AIFS Style Guide
This style guide outlines the writing and editorial style we use for all our content.
Read this guide in conjunction with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (6th edition), the Australian Government's online Style Manual and, for publications relating to legal issues, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd edition).
In general, we use APA style for our references, but follow Australian Government style and use Australian spellings. For spelling guidance use the spelling list in the appendices and the Macquarie Dictionary, available online through our library resources.
Consult this guide first for points where our style differs from the other guides.
We aim to make our family research and information available to a broad cross-section of readers who are interested in our work.
The intended audience for AIFS publications includes federal, state and local government policy makers; university staff and students; members of the legal profession; practitioners in family-related organisations; school teachers and students; media personnel; and individuals interested in keeping up to date with research and debate concerning families in Australia.
The specific audience for each piece of content or publication will vary. Assess your audience and their needs before you start to write.
AIFS tone of voice
This explains how our communication should sound and how it should make our readers feel. It communicates our identity and values through the written language we use; in other words, it is the 'personality' of our brand in written word.
Our tone of voice should be used in all textual communications, in any setting and in any medium.
Why tone of voice matters
Our tone of voice is as important a part of our identity as our logo.
It provides a consistent character across all our communications. Just as we have a consistent look and feel in design across stationery, signage, advertising and our online presence, our written media should also feel like it is coming from the same source.
A consistent tone of voice helps our audiences to recognise our organisation and be reassured about what they can expect from us.
Defining our tone of voice
Direct and inclusive
We are direct, calm and understated. We are approachable experts - we present complex ideas and evidence in a way that's easy to use and understand.
Write in an approachable manner and be direct, clear and informative. Avoid fancy words and jargon. Be fearless and limit the use of tentative words such as possibly, hopefully or maybe, and use contractions (e.g. we're, we'll, you'll, don't) carefully to be more conversational.
Our communication must be inclusive and accessible. Our tone is approachable, direct and credible - we sound like people, not bureaucrats. Where possible, we use real stories and examples to help people understand the evidence and engage with our work.
We don't just talk about research results, we try to interpret what they mean in a real-world context. Keep communcations short and punchy with active language and sentence structures, so people quickly get what we mean. This helps our communication to be energised and authoritative.
|Our tone: what it is||Our tone: what it isn't|
|Real world||Ivory tower|
Where possible, use the active voice (subject-verb-object). Active voice gets straight to the point and gives the reader a clear sense that we are taking ownership of our actions.
- Use first and second person (we, us) instead of third person (he, she, it, they).
- Avoid passive voice (object-verb-subject).
- Passive voice usually makes it difficult to know who did what to whom and sends the reader backwards.
Example of using active voice
The committee (subject) campaigned (verb) to lower diabetes (object).
We (subject) did not accept (verb) your application (object).
The lowering of diabetes was campaigned for by the committee.
It was deemed your application was unsuccessful.
You can use passive voice if you can't specify the do-er of the action.
The part-time role was approved in March.
Use of pronouns
Where possible, use first and second pronouns (I, we, us, you) to establish a connection with your audience.
Avoid third person nouns (Australian Government Department of X, the Institute) and pronouns (he, she, it, they) when addressing the audience or talking about yourself.
Examples of pronouns
Tell us if you have trouble with your account.
If the subscriber is having difficulty accessing their account, the finance team can provide further guidance.
We're pleased to be collaborating with our research partners …
The Institute is pleased to be undertaking the research in collaboration with its partners …
Use 'they' and 'them' when talking about, rather than to, 'someone' or 'something'.
Participants' wellbeing is very important to us. If the research raises any issues that cause them distress, they can ask us for support.
Plain English principles
Plain English principles align with our tone. Some points to keep in mind include:
- Use familiar, everyday words that readers will understand.
- Be precise and avoid using unnecessary words that distract from the main point.
- Vary sentence length but keep to an average of 22 words.
- Use verbs in preference to constructions based on nouns derived from verbs (e.g. 'explain' rather than 'provide an explanation'; 'apply' rather than 'make an application').
- Break up dense strings of nouns or nouns and modifiers (such as 'the outline development plan land package release conditions' would be better as 'the release conditions of the outline development plan land package').
- Use simple sentence frameworks and avoid convoluted constructions such as double negatives (e.g. 'not unlikely').
Do not use language that discriminates on the basis of race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, disability or other personal attributes. Avoid political bias.
Use gender inclusive language. The use of 'they', even for a singular person, is better than using 'he or she' when gender is unknown.
When referring to ethnic communities you should use the term most acceptable to that community.
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples
When referring to the original inhabitants of Australia using the full inclusive reference ‘Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples’ is often best practice. You can also use ‘First Nations’ (e.g. ‘First Nations peoples’). If talking about a specific Aboriginal group/community, it would be better to use their own term for identifying themselves.
The term ‘non-indigenous Australians’ can be used to refer to the rest of the Australian population when making comparisons. If referring to services, ‘mainstream’ is preferable to non-indigenous.
Sometimes research partners or participants may have their own preferred terms, which you choose to use for that specific research. This should be spelt out at the start of the research paper.
The medium matters
While our voice and personality stay constant, our tone may be adjusted according to the medium we're using.
We can be more human and conversational on social media than we can if we are writing a letter to a Minister of Parliament.
It is important to be aware of who you are writing for. What will they be using the information for? Where will they be reading it? What else is competing for their attention?
Two mediums to take note of for tone are our website and social media.
Web only content needs to be written in a way that makes it easy for the reader to scan and find the information they're searching for. Write in short sentences and paragraphs. Break up text with subheadings, and create bullet points for lists.
Some strategies for writing for web include:
- Structure the content so that information can be broken down or 'chunked' into short, logically ordered pieces.
- Provide pointers to these chunks by using plenty of short, meaningful headings that are descriptive enough to give the reader an idea of what is to follow. Vague, 'cute' or lengthy headings are not suited to onscreen reading.
- Start with the most important points. Try to answer who, what, when, where and why at the beginning, followed by the main details and then further background information. This ensures that even if the visitor only reads the first few paragraphs of the page, they will have covered the major aspects of the content.
- Keep the content trimmed down to the minimum. Readers of onscreen content tend to have little patience for reading long, detailed paragraphs. They just want 'the facts'.
- Use lists where possible to break down content as lists are much easier to read and understand.
Social media is designed to create interactions with our community of followers. On Facebook, being friendly and personable helps us to connect with people in an authentic way. On LinkedIn, we are a little more formal and professional in tone. On Twitter, being direct and brief helps get our message across in less than 280 characters.
Preparing a manuscript
A research report is a major output from a research project or program evaluation. A research report is the result of an intensive research effort and an exhaustive review process. Usually it is a deliverable to a funder, although occasionally it is funded by AIFS appropriations funds. It is often a platform for the launch of many smaller, more agile products such as snapshots.
Style and tone: lengthy; formal; clearly separated into numbered chapters; plain English where possible; conservative layout
Length: 30-100+ pages, not including refs
Platform: PDF primary, HTML secondary
Audiences: Policy makers and researchers
Sections: Executive summary, key messages, Introduction, unique content chapters/sections, conclusion, end matter
- In Home Care Evaluation Report
- Evaluation of the Small Claims Property Pilot - Priority Property Pools Under $500,000 (PPP500)
Research papers are the next level of publication beneath research reports: they occupy the middle ground between informing important actors and informing many actors. A research paper is a more concise publication than a research report as it addresses the key questions around a particular subject and describes the current state of knowledge for that subject. Currently research papers are classified as research reports on the AIFS website.
Style and tone: less formal; plain English; layout usually includes figures and infographics
Length: 10-30+ pages, not incl. refs
Platform: PDF and HTML both primary
Audiences: Policy makers, service managers, teachers and students
Sections: Overview, key messages, content, recommendations (optional), conclusion, end matter
A research snapshot is a summary of a research project - highlighting the main/most important findings.
Style and tone: shorter form; dot points; brief grabs of information; infographics and images; minimal end matter
Length: 2-10 pages, not incl. refs.
Platform: PDF and HTML both primary
Audience: Policy makers, service managers, frontline practitioners, advocacy groups, community sector workers; skimmers from primary and secondary audiences; general public
Sections: Overview, key messages (box text), project/research findings, end matter
Facts & figures
Facts & figures are analysis of ABS data (and sometimes other data sources) of one specific topic. Facts & Figures are updated reguarly with the current ABS census data. They are among the most viewed pages on our website. Ideal for events such as Families Week.
Style and tone: very visual; dot points; brief grabs of information; minimal end matter (source, rights, credits)
Platform: digital only (HTML)
Audience: skimmers from primary and secondary audiences; general public (often students and teachers)
Sections: Headings and short paras for context; dot points; tables, charts; infographics
Authorship of AIFS publications
Different categories of AIFS publications are assigned different authorship. Here is a quick overview:
Facts and figures
Snapshot/summary reports (when accompanied by a longer report - so a summary of the longer report)
Resource sheets (authorship to be CFCA AIFS)
Snapshots presenting standalone research (e.g. LSAC snapshots)
CFCA practice guides and reports
CFCA short articles (because of use of external authors)
Authorship to be agreed with commissioning agent following the guidelines above where possible.
AIFS follows the NHMRC Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research Authorship guidelines.
Where multiple authors collaborate on the development of a publication, authorship will be determined in accordance with those guidelines and the relative contribution of each author. Authorship order will be agreed prior to commencement of the work. However, this may be amended if author contributions change.
Formatting your manuscript
The AIFS Report Template has all the styles already built in for you. The AIFS report template can be found in Word under 'AIFS' templates in the 'Publishing' folder. Always use a new template when you start writing your manuscript. Keep manual text formatting to a minimum.
Parts of the manuscript
Headings create a logical structure in the document. They break up text and help readers to scan the document, providing clues to what is being discussed.
Keep headings short. Headings are designed to be signposts to the content, not summaries.
Keep headings consistent. If one heading is a statement, for example, and the rest are questions, make all headings questions.
Lists break up text and make the items more readable. Use bulleted over numbered lists.
Place the items in a logical order. For example:
this list of household items:
is better ordered with items grouped by type:
If there is no obvious logical order, as shown above, then the list should be presented alphabetically.
Each item in the list should use the same grammatical and logical structure. For example:
All practitioners should:
All practitioners should:
Punctuation in lists:
- If the list item is a full sentence, it should start with a capital letter and end with a full stop (see numbered list example).
- If the list item is a fragment of a sentence or a term, then it should have a lowercase letter to start and no punctuation at the end.
- With the second to last and last items on the list an 'and' is implied. Add 'or' on a separate line with no bullet if necessary.
- List items should be consistent - either all fragments or all full sentences.
Numbered lists should only be used to indicate a hierarchy (where items are listed in order of importance), a sequence (such as the steps in a procedure) or categories that are to be referred to by number elsewhere in the text.
If using a numbered list, use Arabic numerals with a full point (e.g. 1., 2., 3.).
If the list goes to a second level use lowercase Arabic letters (e.g. a., b., c.). For example:
1. This is the first list item.
2. This is the second list item.
a. This is a sub-item of 2.
3. This is the third list item.
Run-in numbered lists should use lowercase letters in round brackets because (a) letters are easier to read than Roman numerals; (b) Roman numerals are complicated and error prone; and (c) if Arabic numerals were used, they could be confused with other numbers used in the discussion.
Footnotes remove less significant information from the body of the text, such as details about a survey sample or methodology, or more information about a program.
We don't normally include citations to sources in footnotes, except when referring to websites that are not included in the reference list.
You should incorporate footnotes and endnotes into Word documents using Word's automated footnote function in order to ensure that they are numbered consecutively and placed in order. Do not insert them manually.
Citations and references
Whenever you need to cite sources (such as books, articles, conference papers, etc.), a list of those sources, using APA style, must be included at the end of the manuscript, under the heading 'References'. All sources cited in the text should have a matching entry in the reference list. There should be no items in the reference list that are not mentioned in the text.
Occasionally, you may wish to provide an extended list of readings that includes sources not cited in the text. They would be called 'Further reading'.
See 'Appendix A: APA referencing style cheat sheet' for more information about the APA referencing style and how it is used at AIFS. There are also extra guidelines for citing AIFS publications.
Tables and figures
Tables can present a lot of data in a compact form. Figures provide a visual representation of the data and can illustrate overall trends.
Tables and figures should always be referred to in the text.
Tables/figures present the data; but the text should interpret the data and point out important findings.
Insert tables and figures within the main text, after the paragraph in which they are first discussed. Each table and figure must have a caption and be numbered sequentially. When referring to the table or figure in the text, use the relevant table or figure number (e.g. 'in Table 2' or 'see Figure 5').
See 'Formatting and layout of text, tables and figures' for details on how to present tables and figures for publication.
Graphs will be redrawn by the AIFS Publishing Team for publication, so do not spend too much time formatting them. However, you should supply either the original raw data or a PDF.
You can supply the raw data for graphs in a number of ways:
- provided in a separate Excel file (preferred)
- embedded in a Word document using Word's Graph function (for relatively simple graphs and charts)
- included in the graph as labels (for simple graphs and charts).
If you are working with a program such as Stata or SPSS, generate suitable PDF versions of the graphs and supply these as separate files, as well as embedding them in the Word document at the required location. Likewise, if you are supplying raw data in Excel, you should generate the graph and embed it in the Word document, so that the figure can be matched correctly to its data and formatted as required (e.g. as a column or bar graph, with or without significance bars).
Illustrations will be redrawn for publication. If using Word's drawing functions, make sure the parts of the illustrations (boxes, lines, etc.) are grouped together and locked.
Photographs should be well lit and in focus, preferably showing a close-up view of the desired subject. You should provide photos as maximum quality JPGs at 300dpi at the desired size for reproduction.
The publishing process
Our general publishing process is very broadly outlined below. Note that the exact process is more detailed and varies depending on the nature of the publication.
- An AIFS project manager completes a publication proposal and engages an author (who may be an external person or an AIFS staff member).
- The project manager advises the Communications Team of the proposed publication and works with them to create a publications plan (products, actions and schedules).
- The author prepares the manuscript, and submits it to the project manager.
- AIFS staff and executive and, if relevant, the funding body, review the manuscript and (a) accept it for publication, with or without minor revisions; (b) accept it pending major revisions; or (c) reject it.
- If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the author incorporates suggested revisions, if any.
- If the manuscript is accepted pending major revisions, the author is requested to incorporate the suggested revisions and the revised manuscript is reviewed again.
- The AIFS Publishing Team edits the manuscript and directs any queries to the author or project manager. If there are any additional products (e.g. infographics or research summaries) to be created, these are created now.
- The Publishing Team lays out the manuscript and any ancillary products, and the author or project manager reviews.
- The publication goes through the final approval processes within the Institute and to external commissioning bodies (if any).
- AIFS staff brief the ministerial office and prepare media releases (if any).
- On an agreed date, the publication is released online, and in print if required.
The author (or, where the author is an external person, the author together with the relevant AIFS project manager) is responsible for:
- writing in a clear, unbiased manner, using active voice
- following AIFS style (as outlined in this guide)
- ensuring that the manuscript is complete when submitted for publication
- responding to comments and suggested revisions following review of the manuscript
- assigning copyright in the publication to the Institute when requested
- proofreading the typeset and online versions of the publication as requested
- granting approval of the final version of the typeset publication.
All external authors are requested to assign their copyright in works prepared for AIFS publications to the Commonwealth of Australia. The copyright in materials prepared by staff as part of their employment at AIFS belongs to the Commonwealth.
Assignment of copyright
To assign copyright of their work to AIFS (representing the Commonwealth of Australia) before the work is published, authors should follow the instructions on the AIFS Copyright Conditions for Authors web page: aifs.gov.au/copyright-conditions-authors
In the rare instances where assignment of copyright is not possible (e.g. if the author works at a university that retains copyright), authors may grant AIFS, in writing, a non-exclusive perpetual licence to use the work.
Creative Commons and licensing AIFS materials
AIFS makes all its materials available for use under a Creative Commons Attribution International Licence (CC BY 4.0) creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ meaning they may be copied, distributed and built upon for commercial and non-commercial purposes so long as the user attributes the Commonwealth of Australia as the copyright holder of the work. Users do not need to request permission from us to re-use its CC BY materials. The CC BY licence does not, however, necessarily apply to third-party content in our publications, such as stock photos.
Photos and other images that are reproduced in AIFS publications must be obtained and used in accordance with Australian copyright laws and principles. In general, we source images from:
- royalty-free images, usually purchased from stock photograph suppliers such as Getty Images
- public domain or Creative Commons images, such as those downloaded from the internet
- images supplied by authors, provided they grant AIFS written permission to use them for the publication.
Do not to use Creative Commons images with a licence element of 'No derivatives' (ND)'. All other licensing types can be used.
Stock photos are attributed by recording the stock source and creator (e.g. shutterstock/Sergey Novikov). Creative Commons image attributions should include the title (linked to the photo source), author (linked to their profile page, if any), source and licence type (e.g. 'Dynamic', Martin Fisch, CC BY-SA 2.0). See the Creative Commons Best Practices for Attribution guidelines for more information wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Best_practices_for_attribution
For publications, the typeset version should include copyright and licensing information on the imprint page, in the format:
Cover image: © gettyimages/brady6
Photos: Front cover © gettyimages/knape. Page 2 'Framed' tinyurl.com/je3gno2 and Rodrigo Baptista flickr.com/photos/digobaptista CC BY-SA 2.0. Page 10 © gettyimages/PeopleImages.
On the website, the title (linked to source), author (linked to profile page), source and type of licence should appear at the bottom of the relevant page, in the format:
Feature image: 'Non-conformist', Michael Pardo, CC BY 2.0.
When referring to past research, always use the past tense. For example:
Smith (2014) found that 75% of participants expressed a wish to continue with the survey.
If the findings of past research still apply more broadly, present tense can be used; for example:
The findings of Smith's (2014) study suggest that children do not …
When referring to the study that is the subject of the current paper or article, it is acceptable to use either present or past tense, depending on the context. For example:
In this study, we found that …
In Table 5, the data show that …
However, be consistent in how this is presented.
'Which' and 'that'
Use 'which' and 'that' according to whether a clause is non-restrictive or restrictive respectively. Do not be used interchangeably as this can change the meaning of the sentence. For example:
Almost half of the respondents said they spent time with their children that was beneficial to their relationship. [This means that the respondents may have also spent time with their children that was not beneficial to their relationship.]
Almost half of the respondents said they spent time with their children, which was beneficial to their relationship. [This means that the time the respondents spent with their children was generally beneficial to their relationship.]
Alice likes emeralds that are expensive. [Alice doesn't necessarily like inexpensive emeralds.]
Alice likes emeralds, which are expensive. [All emeralds are expensive and Alice likes them.]
In AIFS style you can split infinitives. For example:
To boldly go where no man (or woman) has gone before. [split infinitive]
To go boldly where no man (or woman) has gone before. [infinitive not split]
Spelling and usage
Australian spellings are used in all AIFS publications. To check the spelling refer to the Macquarie Dictionary.
A list of our preferred spellings is included in 'Appendix B: AIFS style sheet and word list'.
Names of organisations
Spell the names of organisations exactly as spelt by the organisation itself.
Examples of organisations include:
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
International Labour Organization (ILO)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
World Health Organization (WHO)
Title case is when all significant words have the first letter capitalised. Do not capitalise articles, short prepositions or conjunctions (e.g. 'a', 'the', 'to', 'as') unless they have four letters or more (e.g. 'from', 'toward', 'then') or occur at the beginning of the sentence/title. For example:
Women's Employment Transitions Around Child Bearing in Australia
An exception is:
Growing Up in Australia
In hyphenated words, the second part is in title case. For example:
Child-Friendly Workplaces in Australia
Use title case for:
- book and journal article titles when cited in the text (but not in reference lists)
- names of journals
- names of conferences
- names of programs, surveys, studies, projects, etc.
- names of organisations.
Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalised. For example:
Women's employment transitions around child bearing in Australia
Use sentence case for:
- all headings
- book titles, book article titles and journal article titles in reference lists and bibliographies.
Additional, specific examples of capitalisation are provided throughout this guide.
For names of conferences, use title case but do not italicise or use quote marks. If the conference has a named theme, this should be included at first mention, with the elements being separated by a colon. For example:
16th Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference: Putting Families at the Centre
If the reference is to the title of published conference proceedings, then treat it as a publication and italicise the title.
Programs, surveys, studies and projects
For names of programs, surveys, studies and projects, use title case with no italics or quote marks. The exceptions are Growing Up in Australia and Ten to Men, which are italicised:
Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children
Ten to Men: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health
If the word 'study', 'survey', 'program', etc. is not part of the name, that word should be in lowercase. For example:
the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) study
Formal vs informal names of inquiries
Government inquiries often have informal as well as formal names. At first mention, the full name of the inquiry should be used, followed by the informal name in brackets, if relevant:
Commission of Inquiry Into Children in State Care (Mulligan inquiry)
Use title case for the full name of the inquiry but use lowercase for 'inquiry' or 'report' in the informal name. The informal name can be then be used for all further mentions in the text.
If a report is known by its shorter title (e.g. the Bringing Them Home report), italicise the short title for all instances.
Foreign words that are not listed in the Macquarie Dictionary should be italicised for all instances; those that are listed do not need to be italicised. For example, 'per se' and 'inter alia' are not italicised.
Plurals of Latin-based words
Treat plural Latin-based words such as 'data', 'criteria', 'phenomena' as plurals. For example:
The data show … [not 'The data shows …']
The criteria include … [not 'The criteria includes …']
Hyphenation and compound words
When a compound phrase (made up of two or more words) is used adjectivally, it is usually hyphenated. For example:
When these same compound words are not used adjectivally, do not hyphenate. For example:
In evidence-based practice, practice is informed by the evidence base.
They have an appointment that is for the long term.
Do not use a hyphen when using comparative ('better', 'higher', 'more') or superlative ('best', 'highest', 'least') adverbs or adjectives, or when the first word is an adverb ending in '-ly'. For example:
least experienced staff
better known principle
partially fulfilled order
When an adjectival phrase contains four or more words or one or more prepositions; for example, 'out-of-school-hours care', it may be better to recast the phrase so that it does not require, or reduces, the need for hyphenation; for example: 'care that takes place out of school hours'.
Commas, colons and semicolons
Use commas when listing items in text, when separating clauses or when it is necessary to express a short pause in a sentence. Commas must be used with care as they can change the meaning of a sentence or cause the reader to be confused if used incorrectly. Note: We do not use the Oxford comma in lists.
Semicolons are used to express a break in a sentence that is stronger than a comma but not as strong as a full stop. They are often used to link two closely related sentences/clauses that might otherwise lose their meaning if they were separated by a full stop. For example:
In some circumstances, breadwinning may be the most important role a father plays; in other contexts this may be less important and direct care may be the most significant.
Semicolons are also often used before a clause beginning with 'for example', 'that is', 'therefore' or 'however'.
In Canada, paternity leave is unpaid; however, in Quebec, fathers are entitled to paid leave.
Colons are used to introduce a list of items, such as: first item, second item and third item.
Unspaced en rules (Alt + - (minus sign) or Alt + 0150) are used to express a relationship between two words or phrases or a range of numbers. For example:
3-4 year olds
1998-99 [see section on 'Number spans']
Spaced en rules are used to show a relationship between two parts of a sentence or to express something parenthetically. For example:
In-kind transfers require the recipient to consume the amount of the good or service that is transferred in kind - no more or less - or alternatively to not accept the transfer.
Slashes are used to express the idea of 'or'; for example, 'and/or', 'parent/guardian'. Slashes shouldn't be overused when it is just as easy to use 'or'.
Do not use slashes to express the idea of a relationship between two words or phrases.
Do not include spaces on either side of a slash.
Do not use full stops for ellipses as these can break over a line and are typographically incorrect. The keyboard shortcuts for typing ellipses is Alt + 0133.
Use spaced ellipses; that is, there should be one space before and one space after the ellipsis.
If ellipses appear at the end of a sentence, do not add an additional full stop to the end:
In-kind transfers … require the recipient to consume the amount of the good or service that is transferred in kind … This is a common practice in many countries.
Quotation marks and quotations
Always use single quotation marks ' ' for quotations that appear within the body of the text. Single quotation marks should also be used with words or phrases that are coined or invented expressions, express irony, are slang or are otherwise worthy of distinguishing. Do not use double quotation marks at all unless including a quotation within a quotation that appears within the body of the text. For example:
He said, 'Stop saying "Stop"!'
The neighbourhood was 'interesting'.
For long quotations (over about 30 words), set them apart from the text as a block quote. In these cases, do not use quotation marks around the quotation. Do include single quotation marks where necessary within a block quote.
Reference citations for block quotes always sit outside of the last punctuation mark in the quote and there is no full stop after the citation. For example:
The effects for those who were employed but not in agriculture were largely financial, with a negative and statistically significant impact upon household income and a higher likelihood of saying that the financial position of their household had become 'worse' over the last three years. (Gray & Edwards, 2008, p. 5)
Numbers, measurements and dates
Do not spell out numbers in times and percentages; for example, 5:30 pm, 50%. Otherwise, spell out numbers zero and one and use digits for numbers of 2 or over. Numbers at the start of a sentence should be spelt out, no matter what they are, or recast the sentence to avoid this. For example:
Seventy-seven per cent of female respondents stated … [could be recast as:]
Among female respondents, 77% stated …
Always use numbers for a related group of items e.g. 14 of the authors were born in Australia, 4 in NZ and 1 in the UK.
Always use numerals for age and school years and use a lowercase y for the year; for example, 'year 1'.
Numbers of four digits or more should always include a comma separating the thousands (e.g. 1,200 or 5,678,754).
When expressing a measurement (such as 1 km, 20 kg, 44 cm, 45 MB, etc.) always include a space between the number and measurement. Don't spell out the number or the measurement.
Abbreviations and acronyms for measurements should follow the International System of Units (SI) and accepted Australian practice. See the Style Manual for detailed lists of SI and non-SI units commonly used in Australia.
When expressing number spans, use numerals separated by en rules rather than spelling them out; for example, '19-21 years', rather than 'nineteen to twenty-one years' or '19 to 21 years'.
Do not use en rules when the number span is preceded by 'between' or 'from'; for example, 'between 30 and 45 minutes' or 'from 1945 to 1949'.
The second number in a number span should be truncated to the smallest number of digits that are essential for clarity; for example, '2007-08', not '2007-2008'.
Do not truncate page numbers in references and citations (as this is APA style); for example, 'pp. 446-457', not 'pp. 446-57'.
When expressing multiple year spans, use numerals separated by en rules. For example, 2016-23 indicates a period covering 2016 through to 2023.
However, note that 2016-17 could indicate a full 2-year period or could denote a financial year (a 12-month period from July to June). Make it clear to the reader which time span you are using at the beginning of your report.
Dates are expressed using Australian convention: [day] [date] [month] [year]. Shortened forms of the day and month are always restricted to three letters, with no full stop. If necessary for space reasons (e.g. in tables), years can be shortened to two digits, providing there is no chance that they can be mistaken for the wrong century. For example:
Friday 14 February 2023
Fri 14 Feb 23
14 February 2023
The following forms should be avoided:
14th of February
February 14, 2023
The exception to this is dates that refer to specific, well-known events, such as 'September 11' or '9/11'.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Acronyms are letters used to represent a phrase or name of two or more words, usually comprising the first letter of each word in phrase or name. For example, United States = US, Attorney-General's Department = AGD. Acronyms do not use full stops.
Acronyms should be spelt out the first time they are used, followed by the acronym in brackets. The full phrase and the acronym can subsequently be used interchangeably:
In a study by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) … [first use]
According to the NHMRC … [subsequent uses]
Abbreviations are shortened versions of a word or phrase. For example, number = no, Doctor = Dr, company = co, limited = ltd, for example (exempli gratia) = e.g. Abbreviations are not followed by a full stop (co, Dr, ltd), except for in the case of Latin abbreviations (etc., e.g., i.e.). In particular, note that et al. (short for et alia) only has a full stop after 'al.' because 'et' is not an abbreviation.
See 'Appendix D: Common acronyms and abbreviations' for an extended list.
States and territories
Within text, acronyms are used for the ACT, NSW, NT, SA and WA. Abbreviations are used for Qld, Tas and Vic (note no full stops are needed at the end of state abbreviations). It is not necessary to spell these out when they are first used.
Within postal addresses, always use uppercase with no full stops, as this is the preferred form recommended by Australia Post. When run on in one line, each address element should be separated from the next by a comma (except for: city/town STATE postcode). When split over several lines, there is no punctuation at the end of each line. For example:
Australian Institute of Family Studies, Level 4, 40 City Rd, Southbank VIC 3006
Australian Institute of Family Studies
Level 4, 40 City Rd
Southbank VIC 3006
Institute vs AIFS
The Australian Institute of Family Studies can be shortened to 'the Institute' or 'AIFS'. It is often preferable to use 'AIFS' to avoid confusion with other institutes, such as the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) or the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC).
Using 'the' with acronyms
When using abbreviations of organisations, precede the abbreviation with 'the' when it is read as individual letters rather than pronounced like a word; for example, DSS, AGD, OECD, AIHW, NHMRC take 'the' before them, while AIFS, LSAC, WHO, SNAICC do not.
'That is' and 'for example'
Only use the shortened forms for 'that is' (i.e.) and 'for example' (e.g.) within parentheses in the main text, and in tables, figures and other places where space is at a premium. Otherwise, spell these out.
When using 'i.e.' and 'e.g.', always use full stops after each letter.
Formatting and layout of text, tables and figures
Italics should be used sparingly and only in instances as outlined in this style guide; that is:
- for foreign words that aren't in the dictionary
- for emphasis
- for titles of books and journals..
Do not use italics for names of programs, projects, etc. See 'Programs, surveys, studies and projects'.
Avoid using bold within the main text except for headings and run-in headings (see 'Lists' below). For example:
In-kind transfers are either the transfer of ownership of a good or asset other than cash, or the provision of a service.
Cash transfers are …
Bold can also be used for emphasis where italics do not stand out enough.
Lists can be run-in in the main text or the points can be separated into bullet lists or numbered lists.
Run-in lists should be introduced by a colon and each item separated by a comma if it is a simple, short list. If the list items are lengthy or complicated, it may be easier to read if they are separated out into a bullet or numbered list.
Bullet lists are the most common lists. If the items are sentence fragments that follow on from the lead-in (introduced by a colon), no punctuation is needed at the end of each point. The last point does not need to be preceded by 'and' as this is implied. Use 'or' where necessary on a separate line. The last item ends with a full stop. The initial letter of each item is lowercase. For example, there might be:
- a sentence fragment
- followed by another sentence fragment
- finished by a third.
If each item is a complete sentence, then insert a full stop at the end of each point and use sentence case. For example:
- This is a complete sentence.
- This is another complete sentence.
- This is the last complete sentence.
Numbered lists should only be used when expressing a hierarchical list or steps in a process. It is also acceptable to use numbers if the items are referred to separately in the text (e.g. 'at question 5, participants were also asked …'). Prefer Arabic numerals over letters or roman numerals, unless required (e.g. for legal clauses).
Run-in numbered lists should use lowercase letters in round brackets because: (a) letters are easier to read than roman numerals; (b) roman numerals are complicated and error prone; and (c) if Arabic numerals were used, they could be confused with other numbers that might appear in the discussion.
Tables and figures
Table and figure captions
All table and figure captions should be numbered sequentially and include a colon followed by a single space after the table number. Do not include a full stop at the end. Figures are numbered separately from table numbers.
Caption titles should be short and descriptive of the main focus of the data. If relevant, the date(s) and comparative variable(s) should also be included. For example:
Table 5: Proportion of mothers with children attending preschool, by child gender, 2014
Alternatively, for figures, an active caption title can be used, which describes the main finding, or the main story, of the figure. When an active caption is used, a subtitle caption can also be used, providing technical details.
caption = Figure 4: The majority of Australian marriages are now performed by civil celebrants
subcaption = Percentage of Australian marriages performed by civil celebrants and by ministers of religion, 1902 to 2021
Table and figure notes
Notes, if any, follow immediately after the table. They should begin with 'Note:' (or 'Notes:' if there is more than one), followed by a single space. Each note ends with a full stop and runs on from the previous one (i.e. do not use separate lines for each note).
Notes that relate to specific parts of a table should be indicated by superscripts: a, b, c etc. Do not use asterisks as these should only be used to show probabilities (e.g. ** p < .01). There should be a space between the data and superscript notes or asterisks (e.g. 95.6 a).
All tables where percentages should add to 100.0% but do not due to rounding should include the following note:
Note: Percentages may not total exactly 100.0% due to rounding.
Table and figure source
Source(s), if any, appear below the notes, or if there are no notes, immediately after the table. They should begin with 'Source:' (or 'Sources:' if there is more than one source) followed by a single space but should not end with a full stop.
If the source is a cited reference, use APA style to cite the source. The full reference for the source should then appear in the reference list.
If the source is unpublished data, then cite the relevant survey or study and include the relevant year or wave number after a comma. Separate two or more sources with a semi-colon.
Minimal punctuation should be used in tables.
Measures (e.g. % or $) should not be included in the individual data cells of a table. Rather, the measure should be indicated in the column heading or row, as applicable.
Example table layout
|Male (%)||Female (%)|
|Before school a||31 *||70|
Notes: a This is a note. * p > .01. Percentages may not total exactly 100.0% due to rounding.
Source: HILDA, 2005; LSAC, Wave 3; Smith (2007)
Example figure layout
Figure 1: The components of annual Australian population growth, June 2013-June 2021, again with no full stop
Note: This is a note, always ending with a full stop.
Source: Source, with no full stop
Citations and references
We use the APA's referencing style in all our publications. See 'Appendix A: APA referencing style cheat sheet' for examples of the most common types of citations and references, both in the text and in the reference list. More detail is available in the APA Publication Manual.
Note that 'et al.' is not italicised and is not preceded by a comma. For example:
Hayes et al. (2000)
Exceptions to APA style
In the reference list, when the publisher is the same as the author, AIFS style is to re-use the author's name as the publisher (rather than replace it with 'Author', which is APA style). It is acceptable in this case to use an acronym or abbreviation for the publisher's name, if the publisher is commonly known by that acronym (such as ABS, AIHW and AIFS). For example:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2003 (Cat. No. 4430.0). Canberra: ABS. [not 'Canberra: Author' or 'Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics']
Productivity Commission. (2005). Economic implications of an aging society: Productivity Commission research report. Melbourne: Productivity Commission. [not 'Melbourne: Author' or 'Melbourne: PC']
For website addresses that appear in reference lists, follow AIFS style (see 'Internet addresses' following for more details).
Citing AIFS publications
To ensure that cited AIFS publications are recognised as such when they are cited in our research, we always include AIFS in the citation, using the following rules:
If AIFS is the author, the citation simply follows APA rules and appears as (Author, Year); for example (AIFS, 2020).
If the author(s) are listed as individuals then we follow the authors with square bracket [AIFS]; for example (Baxter & Qu [AIFS], 2020).
Website and email addresses cited in the text and reference lists should not end in a full stop even if at the end of a sentence. For example, if a reference listing ends with a web address there is no full stop. In text, try to rephrase the sentence to avoid ending with a web address. Website addresses (URLs) should not include the 'http://' or 'https://' at the beginning, or a '/' at the end (if the URL has one). For example:
For more information, visit the AIFS website: www.aifs.gov.au Alternatively, send an email to [email protected]
Productivity Commission. (2005). Economic implications of an aging society: Productivity Commission research report. Melbourne: Productivity Commission. Retrieved from www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/69401/ageing.pdf
When including web addresses as information and not as an embedded link (e.g. when providing retrieved from information in references), make sure the web address is spelt out in full and has not defaulted to a 'title | website' display. You can convert the new display to web address by pasting a web address as text only.
When sorting lists and references, sort items alphabetically, letter by letter, and numerically, by the whole number:
Brown, A. R. (2007) …
Brown, A. R. (2008) …
Brown, J. P. …
However, note that this rule applies per word, rather than running on all letters in the item:
Brown, J. P.
Browning, A. R.
Disregard grammatical articles ('the', 'a', 'an') that appear at the beginning of a list item:
A country life
Preparing material for the AIFS website and intranet
All material uploaded to the website must conform with government accessibility requirements. The AIFS accessibility policy is available on the AIFS website.
All AIFS publications are uploaded to the website in HTML.
For HTML format and accessibility requirements:
- Convert smart ('curly') quotes to straight quotes (' and ').
- Convert en rules (-) to hyphens (x-x).
- Adjust heading levels: H1 is the title of the publication, H2 is the chapter/section title and H3 is the first heading in the main text.
- Place figures and tables immediately after the first reference to them in the text.
- Hyperlink the first reference to each table and figure to the relevant table or figure.
- Delete cross-references to page numbers in the typeset publication and add direct links (e.g. for 'see Appendix A (on page 43)', delete '(on page 43)' and create a link from 'Appendix A' to that appendix).
- Add links from the relevant descriptive text not the URL address; for example:
For more information, visit the Kids for Life web page at: www.kidsforlife.org.uk
Note: For the AIFS Style Guide only, smart quotes and en dashes are used on the website, in order to avoid confusion when referring to these typographical practices.
Appendix A: APA referencing style cheat sheet
A recent study (Surname1, Surname2, & Surname3 [up to 5 authors], year) showed that …
Surname1, Surname2, and Surname3 [up to 5 authors] (year) showed that …
Surname1 et al.[for 6 or more authors] (year) showed that …
And for AIFS publications:
A recent study (Surname1, Surname2, & Surname3 [AIFS], year) showed that …
Surname1, Surname2, and Surname3 ( [AIFS], year) showed that …
Surname1 et al. ([AIFS], year) showed that …
Surname1 and Surname2 ( year) showed that …
Surname1 et al. [for 3 or more authors] (year) showed that …
Journal articles and chapters in an edited book
In an article titled 'Title of Article in Title Case: Subtitle (If Required) in Title Case', Smith wrote …
Books, reports, conference papers, unpublished theses
In a conference paper titled Title of Book/Report/Paper/Thesis in Title Case and Italics: Subtitle (If Required) in Title Case, Smith reported …
Reference list citations
Surname1, A. B., Surname2, A. B., & Surname3, A. B. (year). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle of article in sentence case. Journal Name in Title Case, Vol(No), page-page.
Marks, N. F., Lambert, J. D., & Choi, H. (2002). Transitions to caregiving, gender, and psychological well-being: A prospective US national study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3), 657-667.
Surname1, A. B., & Surname2, A. B. (Eds). (year). Title of book in sentence case: Subtitle of book in sentence case. Place: Publisher.
Heady, B., Warren, D., & Harding, G. (2006). Families, incomes and jobs: A statistical report of the HILDA survey. Melbourne: Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.
Haas, L., Hwang, P., & Russell, G. (Eds). (2000). Organizational change and gender equity. London: Sage.
Chapter in an edited book or report
Surname1, A. B., & Surname2, A. B. (year). Title of chapter in sentence case: Subtitle of chapter in sentence case. In A. B. Surname3, & A. B. Surname4 (Eds), Title of book using sentence case: Subtitle of book using sentence case (pp. page-page). Place: Publisher.
Bittman, M. (2004). Parenting and employment: What time use surveys show. In N. Folbre, & M. Bittman (Eds.), Family time: The social organisation of care (pp 69-89). London: Routledge.
Reports/monographs in series
These are reports that belong to a (usually) numbered series, but have individual titles.
Surname1, A. B., & Surname2, A. B. (year). Title of report using sentence case: Subtitle of report using sentence case (Report Name in Title Case No. Number). Place: Publisher.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2003 (Cat. No. 4430.0). Canberra: ABS.
Weston, R., Qu, L., Parker, R., & Alexander, M. (2004). It's not for lack of wanting kids: A report on the Fertility Decision Making Project (Research Report No 11). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Surname1, A. B., & Surname2, A. B. (year, month). Title of paper using sentence case: Subtitle of paper using sentence case. Paper presented at the name of conference, location of conference.
McDonald, P., & Kippen, R. (2000, March). The implications of below replacement fertility for labour supply and international migration, 2000-2050. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, California.
Unpublished dissertations and theses
Surname1, A. B. (year). Title of thesis using sentence case: Subtitle of thesis using sentence case. Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master's thesis, University name, University city.
Smith, J. F. (2005). A really interesting doctoral dissertation: Really, you should read this. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nowhere, Nowhere.
Works available on the Internet
For both Internet only and print/Internet references, add the URL at the end of the citation:
Retrieved from URL …
This is a changed practice from the APA; the date of retrieval is no longer required.
Productivity Commission. (2005). Economic implications of an aging society: Productivity Commission research report. Melbourne: Productivity Commission. Retrieved from www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/69401/ageing.pdf
- Sentence case is all in lowercase except for the first letter of the sentence and first letter of proper nouns. Title case uses uppercase for the first letter of all significant words (i.e. not short conjunctions, articles and prepositions), non-significant words that are 4 letters or longer (e.g. From) and both words in hyphenated compounds (e.g. Step-Parents).
- In reference lists, always spell out the names of organisations (e.g. Australian Bureau of Statistics, not ABS), except when the publisher is the same as the author, in which case it is acceptable to use the shortened form (if there is one) for the publisher (not the author). For in-text citations, spell out the name in full at first mention, with the abbreviation in parentheses following, and use the abbreviation for subsequent mentions (both in the text and for in-text citations).
Appendix B: AIFS style sheet and word list
Use Australian spellings (-ise, flavour).
Use the first instance in Macquarie Dictionary (except for proper names, which should be spelt as the organisation spells it).
See 'Word list' for specific spellings.
Use sentence case (capitalise first letter and proper names only) for:
- titles of publications and articles in reference lists.
Use title case (capitalise all significant words and words of four or more letters) for:
- titles of publications and articles cited in the text
- names of programs, projects, conferences, etc.
Use unspaced en rule between numbers.
Use spaced en rule between clauses.
Use spaced ellipses.
There is no comma before 'and' (known as the Oxford comma) unless required for clarity, except when citing lists of authors (follow APA).
Use single quote marks for both quotes and coined expressions.
Use block quotes with no quote marks when the quote is more than about 30 words.
Only use double quote marks when quoting within a quote surrounded by single quote marks.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Do not use full stops in acronyms or state abbreviations (e.g. US, UK, DSS, Vic).
Use full stops in abbreviations when it is the abbreviation of a Latin phrase (e.g. for i.e., et al.).
See also 'Appendix D: Common acronyms and abbreviations'.
Numbers, measurement and dates
Spell out numbers zero and one, except for statistical text and percentages.
Use '%' rather than 'per cent' except when spelling out at beginning of a sentence.
Add a comma in numbers of four digits or more (e.g. 3,000).
Use metric units of measurement.
The format for dates is: Wednesday 26 January 2023.
The format for time is: 7:30 am.
Italicise titles of books and journals, foreign words, and when emphasising words.
Do not use italics for names of programs, projects, conferences.
In bulleted lists:
- If each point is a sentence fragment, use no punctuation at the end of each point, except the last point.
- If each point is a full sentence, then use full stops at the end of each point.
Use numbered lists only for hierarchies, steps in a process, or items referred to in the text.
Captions appear above tables and figures.
Notes and data sources (in that order) appear immediately below both tables and figures.
For Internet addresses, remove 'http://' and have no full point at the end.
alcohol and other drugs (noun and adj.)
am & pm
among [not amongst]
child care [noun & adj.]
day care [noun & adj.]
family dispute resolution services
Family Relationship Centres
health care professional
help desk [unless it's a name]
indices [except for SEIFA Indexes]
inquiry [not enquiry]
judgement [except in legal contexts: judgment]
legal aid [generic]
life cycle, life-cycle stage
long day care centre
mid- to late 20s [number/capitalised words]
mid to late [other words]
non-English-speaking background (NESB)
per cent, percentage
pm & am
post-traumatic stress disorder
shared care time
shared care-time arrangement
states and territories
subgroup, subpopulation etc.
time use study
Wave 2, second wave, 2nd wave
while [not whilst]
World War II, WWII
Appendix C: Standard imprint page notice
All AIFS publications are available for free use, distribution and re-use under a Creative Commons Attribution International Licence (CC BY 4.0), although the material always remains the copyright of the Commonwealth of Australia, represented by the Australian Institute of Family Studies.
The following information or similar variant should appear on the imprint page of all AIFS publications:
© Commonwealth of Australia [year]
With the exception of AIFS branding, the Commonwealth Coat of Arms, content provided by third parties, and any material protected by a trademark, all textual material presented in this publication is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY 4.0). You may copy, distribute and build upon this work for commercial and non-commercial purposes; however, you must attribute the Commonwealth of Australia as the copyright holder of the work. Content that is copyrighted by a third party is subject to the licensing arrangements of the original owner.
Views expressed in this publication are those of individual authors and may not reflect those of the Australian Government or the Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Author1, A. B., & Author2, A. B. (year). Title: Subtitle (Series Title No. XX). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
ISBN 978-1-XXXXX-XXX-X (online)
ISBN 978-1-XXXXX-XXX-X (PDF)
ISSN XXXX (online) <optional>
ISSN XXXX (print) <optional>
Edited by XXX
Typeset by XXX
Printed by XXX
Cover image: © XXX
Published by the Australian Institute of Family Studies, Level 4, 40 City Road, Southbank VIC 3006 Australia. Phone: (03) 9214 7888. Website: aifs.gov.au
Appendix D: Common acronyms and abbreviations
|Shortened form||Full form|
|AASB||Australian Accounting Standards Board|
|ABS||Australian Bureau of Statistics|
|ACSPRI||Australian Consortium for Social and Political Research Incorporated|
|ACSSA||Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault|
|ADF||Australian Defence Force|
|AF&SA||Australian Family & Society Abstracts|
|AFRC||Australian Family Relationships Clearinghouse|
|AGRC||Australian Gambling Research Centre|
|AIFS||Australian Institute of Family Studies|
|AIHW||Australian Institute of Health and Welfare|
|ANAO||Australian National Audit Office|
|ANROWS||Australia's National Research Organisation for Women's Safety|
|ANU||Australian National University|
|APS||Australian Public Service|
|ATP||Australian Temperament Project|
|AWA||Australian Workplace Agreement|
|BNLA||Building a New Life in Australia|
|CAFCA||Communities and Families Clearinghouse Australia|
|CDDA||Compensation for Detriment Caused by Defective Administration|
|cf.||compare, consult (Latin: confer)|
|CFCA||Child Family Community Australia information exchange|
|COAG||Council of Australian Governments|
|CSS||Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme|
|DCB||Departmental Capital Budget|
|DET||Department of Education|
|DFAT||Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade|
|DSS||Department of Social Services|
|DVA||Department of Veterans' Affairs|
|e.g.||for example (Latin: exempli gratia)|
|et al.||and others (Latin: et alia)|
|FaHCSIA||Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (now DSS)|
|FBT||fringe benefits tax|
|FCC||Federal Circuit Court of Australia|
|FCoA||Family Court of Australia|
|FMA Act||Financial Management and Accountability Act 1997 (replaced by PGPA)|
|FMC||Federal Magistrates Court (now FCC)|
|FMO||Finance Minister's Order|
|FRS||Family Relationship Services|
|GPPS||General Population of Parents of a Child Under 18 Years Survey|
|GST||goods and services tax|
|HILDA||Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia|
|ICL||Independent Children's Lawyers|
|i.e.||that is (Latin: id est)|
|ILO||International Labour Organization|
|IPS||Information Publication Scheme|
|KPI||key performance indicator|
|LSAC||Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children|
|LSIC||Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children|
|LSSF||Family Pathways: The Longitudinal Study of Separated Families|
|MoU||memorandum of understanding|
|MP||Member of Parliament|
|NCPC||National Child Protection Clearinghouse|
|NHMRC||National Health and Medical Research Council|
|OECD||Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|
|PBS||Portfolio Budget Statements|
|PGPA||Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013|
|PM&C||Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet|
|PPP||Promising Practice Profiles|
|PSPF||Protective Security Policy Framework|
|PSS||Public Sector Superannuation Scheme|
|RAAC||Risk Assessment and Audit Committee|
|SES||Senior Executive Service|
|SFCS||Stronger Families and Communities Strategy|
|SFIA||Stronger Families in Australia|
|SPRC||Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales|
|SRSP||Survey of Recently Separated Parents|
|VVFS||Vietnam Veterans Family Study|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
|State/territory||Acronym in text||Acronym in addresses|
|Australian Capital Territory||ACT||ACT|
|New South Wales||NSW||NSW|
Appendix E: ISBNs and ISSNs
An International Standard Series Number (ISSN) (for online and/or print versions, as required) is assigned to a series (e.g. annual reports) that is carried by them for the life of the series.
The current ISSNs are:
|Serial/series||ISSN print||ISSN online||Status|
|AIFS Annual Report||0819-2588 (was 7726-9870)||2206-0936||Current|
Monographs, which each have an individual title, are each assigned an individual International Standard Book Number (ISBN). For example, Research Papers and CFCA Papers have a different ISBN for each title. The Publishing Team purchases blocks of ISBNs, assigns them to individual titles and maintains a list of assigned ISBNs.
Appendix F: Common character and symbol keyboard shortcuts
|Bullet||•||Alt + 0149|
|Cent||¢||Alt + 0162|
|Chi||χ||Alt + 967 (lower) / 935 (upper)|
|Copyright||©||Alt + 0169|
|Dagger||†||Alt + 0134|
|Degree||°||Alt + 0176|
|Double dagger||‡||Alt + 0135|
|Ellipses||…||Alt + 0133|
|En rule||-||Alt + 0150|
|Euro||€||Alt + 8364|
|Less than or equal to||≤||Alt + 243|
|Middle dot||·||Alt + 0183|
|More than or equal to||≥||Alt + 242|
|Multiplication sign||×||Alt + 0215|
|Not equal to||≠||Alt + 8800|
|Paragraph symbol||¶||Alt + 0182|
|Pound||£||Alt + 0163|
|Registered trademark||®||Alt + 0174|
|Section symbol||§||Alt + 0167|
|Sigma||∑||Alt + 228|
|Trademark||™||Alt + 0153|
|Acute||á, é, í, ó, ú||Ctrl + ' followed by the letter|
|Circumflex||â, ê, î, ô, û||Ctrl + ^ followed by the letter|
|Grave||à, è, ì, ò, ù||Ctrl + ` followed by the letter|
|Tilde||ã, ñ, õ||Ctrl + ~ followed by the letter|
|Umlaut||ä, ë, ï, ö, ü||Ctrl + : followed by the letter|
Notes: a Use the numbers on the keypad, not the numbers above the letter keys.
Appendix G: Examples of AIFS publication types
Research Report (Word template)
The AIFS research report template is available via the MS Word templates options. Please ensure you use the styles included in the template.
Cover image: © iStock/solidcolours