Parents Under Pressure (PuP)
|Name||Parents Under Pressure (PuP)|
|Target Audience||Infants (0-2 years) |
Early childhood (3-5 years)
Middle childhood (6-12 years)
At-risk or vulnerable
|CfC Objective||Healthy Young Families |
Supporting Families and Parents
|Organisation||Parents under Pressure|
|Delivery Setting||Home-based and residential treatment settings|
|Description||Individualised home-visiting, case-management program designed for families where there are multiple issues that impact on family functioning such as depression, anxiety, substance misuse, family violence, financial stress, and where there is a high risk of child maltreatment. Mindfulness techniques are used to improve parental emotional regulation. These are combined with emotional availability constructs and used to support or enhance the carer/parent-child relationship to promote a nurturing environment and thus improve child self-regulation. The PuP program is individualised to suit the needs of each family with supporting materials to help put PuP into practice.|
|Delivered to||Families expecting a child, infants and children up to eight years with multiple risk factors; current or potential involvement with child protection, in kinship or foster care; parents are in residential treatment facilities.|
|Delivered by||Family support practitioners, social workers, psychologists.|
PuP is underpinned by the PuP Integrated Theoretical Framework that draws from developmental psychopathology and attachment theory. This provides a framework to develop individualised support plans tailored to each family. A Parent Workbook contains 12 modules that can be used to support the delivery of the family support plan. The program can be delivered in flexible formats and duration depending on the needs of the family.
Practitioners must undergo training and supervision with an accredited PuP Trainer. This involves a combination of training/implementation support on PuP theoretical principles (2 consecutive days) and implementation support across 12 months (3 case review days; one development day) to provide the opportunity to embed the PuP program and principles into practice.
|Contact||Phone: Prof. Sharon Dawe - (07) 3875 3371 |
Email: [email protected], [email protected]
|Evaluation and effectiveness|
Three pre-post case study series (Dawe et al., 2003; Frye & Dawe, 2008; Hartnett et al, 2007); Australian RCT of families engaged in methadone treatment (Dawe & Harnett, 2007), a feasibility study of the PuP program for families with a child with FASD (2017), high risk pregnant women (Harnett et al, 2018); UK RCT of families engaged in community-based addiction services (Barlow et al., 2019).
In a cost effectiveness study (Dalziel et al., 2015), the cost per expected case of child maltreatment prevented was calculated and compared with the estimated lifetime costs of maltreatment. Based on the assumption that 20 out of 100 families would be diverted from the child protection system, a net present value saving of an estimated AU$3.1 million (£1.7 million) would be made.
Dawe, S., Harnett, P., Rendalls, V., and Staiger, P. (2003). Improving family functioning and child outcome in methadone maintained families: the Parents under Pressure program. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22(3), 299-307.
Whittaker, A., Elliott, L., Taylor, J., Dawe, S., Harnett, P., Stoddart,A., Littlewood, P., Robertson, R., Farquharson, B., Strachan, H. (2022) The Parents under Pressure parenting programme for families with fathers receiving treatment for opioid dependence: the PuP4Dads feasibility study. Public Health Research, 10 (3) 1 - 154. https://doi.org/10.3310/YOWK7214