage.com.au/news/national/coonan-warns-of-internets-underbelly/2006/10/25/
  • 1161749173525.html>.
  • Roberts, L. (2008). Cyber-victimisation in Australia: Extent, impact on individuals and responses (Briefing Paper No. 6). Hobart: Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement Studies.
  • Sanci, L. A., Sawyer, S. M., Weller, P. J., Bond, L. M., & Patton, G. C. (2004). Youth health research ethics: Time for a mature-minor clause? Medical journal of Australia, 180(7), 336-338.
  • Sharples, S. (2009). The footprints of social networking. Lawyers Weekly, 4 June. Retrieved from <www.lawyersweekly.com.au/features/the-footprints-of-social-networking>.
  • Shepherd, N. (2003). Interviewing online: Qualitative research in the network(ed) society. Paper presented at the Qualitative Research: Creating Spaces for Understanding, Association of Qualitative Research Conference, Sydney, Australia. Retrieved from <espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:10232>.
  • Smallbone, S., & Wortley, R. (2001). Child sexual abuse: Offender characteristics and modus operandi (Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 193). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
  • South Eastern Centre Against Sexual Assault. (2012). Written submission to the Victorian Parliament Law Reform Committee Inquiry Into Sexting. Canberra: Parliament of Victoira. Retrieved from <www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/article/946>.
  • Taraszow, T., Aristodemou, E., Shitta, G., Laouris, Y., & Arsoy, A. (2010). Disclosure of personal and contact information by young people in social networking sites: An analysis using Facebook profiles as an example. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 6(1), 81-101. doi: 10.1386/macp.6.1.81/1
  • Ullman, S. E. (1996). Social reactions. coping strategies, and self-blae attributions in adjustment to sexual assault. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 505-526.
  • Urbas, G., & Choo, K.-K. R. (2008). Resource materials on technology-enabled crime (Technical and Background Paper). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
  • Victoria Police. (2012). Inquiry Into Sexting: Submission. Melbourne: Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved from <www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/article/946>.
  • Victorian Parliament Law Reform Committee. (2011). Terms of reference: Inquiry Into Sexting. Melbourne: Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved from <www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/inquiries/article/947>.
  • Vynckier, G. (2012). Mid-adolescent victims: (Un)willing for help? International Review of Victimology, 18(2), 109-132. doi: 10.1177/0269758011432966
  • Webber, R. & Wilmot, J. (2012) Social media and help seeking by young people on sexual assault (Somazone Report). Melbourne: Australian Catholic University.
  • World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health: Summary. Geneva: WHO.
  • Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., & Ybarra, M. (2008). Online "predators" and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment. American Psychologist, 63(2), 111-128.
  • Women's Health Grampians. (2012). Written submission to provide comment on the Victorian Parliament Law Reform Committee: Inquiry Into Sexting. Melbourne: Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved from <www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/article/946>.
  • Women's Health West. (2012). Submision: Victorian Parliament Law Reform Committee: Inquiry Into Sexting. Melbourne: Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved from <www.parliament.vic.gov.au/lawreform/article/946>.
  • Wyn, J., Cuervo, H., Woodman, D., & Stokes, H. (2005). Young people, wellbeing and communication technologies. Melbourne: VicHealth.
  • Ybarra, M., & Mitchell, K. (2008). How risky are social networking sites? A comparison of places online where youth sexual solicitation and harassment occurs. Pediatrics, 121(2), 250-257.
  • Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Wolak, J., & Finkelhor, D. (2006). Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics, 118(4), e1169-e1177.
  • Yin, R. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  • Youthlaw. (2010). Cyberbullying: Fact sheet. Melbourne: Youthlaw, Young People's Legal Rights Centre Inc.
  • Zaidah, Z. (2007). Case study as a research method. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 9, 1-6.
  • Zwart, M., Lindsay, D., Henderson, M., & Phillips, M. (2011). Teenagers, legal risks and social networking. Melbourne: Monash University.