What price independence? A report of a study on young people's incomes and living costs

What price independence? A report of a study on young people's incomes and living costs

Robyn Hartley

Archived publication— December 1989
What price independence? A report of a study on young people's incomes and living costs

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A two-volume report on a study of young people's incomes and living costs: the main report provides the full research findings and conclusions and details suggestions for short- and long-term strategies; a summary report outlines the main issues and suggests areas where governments and the community will need to consider longer term strategies, given the fundamentally changed circumstances which young people now face. The study was commissioned by the Youth Affairs Council of Victoria for the Federal Government's National Youth Affairs Research Scheme, and was carried out by the Australian Institute of Family Studies. It found that living expenses for young people are not lower than those for adults, and that there is enormous variation in the amount of financial support which parents across a range of socioeconomic groups are able and/or willing to give their children. The effects of income and living costs on the further education and training opportunities of the young people in the study are discussed, and also some of the consequences of low income and lack of parental support for living standards and future opportunities.

Contents

  • 1: DEPENDENCE AND INDEPENDENCE
    • Recent Changes Impinging on Young People and Families       
      • The labour  market      
      • Increasing education  retention  rates   
      • Changes in family formation and functioning    
      • Changing  patterns  of leaving home    
      • Increasing emphasis on personal  autonomy      
      • Moves away from community  and interdependence      
    • Young People's Access to Income    
  • 2: THEY OUTH  INCOMES  AND LIVINGCOSTS PROJECT     
    • The Present Study        
      • Selection of the 16-19 year-olds    
      • Payment of interviewees  
      • Parent interviews      
      • Characteristics of the group       
      • The interviews     
      • The diaries    
      • Parental  support      
    • Organisation of the Report       
  • 3: STUDENTS LIVING WITH THEIR PARENTS    
    • The Group        
    • Seven Young People        
    • Income      
    • Austudy        
    • Expenditure      
      • Board and general household  costs     
      • Recreation       
      • Food      
      • Transport    
    • Parental  Support 
    • Summary      
  • 4: UNEMPLOYED YOUNG  PEOPLE LIVING WITH THEIR PARENTS       
    • The Group      
    • Five Young People   
    • Income      
    • Expenditure      
      • Housing costs (board)        
      • Food     
      • Recreation        
    • Training         
    • Summary        
  • 5: EMPLOYED YOUNG  PEOPLE LIVING WITH THEIR PARENTS        
    • The Group   
    • Six Young People   
    • Income       
    • Expenditure       
      • Board        
      • Transport      
      • Recreation      
      • Clothing        
    • Summary      
  • 6: STUDENTS  LIVING AWAY FROM THEIR PARENTS         
    • The Group       
    • Five Young People        
    • Income         
    • Expenditure        
      • Housing  (board  and rent)         
      • Food        
      • Transport      
    • Employment         
    • Summary       
  • 7: UNEMPLOYED YOUNG PEOPLE LIVING AWAY FROM THEIR PARENTS    
    • The Group      
    • Twelve Young People      
    • Living Situations        
    • Income      
    • Expenditure         
      • Housing      
      • Repaid  borrowings       
      • Individual  diaries        
    • Parental Support       
    • Attitudes  to Lack of Parental  Support          
    • Employment       
    • Unemployment    
    • Coping on a Low Income         
      • Going without         
      • Illegal activities         
    • Summary         
  • 8: EMPLOYED YOUNG  PEOPLE LIVING AWAY FROM THEIR PARENTS       
    • The Group        
    • Six Young People         
    • Income       
      • Part-time  work        
      • Gender       
    • Expenditure        
      • Housing  costs       
      • Food      
      • Transport      
      • Recreation       
    • Summary      
  • 9: INCOME AND EXPENDITURE ACROSS ALL GROUPS    
    • Income        
      • Incomes above and below the poverty line         
      • Income in relation  to expenditure     
    • Expenditure     
      • Living with parents and living away from parents         
      • Highest categories  of expenditure for the six groups         
      • Rent as a percentage  of income       
      • Board        
      • Board as a percentage  of income         
      • Motor  vehicles        
    • Summary         
  • 10: SOURCES OF INCOME  FOR 16-19 YEAR-OLDS: INCOME SUPPORT AND WAGES   
    • Income Support  for Students  and Unemployed  16-19 Year-olds       
    • Austudy       
      • Austudy as an incentive to study       
      • Adequacy of Austudy     
      • The administration of Austudy     
    • Job Search Allowance and Intermediate Rate of Unemployment Benefit        
      • Inadequacy  of the allowances       
      • Waiting  periods     
      • Problems with the administration of allowances     
    • Young Homeless Allowance        
    • Wages        
    • Summary         
  • 11: GROUPS WITH SPECIFIC NEEDS       
    • Young People From the Country         
    • Young Pregnant  Women          
    • State Wards    
  • 12: CRITERIA FOR INDEPENDENCE   
    • Existing Criteria  for Independence         
      • Age        
      • Attachment to the labour  market         
      • Not living with and not being supported by parents       
      • Other  criteria          
    • Issues Concerning Dependence  and Independence        
      • Increased costs for families     
      • Additional  costs in moving out       
      • Attitudes  towards  dependency  and independence          
    • Summary         
  • 13:  PARENTAL SUPPORT         
    • Dimensions of Parental  Support        
      • Help with on-going  living expenses        
      • Board        
      • Financial support  in the past        
      • Emotional  support.     
      • Help in setting  up        
      • Motor  vehicles        
      • Expectations of support in the future        
    • Summary         
  • 14: FURTHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING    
    • Training on the Job      
    • Traineeships      
    • Summary        
  • 15: EFFECTS OF LOW INCOME  AND LACK OF SUPPORT
    • Standards of Living         
      • Living on income support  payments  away from parents
      • Living with a sole-parent pensioner          
      •  Living away from parents  and earning  low wages
    • Educational  Opportunities    
      • Leaving home and leaving school
      • Further education  and training
    • Employment  Opportunities       
    •  The Effects of Unemployment     
    • Summary       
  •  16: CONCLUSIONS,  SHORT AND LONG TERM STRATEGIES         
    • The Need for a New Perspective        
    • Short-term  Issues and Strategies       
      • Job Search Allowance and Unemployment Benefit          
      • Austudy        
      • Young Homeless Allowance         
      • The role of educational institutions       
      • Accommodation      
    • Long-term Strategies         
      • Labour  market  policies      
      • Educational  alternatives      
      • Youth wages       
      • Support  for families       
      • Consultation, research and monitoring       
    • Conclusion          
  • LIST OF REFERENCES           
  • APPENDICES   

Publication details

Archived publication
Published by the Australian Institute of Family Studies, December 1989.
162 pp.
ISBN: 
1-875261-01- X

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